Vehicle inspection

Vehicle inspection is a procedure mandated by national or subnational governments in many countries, in which a vehicle is inspected to ensure that it conforms to regulations governing safety, emissions, or both. Inspection can be required at various times, e.g., periodically or on the transfer of title to a vehicle. If required periodically, it is often termed periodic motor vehicle inspection; typical intervals are every two years and every year. When a vehicle passes inspection, often a sticker (inspection decal or inspection sticker) is placed on the vehicle's windshield or registration plate to simplify later controls, but in some countries—such as the Netherlands since 1994—it's no longer necessary. Inspection stations are places to drive inside to see if a vehicle passes inspection once a vehicle is due for inspection. Most US inspection decals/stickers display the month's number and the year.

In some jurisdictions, proof of inspection is required before a vehicle license or license plate can be issued or renewed. In others, once a vehicle passes inspection, an inspection decal is attached to the windshield or registration plate, and police can enforce the inspection law by seeing whether the vehicle displays an up-to-date decal.

There is some controversy over whether periodically inspecting motor vehicles is a cost-effective way to improve road traffic safety.[1][2][3] Recent analysis of changes in safety inspection procedures in the United States have cast renewed doubt on the effectiveness of these inspections.[4]

MA-inspection
An inspection sticker from the Commonwealth of Massachusetts
NZ-WoF
A Warrant of Fitness certificate issued to vehicles in New Zealand

Africa

Nigeria

In Lagos State, vehicle inspection at the Lagos Computerised Vehicle Inspection Service, LACVIS, is a statutory requirement demanded from all vehicle owners before the issuance of a Road Worthiness Certificate.

This inspection checks for emission, machine based headlamp test, suspension, alignment, brakes efficiency and underneath inspection among other tests using computerised equipment. After the tests, the certification officer at the centre will give the vehicle owner a vehicle inspection report which states the defect(s), if any, found during the inspection. If the vehicle fails the inspection, the vehicle owner will be advised to fix the defects within a 30 days period.

Vehicles under the private vehicle category are mandated to undergo annual inspection before the issuance of a Road Worthiness Certificate by a Vehicle Inspection Officer (VIO). However, vehicles under the commercial category are required to undergo periodic inspection twice a year. A vehicle that passed the inspection qualifies for a Road Worthiness Certificate and tag which will be placed on the windscreen. Enforcement is done by the Vehicle Inspection Officers.

Other states that have adopted the computerised vehicle inspection include Minna, Anambra with more states in view and the FCT, Abuja.

South Africa

A roadworthy vehicle is considered to be roadworthy until it changes hands. A vehicle purchaser is required to register the change-of-ownership of a vehicle. The new owner must present a Roadworthy Certificate (CoR) in order to receive a new license (disk) for the vehicle. A new license plate number is also issued at that time.

If a motor vehicle is used for public transport or is a heavy-load vehicle (excluding buses), it is tested for roadworthiness every year before the motor vehicle licence is renewed. A bus must be tested for roadworthiness every six months.

Americas

Brazil

There are currently no requirements for vehicle inspections in Brazil. A new resolution from the Conselho Nacional de Trânsito (CONTRAN) will enforce mandatory vehicle inspections in the country by the end of 2019.

Canada

Map of Canada by state's vehicle inspection laws
  Emissions test abolished
  Periodic safety inspection
  Emissions test in some regions and safety inspection upon vehicle transfer
  Safety inspection upon transfer of the vehicle

Safety testing regulations in Canada vary through the different ten provinces and emission testing programs is required bi-annually in southern Ontario only (Ontario's Drive Clean). AirCare in British Columbia has been abolished since 2015.[5]

In Manitoba,[6] Ontario[7] and Newfoundland and Labrador,[8] upon buying a car (new or used) only, a valid safety check must be done before it can be registered. Dealerships are required to provide the buyer with a new safety, while private sellers are not (if a private seller so chooses, they may pay for, and issue a new safety in order to make it more appealing to buy). In either case, if the vehicle bought has not had a safety test within the last year, the buyer must safety the vehicle before it can be registered with Manitoba Public Insurance, Service Ontario, or Service NL. From the point the car is registered, no safety test is required as long as the car remains with the current owner (however, if something goes wrong, auto mechanics, dealerships and the police have the right to refuse to let the client drive away with an unsafe car).

The provinces of New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island require annual safety inspections,[9][10] in Nova Scotia, a safety inspection is required every two years for passenger vehicles and every year for heavy duty vehicles.[11]

The provinces of British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Quebec and the northern territories (Yukon, North West Territories and Nunavut) usually no vehicle inspection or emissions test is required for passenger vehicles, unless the vehicle has been imported from another jurisdiction. Commercial vehicle requirements vary.[12][13][14]

Mar 2008 "CAA-Quebec is recommending that the government implement mandatory inspections for motor vehicles more than eight years old, because this would result in significantly fewer emissions being produced by Quebec's automobiles."[15][16]

United States

PennDOTinspection
PennDOT-issued sign at an auto garage stating that it performs vehicle inspections for cars registered in Pennsylvania.

In the United States, each state government is free to decide whether to require vehicle safety inspection, as well as the specifics of the inspection program. 18 states have a periodic (annual or biennial) safety inspection program, while Maryland requires an inspection prior to registration or transfer of ownership only. Several states have abolished their safety inspection programs in recent years, claiming that these programs do not reduce accidents and are merely a tax on vehicle owners.[17][18]

WisconsinDOTEmissionStationSheboygan
Wisconsin vehicle emissions inspection station

Under the Clean Air Act (1990), states are required to implement vehicle emission inspection programs in metropolitan areas whose air quality does not meet federal standards. The specifics of those programs vary from state to state. Some states, including Florida, Kentucky and Minnesota,[19] have discontinued their testing programs in recent years with approval from the federal government.

In some states and the District of Columbia, inspections are done at state-operated inspection stations. In other states, privately owned garages perform the inspections with approval from the state.[20][21] Where the inspection is done at a private facility, the vehicle owner may, but is not required to, have the facility performing the inspection provide any service or repairs needed if it would fail inspection. In some states, if a vehicle fails inspection it is given a "rejection sticker" which is affixed to the vehicle in the same manner as the regular inspection sticker, allows the vehicle owner to continue to operate the vehicle for a short period of time so that they may obtain any service or repair needed to bring the vehicle into compliance.

Asia

Japan

Under the Japanese shaken (車検) program, personal cars and two wheeled motorcycles have the first shaken (automobile inspection) last three years with every two years requiring a new shaken.

China

Chinese Rural Vehicle (CRV) operators can be fined by the police if their vehicle emits visible smoke. Regulations are established and enforced by province/economic region/city as appropriate. New vehicles must pass regulations (Euro spec) in effect on the day of manufacture. This applies also in Hong Kong.[22]

Singapore

Cars are required to obtain a safety and emissions inspection every other year starting in the third model year, and annually after ten model years. Motorcycles and mopeds must be inspected annually starting in the third model year. Buses, taxicabs, commercial vehicles, and trailers must be inspected every year or six months depending on the vehicle's age.[23] An up to date inspection (if required) is needed to renew a vehicle's road tax.

Taiwan

Cars older than five years are required to have yearly safety and emission inspection. Cars older than ten years are required to have the inspection every six months. Motorcycles and scooters older than five years are required to have yearly emission inspection. Failure to comply may result in fine, license suspension and revocation.

It must be noted that the inspection standards often vary between various local Motor Vehicle Offices. Where one office adheres strictly to a, often outdated standards booklet, another office may simply allow each inspector to gauge according to their own experiences. It is widely accepted that in cases where a vehicle fails an inspection due to suspicion of vehicle having modifications, validity of the said suspicion being irrelevant, vehicle owners often hire a scalper (found often outside each Motor Vehicle Offices) to go through the inspection process in their stead. It is an unspoken common practice for sometimes even a factory condition vehicle to be challenged by inspectors, as it creates business for scalpers and private inspection offices.

Iran

Symfa-Logo
سیمفا

Cars are older than four years should get the certificate from authorized center.[24]

Israel

Cars older than three years are required to have a yearly inspection as part of the car's license.[25] A car which fails the inspection, must be fixed in seven days to be allowed to be driven on the road.[26] The "Test" checks the following: vehicle and owner identification including vehicle registration plate; emissions; steering; underside; lights; brakes; wheel alignment.[27] Cars older than fifteen years are considered "antique", and must be inspected every six months, and have additional inspection of the brakes done.[28]

Europe

The EU Directive 2014/45 of April 3rd, 2014 mandates all member states to carry out periodic safety and emission (roadworthiness) inspections for most types of motor vehicles including passenger cars, light and heavy goods vehicles, trailers, tractors with designed speed exceeding 40 km/h and, from 1st January 2022, motorcycles with engine displacement over 125 cm3. It also sets minimum requirements for those inspections and their intervals. For vehicle up to 3.5 tonnes and tractors the first inspection shall occur no later than 4 years after first registration and at a frequency of up to 2 years thereafter. Vehicles over 3.5 tonnes are mandated to undergo inspections no later than 1 year after first registration and every year thereafter.

Austria

In Austria, all vehicles must undergo a "Wiederkehrende Begutachtung nach § 57a KFG" (recurring inspection under section 57a of the motor vehicle statute). A decal is placed on the vehicle's windscreen (usually the upper left-hand corner as seen from outside the vehicle), hence the inspection itself is colloquially referred to as "Pickerl" (literally: sticker). The color of the decal is white for vehicles with a catalytic converter, and green for vehicles without one. Punch holes indicate the month and year that the next inspection is due. The actual inspection can be carried out one month in advance of that date and up to four months after the date indicated on the decal; the vehicle remains roadworthy during that time. Unless the inspection is overdue in the sense just described, the roadworthiness certificate is transferable, meaning a potential new owner will get a new decal with the same date, but the corrected license plate number upon registration of her vehicle. However, the latest official inspection report has to be presented for this purpose to the authority issuing the new registration documents and license plates.

The first inspection on new passenger cars is required after three years, another one two years on, while thereafter passenger cars must pass the official inspection annually to remain roadworthy. Heavy trucks and motorcycles must undergo annual inspections from the very first year. Inspections are carried out by specially licensed garages and by Austria's two major automotive clubs. The Austrian motor vehicle inspection covers both aspects of vehicle safety and emissions standards.

Belgium

In Belgium, vehicle inspections are known as autokeuring (Dutch) or contrôle technique (French). All cars over four years old must be tested annually, and before selling them on the second-hand market. This annual period may be extended to two years if the following apply: The vehicles passes the inspection and receives a green certificate, the vehicle has covered less than 100,000 km, the vehicle has been tested within its date limit and if the vehicle is less than six years old.

Commercial vehicles must undergo an annual test, immediately after the first registration. Cars that pass the inspection receive a green certificate, which must be carried in the vehicle at all times along with other required documentation. An inspection has three possible turnouts. If the car is approved, the owner gets a green card, possibly noting some small attention points. If the vehicle failed the inspection, a red card is given, which allows the owner to repair the car during the next two weeks, but doesn't prohibit the driver from using the car. In the worst case, the car isn't allowed on the road anymore, and has to be repaired immediately. Receiving a red card is not uncommon for older cars, so people often have to go two or more times to pass.

Vehicle inspection centers are private companies, and can be found throughout Belgium. A vehicle owner may choose their preferred inspection center, however if the vehicle fails inspection at one center, it must return to that same center for a retest within the two-week deadline.

Vehicles undergo a series of tests, including exhaust emissions, lights, suspension, brakes, tires, and checks for impairing vehicle body damage and rust, and a strict control of the required vehicle documents. The set of tests performed depends on the vehicle's class (such as passenger car, truck or classic car).

Bulgaria

All cars must undergo an annual test. This test is conducted at accredited garages. This test is rather basic with only the brakes, lights and emissions being tested. Initial test is conducted in case of first registration and every change of registration in the traffic police stations (KAT). Cars newer than six years pass the test once per two years. Taxis and buses must be checked at every six months.

Croatia

The National programme of road transport safety of the Republic of Croatia 2011-2020 (Croatian: Nacionalni program sigurnosti cestovnog prometa Republike Hrvatske 2011.-2020. godine) treats vehicle inspections as an important area of prevention of traffic accidents, and as a vessel for regular financing of road safety regulations. The annual vehicle inspections in Croatia (tehnički pregled) typically find unacceptable technical faults in about one fifth of all vehicles (as of 2013).[29] Based on the Law of Road Transport Safety, vehicles are inspected in specialized shops (stanica za tehnički pregled, lit. technical inspection station) as a precondition of registration, which is then finalized by the Ministry of Internal Affairs.[30] The technical inspection stations also serve to control that vehicle insurance was obtained, that the road tax is paid, that the various taxes and levies on cars are duly paid, etc. They also collect various national statistics as well as enforce the payment of valid traffic violation fines.[31]

Czech Republic

Czech Republic requires emission inspection Měření emisí and safety inspection Technická kontrola every two years for passenger cars. New passenger cars have to obtain their first roadworthiness certificate after four years. Until the end of 2014, an emission inspection decal (green) and a safety inspection decal (red) was placed on the rear license plate, after a vehicle has passed both emission and technical inspections. The expiration month and year was punched in each decal. Since 2015 only the safety inspection decal (red) is placed on the rear license plate, as passing the emission inspection was a prerequisite for admission to the safety inspection.

Estonia

Vehicle inspection (tehnoülevaatus) for cars with register mass less than 3500 kg is required in three years for a new car, every two years for cars less than ten years old, and every year for cars over ten years old. The inspection can be done at accredited vehicle inspectors.[32]

Finland

Finland has a long tradition of vehicle inspection, dating back to year 1917. Vehicle inspection was initially carried by cities and provincial inspectors but starting from year 1968 the inspection moved to national governing body of road vehicle administration known as Autorekisterikeskus. In 1994 the vehicle inspection was opened for competition and in 1996 Autorekisterikeskus was split as administrative body Ajoneuvohallintokeskus (AKE) and inspection company Suomen Autokatsastus Oy. Nowadays, Liikenteen Turvallisuusvirasto TraFi, the successor of Ajoneuvohallintokeskus since beginning of the 2010, governs the inspection companies and keeps track of inspection quality and the inspections are carried by private companies.[33] During the years, the inspection procedures and facilities have improved greatly and nowadays the quality of inspection is on such level that mechanical failures as immediate cause for fatal crashes in whole country are minimal.[34]

In Finland, the "Määräaikaiskatsastus" (periodic inspection) is required for all passenger cars, vans, trucks, ATVs and for trailers with maximum structural weight of more than 750 kilograms.[35] Inspection interval depends on vehicle class and usage. For privately used passenger car or van, inspection must be carried after four years, then every other year counting from the specified date of first deployment and every year after tenth year. If there is no specified date of first deployment (for instance 00.00.1987) the time of inspection is determined by the last number of license plate. The inspection period also varies depending on vehicle class and usage but for privately used passenger cars and vans the length of the period is four months preceding the date specified in date of first deployment or four months preceding the last date of inspection specified by the license plate number.

The periodic inspection includes verification of vehicle register information (VIN, taxes, insurance), a test drive, brake testing, inspection of lights and compulsory equipment, superficial inspection for visibility and handling hindrances and bodywork, undercarriage inspection for suspension parts and corrosion and emission measurements (requirements vary depending on propellant and date of first deployment). The emission measurement can be taken on a registered repair shop prior to the inspection. If done so, a proper measurement certificate must be shown at inspection. Upon passed inspection, a new "Part one" of registration certificate is printed and handed to customer among with inspection report. If inspection fails, the faults found during the inspection must be repaired and the vehicle needs to be shown at the same inspection station for "Jälkitarkastus" (recheck) within one month of the inspection.

France

Certificat d assurance sur pare brise
CT mark on a French car.

Vehicle testing has been mandatory in France since 1992. The first inspection (Contrôle Technique) is carried out after four years then subsequently every two years. A blue and white CT sticker affixed inside the windscreen indicates when the next test is due. A less than 6 month valid CT is required prior to transfer of ownership.

Inspections are performed by privately owned stations certified by the government.

Since May 2018 the number of checkpoints has been increased to 133 points and a vehicle with a critical failure has to be sent to a garage within 24 hours.

Vintage cars are also controlled but their checks are adapted to their abilities at time of production. For instance their pollution level is not controlled.

Motorcycles do not require testing in France.[36]

Germany

Plakette Hauptuntersuchung
German decal

Passenger cars must pass a safety and emission inspection after three years for new cars, and then every two years. Heavy duty vehicles need to be inspected every year, motorcycles every two years. The inspection can be performed by various organizations, such as TÜV, DEKRA, KÜS, GTÜ.

After a vehicle has passed the inspection, a safety inspection decal is placed on the rear license plate. The emission inspection decal was placed on the front license plate until it was phased out in 2010 and integrated into the safety inspection. The decal is placed with the number of the expiration month pointing to the top, and the colour of the decal changes every year. That way, the date of expiry can be checked at a glance and from far away, hence the black mark around the 12.

Greece

In Greece every passenger vehicle is required to undergo an inspection after four years from purchase (if new) and then every two years. Taxis, learner vehicles and heavy transport vehicles must undergo an inspection every year. Inspection centers can be either public or private companies. Private vehicle technical control centres (P-VTCC or I-KTEO in Greek) had to be accredited according to ISO 17020 standard. This requirement changed and P-VTCCs must be certified according to ISO 9001:2008 standard.

Hungary

In Hungary every vehicle is required to be tested (technical test, Műszaki vizsga) for road worthiness and emission. In case of passenger cars the first inspection is after four years for new vehicles, and every two years afterwards. Inspection decals are placed on the rear license plate, and it is also documented in the vehicle's registration document. Recently checks are recorded electronically and stickers are no longer used.

Ireland

In Ireland, the National Car Test (NCT) is required for cars four or more years of age to be inspected for various items, such as brakes, lighting, bodywork condition, emissions, etc. A disc which must be displayed on the windscreen is issued to cars that pass the test. The disc is valid for two year and then every one year after the car has reached 10 years in age, after which the car must then be retested.
A Certificate of Roadworthiness is required for goods vehicles, or vehicles carrying more than eight passengers (buses). This is commonly referred to as a "DOE" cert and the test is carried out in approved garages.

Italy

Vehicles with a total weight of under 3.5 t, including motorcycles and mopeds, must have their first inspection, called revisione, after four years, and then every two years. Buses, lorries, taxicabs and ambulances are inspected every year. [37]

The inspection can be done by authorized inspection-garages which are located in many towns. The inspection focuses on safety, especially tires, brakes, lights, horn, but since a few years the inspection on emission became tougher. After a successful test the garage will print out a sticker with the title "esito regolare" and the date when the inspection was made which has to be stuck on the vehicle title branding (carta di circolazione). The inspection costs between 45 and €70 (depending on the county-taxes).

Netherlands

In the Netherlands the "Algemene Periodieke Keuring" (APK) or General Periodical Inspection is mandatory for vehicles aging 3 – 50 years. The inspection of vehicles up to 30 years old is annual, biennial for vehicles from 30–49 years old, older vehicles are exempt. The inspection includes conforming to safety and emission standards in force in the year of first introduction of the car. Registration is all digital and public,[38] there are no longer visible stickers or decals on the vehicle, and since July 2008 the paper inspection report does not need to be carried in the car anymore.

Norway

In Norway, the vehicle inspection is called "Periodisk Kjøretøykontroll", which translates to "Periodic vehicle inspection", although it is commonly referred to as "EU kontroll", for its origin from the European Union. When a car is four years old it must undergo its first inspection. After this, inspections will be required every second year. Buses, taxicabs and ambulances are inspected every year. The inspection focuses on safety and emission. After the inspection is completed, the owner will be given a check list with errors that must be repaired before the vehicle can pass. If the car only have errors marked with 1, or none errors at all, the car will pass immediately. The errors are rated depending on how dangerous they are, with the grades of 1, 2 and 3. Errors marked with 1 will not require a re-inspection. Errors marked with 2 will require a re-inspection, but the owner can use the car until the inspection deadline. Errors marked with 3 are very rare, and prohibits the user from using the car until those errors are repaired.

The inspection cost is usually between 75-130 US dollars (400-1000 Norwegian Kroner). Vehicles may be inspected at garages approved by the Norwegian Public Roads Administration (NPRA). Without a passed inspection, the license plates will be withdrawn and the car will no longer be street legal. The police and the NPRA are checking license plates at a regular interval to check if the car has passed the inspection, if the road tax is paid and the car is insured.

Poland

In Poland there's an annual inspection requirement for most vehicles. New passenger car vehicles (of age four or less) have to be inspected according to the following intervals 3-2-1 years. Inspections are performed by accredited garages. The inspection includes checking of main car systems like brakes, suspension, lights and steering, as well as emission and presence of mandatory equipment. An additional, separate inspection is required for cars that are running on autogas. Pass of inspection is confirmed in registration certificates. When a car does not pass the inspection, the owner is requested to fix the cause and then pass subsequent inspection. A registration certificate may be also revoked in case the vehicle is in fatal technical condition.
Driving a car without valid inspection is subject to a fine.

Romania

Romanian vehicles must pass a periodic inspection between six months and two years depending of the age of the car, which is called "Inspectie Tehnica Periodica" (ITP)

Russia

In Russia all vehicles must pass a periodic inspection ensuring their road worthiness that includes adherence to the respective regulations. To pass the inspection the vehicle must not exceed the mandated emission level (currently Euro-3), the brakes must have no leaks and the brake forces must be symmetrical, steering slip must not exceed the mandated parameters (from 10° for cars to 25° for heavy trucks), all lights must provide the required color, aim and brightness of the emitted light, and the vehicle must be equipped with a first aid kit, fire extinguisher and emergency stop sign. The windshield must have a functional washer, and while window tinting is allowed, including the blinds on the windshield and rear window, they must pass the required amount of light.

To pass the inspection a driver must get to a police vehicle registration center or an authorized service station and present a vehicle for inspection. If the vehicle passes, then the driver receives a certificate of worthiness that must be presented to an insurance company to obtain the compulsory vehicle insurance. The lack of a valid insurance certificate or driving with an elapsed one is subject to heavy fines and eventual revocation of the driver's license. The test periodicity varies with the type of vehicle. Commercial buses (defined as vehicles that carry >8 persons aside from a driver) and oversize/dangerous cargo trucks must be inspected each six months, heavy trucks (>3.5 tons loaded weight) are inspected annually, while the new cars, motorcycles and light trucks (< 3.5 tons) must be first inspected after three years, then bi-annually until they are seven years old, after which the inspections become annual.

Spain

Spain traffic signal s102
ITV.

Spanish vehicles are required to undergo an Inspección Técnica de Vehículos, better known as the ITV. Private civilian vehicles must be inspected after four years from the date of their first registration and afterwards must be inspected every two years until ten years; afterwards, they must be inspected annually. An inspection sticker must be placed on upper right side of the vehicle's windshield, and yearly change the colour in order make more easy to control it. Inspections should be done in an official inspection station.

Slovakia

Slovakia requires safety inspection technická kontrola and emission inspection emisná kontrola every two years for passenger cars. New passenger cars have to obtain their first roadworthiness certificate after four years. Heavy duty vehicles need to be presented to the safety inspection every year. The safety inspection and emission inspection decals is placed on the front glass (right down).

Sweden

The road worthiness of cars and their emissions are tested for the first time after three years, the second time two years later, and thereafter once every year. For cars classified as veteran/classic cars (currently occurring when the car reaches age 30), road worthiness is tested every second year. Since July 2010 the inspection can be performed by any vehicle inspection body accredited by SWEDAC.

Turkey

Until 2008 the vehicle inspection was limited to administrative checks (whether all taxes have been paid) and a visual check if the car matches the documents. In August 2005 the Turkish government decided to introduce a vehicle inspection scheme following the directive 96/96/EC of the European Union. Since there was no technical equipment available for real roadworthiness tests a contract was laid out with the German TÜV SÜD that was presenting itself for the task in syndication with two Turkish corporations. The TÜV Türk trust is given a monopoly on car inspection for 20 years. Beginning with 2009 the TÜV test is mandatory for all cars with the inspection scheme to follow the German inspection scheme - however there is a transition period up to 2013 where established TÜV regulations are not followed as strictly as in mainland Europe. The shift in vehicle inspection policies is nevertheless rather sharp - since the old vehicle inspection service was strickened with corruption no staff members were taken over to the TÜV Süd, the internal inspection protocol is stricter than in Germany as to prevent any corruption. The introduction of the TÜV was accompanied with a strong propaganda program to agitate the requirement for a modern inspection scheme (e.g. the number of fatal road accidents was three times as high as in mainland Europe despite most of the country to be very rural). Additionally, it is expected that the connection with the German Turks allows for most citizens to have some knowledge how to cope with the TÜV inspection scheme.

United Kingdom

MOT Test - Logo
MOT Logo

The MOT test (from Ministry of Transport, the former name of the Department for Transport) is a mandatory annual test of safety, road worthiness and exhaust emissions for vehicles over three years old. It is enforced by linking the official MOT database to the payment of Vehicle Excise Duty tax. Prior to November 2014 a tax disc had to be displayed on the vehicle.

After the first MOT (when the vehicle is three years old) the owner has to get the vehicle tested every 12 months (unlike in most of the European Union, where a test is required every 24 months after the vehicle is four years old). A test can be made up to 28 days before the expiry of the previous test without affecting the annual test date, allowing the next test to be up to 13 months later.

Isle of Man

In the Isle of Man there are no routine inspections for motorcycles or private cars. Rental cars over three years old, goods vehicles, buses and taxis require an annual inspection.

Inspections also are required if a vehicle over three years old is imported; this was introduced to prevent vehicles that had failed inspection regimes elsewhere being moved to the island. Inspections are also required if a vehicle has been off the road (not registered and insured) for more than two years.

Oceania

Australia

Vehicle inspection in Australia is done on a state basis. Each state or territory has the authority to set its own laws pertaining to vehicle inspections, all (with the exception of the self-governing territory of Norfolk Island) have some form of inspection, either periodically or before a transfer of ownership.

In the state of Queensland, there is no legal requirement for a private vehicle's owner to have periodic vehicle inspections. The only time a vehicle inspection is mandatory is when a vehicle is being sold and must display a current Roadworthy Certificate (RWC) as an assurance to buyers that a vehicle meets minimum safety standards. Without a RWC, the vehicle can only be sold on an "as-is" basis, which does not entitle the vehicle to be lawfully driven on public roads or registered until a RWC is obtained. Heavy vehicles (e.g.: trucks) and public passenger vehicles (e.g.: limousines, taxis, public buses) have dedicated inspection schemes that must be complied with periodically, usually every 6–12 months.

In the state of Victoria, there is no legal requirement for a private vehicle to have periodic vehicle inspections. The only time a vehicle inspection is required is when a vehicle:

  • is being transferred to a new owner,
  • is being registered after a period of being unregistered,
  • is being registered for the first time (excluding brand new production vehicles), e.g. used imported cars, individually constructed vehicles, etc., or
  • has been labeled an unroadworthy vehicle by a member of the police or Vicroads in which case the owner will have 30 days to have the vehicle tested.

In Victoria, a satisfactory inspection is deemed in a "Roadworthy Condition" and is issued with a Roadworthy Certificate (RWC) which are valid for 30 days. An RWC checks general safety items of the car such as tyres, brakes, lights etc., however, an emissions test is not required.

New Zealand

The NZ Transport Agency requires most vehicles to maintain a Warrant of Fitness (WoF) through periodic inspections from licensed inspectors. Private light vehicles require an inspection once every year if the vehicle model year is 2000 or newer, any vehicles older than this are required to have an inspection every six months. New vehicles are required to have an inspection when the vehicle has been on the road for three years, after that it is required annually. Heavy vehicles and vehicles operated under a Transport Service Licence, such as taxis, shuttles, and rental cars, must obtain a Certificate of Fitness (CoF), which is similar to a WoF, but is required once every six months regardless of the age of the vehicle.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Cost-Effectiveness of Periodic Motor Vehicle Inspection - University of Michigan (U.S.A.) Transportation Research Institute" (PDF). January 1985. no credible evidence was found which demonstrates significant changes in vehicle-defect accidents as a result of [periodic motor vehicle inspections
  2. ^ "Cost Effectiveness of Periodic Motor Vehicle Inspection" (PDf). Report for the (Australian) Federal Office of Road Safety. April 1999. Using the New Zealand data... logistic regression analysis [showed considerable] statistical uncertainty... The Victorian analysis of potential periodic roadworthiness certification safety benefits was not entirely conclusive [;] likely to be much less than required to make an annual periodic scheme cost effective
  3. ^ Merrell, David; Poitras, Marc; Sutter, Daniel (1999). "The Effectiveness of Vehicle Safety Inspections: An Analysis using Panel Data". Southern Economic Journal. 65 (3): 571–583. JSTOR 1060816. We examined the effectiveness of state automobile safety inspections and present new evidence from a panel of the 50 states for the years 1981-1993. Our approach incorporated several innovations over previous studies of safety inspections; most significantly, we estimated a fixed-effects model that incorporated state-specific shifts in casualty rates. We found no evidence that inspections significantly reduce fatality or injury rates. Our study also provides evidence on the effects of speed limits, seat belts, and Peltzman's offsetting behaviour hypothesis.
  4. ^ Hoagland, Alex; Woolley, Trevor (March 2018). "It's No Accident: Evaluating the Effectiveness of Vehicle Safety Inspections". Contemporary Economic Policy. 36 (4): 607–628. doi:10.1111/coep.12284. Utilizing a synthetic controls approach, we conclude that ending requirements [for safety inspections] did not result in a significant increase in the frequency or intensity of accidents due to car failure, implying that the consumer and government expenditures used for inspections could be reallocated to other areas of travel safety.
  5. ^ "AirCare emissions program ending for Metro Vancouver vehicles | CBC News".
  6. ^ "Certificate of Inspection".
  7. ^ https://www.ontario.ca/page/safety-standards-certificate
  8. ^ "Inspection Requirements | Service NL".
  9. ^ "Motor Vehicle Inspections". 2010-04-28.
  10. ^ "Motor Vehicle Inspections (MVI)". 2018-01-11.
  11. ^ "Service Nova Scotia - Registry of Motor Vehicles - Vehicle (Safety) Inspections".
  12. ^ "Out of Province Vehicle Inspections". 2007-10-15.
  13. ^ "Import a vehicle into B.C".
  14. ^ "Vehicle inspection programs".
  15. ^ "Over The Counter: CAA-Quebec Calls For Emissions Testing Program | Automotive Service World". Autoserviceworld.com. 2007-10-31. Retrieved 2011-11-13.
  16. ^ https://www.autoserviceworld.com/author/asweditor/page/321/
  17. ^ KYW-TV article on elimination of NJ auto inspection Retrieved 2010-08-02
  18. ^ Davidson, Lee (17 February 2017). "Utah House votes to eliminate vehicle safety inspections". The Salt Lake Tribune. Retrieved 16 November 2017.
  19. ^ Walker, Blair S. "Minnesota Bucks Trend in Voting To End Emissions Testing". Stateline.org. Retrieved 2011-11-13.
  20. ^ "Texas Department of Public Safety - Vehicle Inspection Program".
  21. ^ "WV General Inspection Requirements".
  22. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on February 21, 2007. Retrieved July 15, 2007.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  23. ^ "Inspection". One.Motoring. 2010-04-27. Retrieved 2011-11-13.
  24. ^ https://symfa.ir/
  25. ^ http://en.mot.gov.il/faqs/10-renewingyourvehiclelicence/52-vehicle-test
  26. ^ http://en.mot.gov.il/faqs/10-renewingyourvehiclelicence/55-vehicle-inspection
  27. ^ http://en.mot.gov.il/faqs/10-renewingyourvehiclelicence/53-test-inspect
  28. ^ http://en.mot.gov.il/faqs/10-renewingyourvehiclelicence/52-vehicle-test
  29. ^ Igor Bošković (November 2015). "Technical Inspections of Motor Vehicles from the Perspective of Competition Rules". Zagreb Law Review (in Croatian). 4 (2): 172–173. ISSN 1848-6118.
  30. ^ Igor Bošković (November 2015). "Technical Inspections of Motor Vehicles from the Perspective of Competition Rules". Zagreb Law Review (in Croatian). 4 (2): 174. ISSN 1848-6118.
  31. ^ Igor Bošković (November 2015). "Technical Inspections of Motor Vehicles from the Perspective of Competition Rules". Zagreb Law Review (in Croatian). 4 (2): 175–176. ISSN 1848-6118.
  32. ^ "Maanteeamet".
  33. ^ AKE - AKEn historiaa Archived May 27, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  34. ^ http://www.ake.fi/AKE/Ajankohtaista/Vuoden+2008+tiedotteet/Katsastusta+tehostamalla+ei+enää+voida+merkittävästi+vähentää+vakavia+onnettomuuksia.htm
  35. ^ "FINLEX - Ajantasainen lainsäädäntö: 19.12.2002/1245". Finlex.fi. Retrieved 2011-11-13.
  36. ^ "Le site officiel de l'administration francais". Quels véhicules sont dispensés de contrôle technique ?. Service. Retrieved 12 June 2017.
  37. ^ "Codice della strada / Art. 80. Revisioni". Automobile Club d'Italia. Retrieved 9 April 2015.
  38. ^ "www.rdw.nl". Ovi.rdw.nl. Retrieved 2011-11-13.
Antique vehicle registration

Antique vehicle registration is a special form of motor vehicle registration for vehicles that are considered antique, classic, vintage, or historic. Both the specific term used and the definition of a qualifying vehicle vary from country to country, as well as within a country if it is a federation.

Typically, an antique vehicle is defined by its age at the time at which antique vehicle registration is sought. As examples, this age is 20 years in the U.S. state of Connecticut, 25 years in the U.S. state of Virginia, 30 years in the Australian state of Queensland, 30 years in Sweden and Brazil, and 35 years in Singapore. The United Kingdom requires that the vehicle was built before January 1, 1973 although the assumption is made that a vehicle first registered before January 7, 1973 was actually manufactured in 1972 and is therefore exempt from tax.

Antique vehicle registration may provide certain benefits, such as a reduced or waived registration fee, exemption from vehicle inspection, and/or distinctive vehicle registration plates. However, the owner's privilege of driving the vehicle may be significantly curtailed. For example, in Virginia, the use of a car registered as an antique is limited to participation in car club activities, parades, and the like, driving to and from such events, testing, obtaining maintenance and repairs, and occasional pleasure driving within 250 miles (400 km) of one's residence. Commuting to and from work is specifically forbidden in Virginia. While having similar rules to the Virginia example above, Tennessee does not allow transfer of antique license plates between owners when a vehicle is sold so the original owner must surrender the antique plate and the new owner must apply for a new one. As of 2009, Tennessee allows transfer of an existing antique tag from a sold vehicle by the selling owner to another antique vehicle owned by the same owner. Operation of a vehicle registered under Tennessee's Antique program requires the vehicle owner to sign an affidavit upon registration certifying their understanding of the Antique Motor Vehicle law, which prescribes that the car is owned strictly as a collector's item, and in exchange for permanent registration of the unmodified antique vehicle that the vehicle is to be used only for parades, tours, testing and servicing, and club events, and is prohibited from serving as general transportation for the owner on any day other than Saturday or Sunday. In Tennessee, upon sale of the antique vehicle, the special Antique Auto plate is to be surrendered to the office of the owner's county clerk. Connecticut has no driving or registration restrictions on autos so registered. In Sweden there are no specific limits and the requirement for a yearly vehicle inspection is reduced to a bi-annual.

The special license plate may take the form of a newly manufactured license plate with a legend such as "Antique", "Historic", "Early American", or "Horseless Carriage." The license plate has a separate number sequence from ordinary license plates and may have a distinctive color scheme (for example, in Brazil, plates do have a reversed color scheme: normal plates are black on gray and antique plates are gray on black). Virginia has two series of such plates, one of which is designed to look old. Alternatively, under certain circumstances, the special license plate may be an authentic license plate from the same year as the model year of the car (called various terms such as "Year of Manufacture" or "Vintage," depending on the jurisdiction). Virginia allows the use of such plates if they are embossed (not stickered) with the appropriate year. Tennessee allows the use of antique model year license plates for antique cars provided the car is specially registered as an antique vehicle and the state issued antique tag and registration are kept inside the vehicle for inspection upon demand by law enforcement personnel. As of 2009 Tennessee allows the registration of an antique vehicle with age appropriate antique tag(s)(either one or two plates depending on vehicle production year) within certain guidelines and with use restrictions as above. While the YOM law allows vehicle owners to display the vehicles as they were when first produced, it may not be legal for road use in other states.

CCR S.A.

CCR, formerly Companhia de Concessões Rodoviárias, is a transportation company with interests in private interstate highway concessions, airport operations, metro system in Brazil and other countries. The Company controls 9 subsidiary concession holders, through which it works a public-private business model for the operation of toll-roads, aiming to centralize the management of a portfolio of toll concessions and service companies.

The Company operates approximately 3.000 kilometers of toll-roads. Its portfolio includes six toll concessions: AutoBAn, NovaDutra, Ponte Rio-Niteroi, Rodonorte, ViaOeste and Via Lagos. CCR is owned by, Camargo Corrêa (17.00%), Andrade Gutierrez (17.00%) and Soares Penido (17.22%) and free float (48.78%). The Company's centralized services are Actua, Engelog, Parques Servicios and STP offering administrative centers, logistics and engineering, traffic control and monitoring, and electronic toll-charging systems, respectively.

Currently the company is the largest highways operator in Latin America and through its subsidiary ViaQuatro operates the Line 4 -Yellow of São Paulo metro and the Salvador Metro. The company operates the Belo Horizonte International Airport, Quito International Airport, the San José International Airport in Costa Rica and Curaçao International Airport. Also operates the vehicle inspection company Controlar. The CCR's main competitors are Ecorodovias, Triunfo and Arteris.

ComfortDelGro

ComfortDelGro Corporation is a multi-national land transport company listed on the Singapore Exchange, operating 46,010 vehicles in seven countries. It was formed on 29 March 2003 through a merger of Singapore-based land transport companies Comfort Group and DelGro Corporation.On 17 September 2019, ComfortDelGro announced that it is listed on the Dow Jones Sustainability Asia Pacific Index in recognition of its sustainability efforts, thus becoming the first transport company in Singapore to do so.

Commercial Vehicle Inspection

Commercial Vehicle Inspection (CVI), is the enforcement of safety regulations and laws of commercial vehicles. Some U.S. state departments of transportation refer to it as CVE (Commercial Vehicle Enforcement). CVI enforcement can be done roadside by state troopers or at specific stations, sometimes called "weigh stations."

Below are of some of the things that are checked for:

inadequate tires

brake linings that are oil soaked

cracked brake linings

brake linings with inadequate (worn) thickness

cracked frames

fuel leaks

disqualified drivers

overweight vehicles

oversize vehicles (vehicle dimensions)

hours-of-service (how long a driver has driven for)

driver qualifications

permit conditions

cargo securement

mechanical fitness

insurance status

Dekra

DEKRA is a European vehicle inspection company founded in Berlin, Germany in 1925 as Deutscher Kraftfahrzeug-Überwachungs-Verein (German Motor Vehicle Inspection Association). With approximately 45,000 employees and revenues of roughly €3.3 billion, DEKRA is the largest inspection company in Germany and the third-largest in the world. By its own account, it is the European market leader. The group focuses on the inspection of vehicles and technical systems, but also offers other services. DEKRA has had its headquarters in Stuttgart since 1946. Business operations are carried out by DEKRA SE, which is wholly owned by DEKRA e. V.

Japanese domestic market

Japanese domestic market refers to Japan's home market for vehicles. For the importer, these terms refer to vehicles and parts designed to conform to Japanese regulations and to suit Japanese buyers. The term is abbreviated JDM.

Compared to the United States where vehicle owners are now owning vehicles for a longer period of time, with the average age of the American vehicle fleet at 10.8 years, Japanese owners contend with a strict motor vehicle inspection and gray markets. According to the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile, a car in Japan travels a yearly average of over only 9,300 kilometers (5,800 miles), less than half the U.S. average of 19,200 kilometers (12,000 miles).Japanese domestic market vehicles may differ greatly from the cars that Japanese manufacturers build for export and vehicles derived from the same platforms built in other countries. The Japanese car owner looks more toward innovation than long-term ownership which forces Japanese carmakers to refine new technologies and designs first in domestic vehicles. For instance, the 2003 Honda Inspire featured the first application of Honda's Variable Cylinder Management. However, the 2003 Honda Accord V6, which was the same basic vehicle, primarily intended for the North American market, did not feature VCM, which had a poor reputation after Cadillac's attempt in the 1980s with the V8-6-4 engine. VCM was successfully introduced to the Accord V6 in its redesign for 2008.

In 1988, JDM cars were limited by voluntary self-restraints among manufacturers to 280 horsepower (PS) (276 hp) and a top speed of 180 km/h (111.8 mph), limits imposed by the Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association (JAMA) for safety. The horsepower limit was lifted in 2004 but the speed limit of 180 km/h (111.8 mph) remains in effect. Many JDM cars have speedometers that register up to 180 km/h (111.8 mph) (certain Nissans go up to 190 km/h, and the GT-R has a mechanism that removes the speed limiter on a track) but all have speed limiters.

Mornington, Tasmania

Mornington is a suburb of the City of Clarence in Tasmania, Australia. It is part of greater Hobart, located approximately 7 kilometres from the CBD. It is located between Warrane and Cambridge, is nearby to Mount Rumney and runs parallel to the Tasman Highway. At the 2016 Australian Census, the suburb recorded a population of 2,265.Mornington is a primarily residential suburb, although it is also home to the Mornington Industrial Estate and is served by Rosny Park for commercial services. The main facilities are Clarence Council Depot, Main Roads and Transport Depot, a Service Tasmania vehicle inspection facility, a Fire and Ambulance Service, and MacKillop College.

Motor-vehicle inspection (Japan)

Shaken (車検), a contraction of Jidōsha Kensa Tōrokuseido (自動車検査登録制度, "automobile inspection registration system"), is the name of the vehicle inspection program in Japan for motor vehicles over 250 cc in engine displacement.

National Car Test

The National Car Test (Irish: An tSeirbhís Náisiúnta Tástála Carranna; abbreviated NCT) is a roadworthiness test, which all cars in the Republic of Ireland must undergo. Following a tender process, the Road Safety Authority awarded the National Car Testing Service contract for the operation of the vehicle inspection service in the Republic of Ireland to Applus. In Northern Ireland, motor vehicles are subject to the MOT test.

Non-Resident Violator Compact

The Non-Resident Violator Compact (NRVC) is a United States interstate compact used by 44 states and Washington, D.C. to process traffic citations across state borders.

Motorists cited for violations in a state that is not a member of the NRVC must post bail before being allowed to proceed. In addition, drivers licensed in a non-member state that are issued a citation in a member state will be processed normally. If the nonmember fails to pay the issued citation after being found guilty, the nonmember's privilege to drive in the issuing state will become suspended. Their home state license will remain unaffected.

When a motorist is cited in another member state and chooses not to respond to the ticket (such as not paying it), the other state notifies the driver's home state and the home state will suspend the driver's license until the driver takes care of the matter in the other state.

Some states will not take action on offenses like vehicle equipment and vehicle inspection if their driver has ignored an out of state citation of those offenses. Out of state moving violations are the focus of the compact and there will be no differences in focus under the Driver License Agreement.

North Carolina Safety and Emission Vehicle Inspection

North Carolina Safety and Emission Vehicle Inspection is responsible for ensuring that vehicles in North Carolina meet the safety and in some counties emissions standards. A fee is charged for the inspection of vehicles, and an extra if your vehicle has after-market window tinting.

Norwegian Public Roads Administration

The Norwegian Public Roads Administration (Norwegian: Statens vegvesen) is a Norwegian government agency responsible for national and county public roads in Norway. This includes planning, construction and operation of the national and county road networks, driver training and licensing, vehicle inspection, and subsidies to car ferries.

The agency is led by the Directorate of Public Roads (Vegdirektoratet), and is subordinate to the Ministry of Transport and Communications.

The Norwegian Public Roads Administration is divided into five regions and thirty districts, which are subordinate to the directorate. The directorate is based in Oslo.

The Norwegian Public Roads Administration is one of the largest government agencies of Norway in terms of budget. In matters concerning national roads, the agency is subordinate to the ministry and in matters concerning county roads subordinate to the county administration.

Pink slip

Pink slip may refer to:

Pink slip (auto), In the United States also known as "certificate of title", a legal form, establishing a person or business as the legal owner of a vehicle

Pink slip, a deprecated vehicle inspection paper in Australia

Pink slip (employment), a form of termination notice

An EP released in 2009 by artist and singer Justin Bond

Puspakom

Pusat Pemeriksaan Kenderaan Berkomputer or Puspakom is a Malaysian computerized vehicle inspection company owned by DRB-HICOM. It was established in 1994. Puspakom is the main inspection center for commercial vehicles throughout Malaysia. It has 50 permanent branches and 21 schedule branches. Puspakom occupies more than 17000 vehicles per day including commercial vehicles, ownership transfer and volunteered inspection. Puspakom has more than 2000 Vehicle Examiners, accredited by the Road Transport Department who are capable of conducting inspections to ensure inspected vehicles safe.

Shaken

Shaken may refer to:

"Shaken" (song), a song by Rachel Lampa

Shaken (weapon), a variety of shuriken

Shaken, a Japanese motor-vehicle inspection program

SHAKEN/STIR, Signature-based Handling of Asserted Information Using toKENs

Under vehicle inspection

An under-vehicle inspection (UVI) system generally consists of imaging systems mounted on a roadway and used at facility access points, particularly at secure facilities. An under-vehicle inspection system is used to detect threats—such as bombs—that are hidden underneath vehicles. Cameras capture images of the undercarriage of the vehicle for manual or automated visual inspection by security personnel or systems.

The first under-vehicle inspection system was developed in the late 1980s as part of a joint program between the UK Home Office and Morfax (now a part of the Chemring Group). The system used black and white images from area scan cameras. The systems have since developed encompassing more advanced technologies such as database capabilities in 1994, ANPR vehicle recognition in 1997, automatic change detection in 1999, colour imagery in 2005, and integrated chemical detection in 2012.

Under-vehicle inspection systems can be permanent (embedded in the road), fixed (attached to the road's surface) or portable (mobile).

Under vehicle inspection systems are known by the acronyms UVI (under-vehicle inspection), UVIS (under-vehicle inspection systems), AUVIS (automated under-vehicle inspection systems), MUVIS (mobile under-vehicle inspection systems), and UVSS (under vehicle surveillance system). The terms UVSS and CUVSS (colour under vehicle surveillance system) were trademarks of the Chemring Group until the rebranding of the Home Office project in 2011.

Vehicle inspection in the United States

In the United States, vehicle safety inspection and emissions inspection are governed by each state individually. 15 states have a periodic (annual or biennial) safety inspection program, while Maryland and Alabama require a safety inspection on sale or transfer of vehicles which were previously registered in another state.

In 1977, the federal Clean Air Act was amended by Congress to require states to implement vehicle emissions inspection programs, known as I/M programs (for Inspection and Maintenance), in all major metropolitan areas whose air quality failed to meet certain federal standards. New York's program started in 1982, California's program (Smog Check) started in 1984, and Illinois's program started in 1986. The Clean Air Act of 1990 required some states to enact vehicle emissions inspection programs. States impacted were those in metropolitan areas where air quality did not meet federal standards. Some states, including Kentucky and Minnesota, have discontinued their testing programs in recent years with approval from the federal government.

Vehicle registration plates of Denmark

Vehicle registration plates in Denmark normally have two letters and five digits and are issued by authorities. Plates can be obtained at authorized car dealers, vehicle inspection stations or official registration centers (Skat Motor center) The combination is simply a serial and has no connection with a geographic location, but the digits have number series based on vehicle type.Danish license plates do not follow the owner or the vehicle, when a car is sold the plates are turned in and the new owner must apply for new plates.

Exception is from this rule when a car is sold privately from one person to another person, the new owner can use the current plates that are on the car.

Languages

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.