Vaughan (2016 population 306,233)[1] is a city in Ontario, Canada. It is located in the Regional Municipality of York, just north of Toronto. Vaughan was the fastest-growing municipality in Canada between 1996 and 2006, achieving a population growth rate of 80.2% according to Statistics Canada[2] and having nearly doubled in population since 1991. It is the fifth-largest city in the Greater Toronto Area, and the 17th-largest city in Canada.

City of Vaughan
Vaughan as viewed from Canada's Wonderland
Vaughan as viewed from Canada's Wonderland
Official seal of Vaughan

Official logo of Vaughan

Vaughan is located in Southern Ontario
Coordinates: 43°50′N 79°30′W / 43.833°N 79.500°WCoordinates: 43°50′N 79°30′W / 43.833°N 79.500°W
Regional MunicipalityYork
Incorporated1850 (Township)
Incorporated1991 (City)
 • TypeMunicipal (City)
 • MayorMaurizio Bevilacqua
 • Regional CouncillorMario Ferri
Gino Rosati
Linda D. Jackson
 • City ManagerTim Simmonds Interim
 • Councillors
 • MPs, and MPPs
 • Land273.56 km2 (105.62 sq mi)
 • Total306,233
 • Density1,119.4/km2 (2,899/sq mi)
 • Total Private Dwellings
 Population ranked 17th nationally
Time zoneUTC-5 (EST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC-4 (EDT)
Area code(s)905, 289, and 365
Vaughan within York Region
Vaughan within York Region


In the late pre-contact period, the Huron-Wendat people populated what is today Vaughan. The Skandatut ancestral Wendat village overlooked the east branch of the Humber River (Pinevalley Drive) and was once home to approximately 2000 Huron in the sixteenth century.[3] The site is close to a Huron ossuary (mass grave) uncovered in Kleinburg in 1970, and one kilometre north of the Seed-Barker Huron site[4]

The first European to pass through Vaughan was the French explorer Étienne Brûlé, who traversed the Humber Trail in 1615. However, it was not until the townships were created in 1792 that Vaughan began to see European settlements, as it was considered to be extremely remote and the lack of roads through the region made travel difficult. The township was named after Benjamin Vaughan, a British commissioner who signed a peace treaty with the United States in 1783.

Despite the hardships of pioneer life, settlers came to Vaughan in considerable numbers. The population grew from 19 men, 5 women, and 30 children in 1800 to 4,300 in 1840. The first people to arrive were mainly Pennsylvania Germans, with a smaller number of families of English descent and a group of French Royalists. This migration from the United States was by 1814 superseded by immigrants from Britain. While many of their predecessors had been agriculturalists, the newer immigrants proved to be highly skilled tradespeople, which would prove useful for a growing community.

Around the facilities established by this group were a number of hamlets, the oldest of which was Thornhill, where a saw-mill was erected in 1801, a grist mill in 1815, and had a population of 300 by 1836. Other such enclaves included Kleinburg, Coleraine, Rupertville[5](Maple), Richmond Hill, Teston, Claireville, Pine Grove, Carrville, Patterson, Burlington, Concord, Edgeley, Fisherville, Elder's Mills, Elgin Mills, Jefferson, Nashville, Purpleville, Richvale, Sherwood, Langstaff, Vellore, and Burwick (Woodbridge).[6]

In 1846, the Township was primarily agricultural but had a population of 4,300. There were six grist mills and 25 saw mills.[7] By 1935, there were 4,873 residents.

However, World War II sparked an influx of immigration, and by 1960, the population stood at 15,957. The ethno-cultural composition of the area began to change with the arrival of different groups such as Italians, Jews and Eastern Europeans.

Incorporated in 1850 as Vaughan Township, a municipal government was established. Vaughan Road was a rural road constructed in 1850 that linked Vaughan Township with Toronto, though this street's current alignment is much shorter and serves only much of the eastern half of the former city of York.[8] In 1971, the new regional government of York Region was established, acquiring policing and welfare services from the communities it served; simultaneously, the township merged with the Village of Woodbridge to form the Town of Vaughan. In 1991, it changed its legal status to City of Vaughan.[9]

An F2 tornado tore through the city of Vaughan during the Southern Ontario Tornado Outbreak on August 20, 2009. Premier Dalton McGuinty and Mayor Linda Jackson toured the destruction the next day and reported 200 homes in critical shape and as many as 600 additional homes likely to be demolished. The tornado also ripped up trees, flipped cars, and left thousands of people without power. Vaughan declared a state of emergency because of the widespread damage.[10][11] One man injured in the storm suffered a heart attack the following morning.[12]

North American telephone customers placing calls to Vaughan may not recognize the charge details on their billings. Although Vaughan has been incorporated since 1850 and has existed in its present form since 1971, the local incumbent local exchange carrier, Bell Canada, splits the city into three historical rate centres–Kleinburg, Maple and Woodbridge. Part of the Thornhill rate centre extends into Vaughan. Indeed, Vaughan does not even appear in the telephone book.

Mayor and Councillors

Vaughan City Hall

Vaughan is governed by a nine-member council comprising a mayor, three regional councillors, and five local councillors. The mayor, elected at large, is the head of the council and a representative on York Region Council. The three regional councillors are also elected at large, and serve on both the city council and York Regional Council. Five local councillors are also elected, one from each of Vaughan's five wards, to represent those wards on Vaughan Council. City councillors meet at the Civic Centre, located in Maple. The City's new City Hall was opened on September 25, 2011. The building is named in memory of late Mayor Lorna Jackson. The new Civic Centre is one of the first in Canada to conform to a LEED Gold Standard, the second highest environmental classification available.[13]

Vaughan is the first municipality in Ontario to have a Youth City Councillor. The youth city councillor is appointed as a non-voting member of Council every six months to represent the youth of Vaughan. Vaughan council originally rejected the proposal of a youth councillor but, after the Vaughan Youth Cabinet amended its proposal, Council accepted the recommendation.[14]

After serving as mayor for nine years, Lorna Jackson saw the Town of Vaughan become incorporated as the City of Vaughan.[15] Following the death of Mayor Lorna Jackson in 2002, Michael Di Biase was appointed mayor by Vaughan council by virtue of his position as one of two regional councillors representing Vaughan, Joyce Frustaglio was the other regional councillor. Gino Rosati, a Vaughan local councillor, was subsequently appointed by Vaughan Council to fill Di Biase’s position as regional councillor and a by-election was held to fill Rosati’s local councillor’s position which was won by Linda Jackson, the daughter of Mayor Jackson. Di Biase first became involved in the city's politics in 1985, when he was elected as a local councillor in 1985. Di Biase retained the mayorship in the 2003 municipal clection, defeating challenger Robert Craig.

In the municipal election on November 13, 2006, Di Biase was narrowly defeated by Linda Jackson, who was sworn in as mayor on December 4, 2006. On June 18, 2008, an audit of Jackson's 2006 campaign finances found that the politician exceeded her legal spending limit of $120,419 by at least $12,356, or 10 per cent. The auditors, LECG Canada Ltd., say that amount could almost double if what they believed to be unreported contributions in kind at various election events – but couldn't prove – are later verified.[16]

They also found other apparent contraventions of the Canada Elections Act, including at least five instances where associated companies made donations that exceeded the normal $750 donation limit per company.

On June 24, 2008, Vaughan Council voted unanimously to hire a special prosecutor to consider laying charges against Mayor Linda Jackson under the Municipal Elections Act in reaction to the auditors' report. Council hired Timothy Wilkin, "an expert in municipal law" to decide what (if any) charges are to be laid.[17] If Jackson is charged and found guilty, she would face punishments ranging from fines to removal from office.

Subsequently, an audit was conducted on former Mayor Di Biase's 2006 election campaign funds. This exposed 27 contraventions under the Elections Act, along with a $155,000 anonymous cash payment made to his lawyer to cover his legal fees. Di Biase has refused to disclose who made this payment.[18]

On 25 October 2010, longtime MP Maurizio Bevilacqua was elected mayor and he assumed office in December 2010.


Vaughan is bounded by Caledon and Brampton to the west, King and Richmond Hill to the north, Markham and Richmond Hill to the east, and Toronto, to the south.


The city is made up of five major communities. Most residents (and even non-residents) identify more with these smaller communities than they do with the city as a whole. Even though Vaughan is a city, it is not listed in the phone book. Instead, Bell Canada uses the original community rate centres and lists them separately, resulting in local calling areas being different throughout the city.

  • Woodbridge: North/South - Major Mackenzie[19]/Steeles, East/West - Hwy 400/Hwy 50
  • Maple: North/South - King Vaughan Line/Rutherford, East/West - Bathurst/Hwy 400
  • Thornhill: North/South - Hwys. 7 and 407 (Major Mackenzie for the area west of Bathurst)/Steeles, East/West - Yonge/Dufferin
  • Concord: North/South - Rutherford/Steeles, East/West - Dufferin/Hwy 400
  • Kleinburg: North/South - King Vaughan Line/Major Mackenzie, East/West - Hwy 400/Hwy 50

These communities are seen today are extended far beyond their original sites, encompassing lesser-known and smaller communities (e.g. Pine Grove or Teston). In addition, Vaughan Metropolitan Centre, is the city's planned downtown core.


Vaughan like much of the Greater Toronto Area features a continental climate Dfb and has four distinct seasons.


Health Care

Vaughan is the largest city in Canada without a hospital.[21] The nearest full-service hospital facilities are Humber River Regional Hospital, to the south in Toronto, Brampton Civic Hospital, to the west in Brampton, and Mackenzie Richmond Hill Hospital to the east in Richmond Hill.

Mackenzie Vaughan Hospital is under construction along Major Mackenzie Drive (between Highway 400 and Jane Street)[22] which would serve Vaughan. Its planning stage began in 2007.[23] The provincial government of Ontario approved construction of the hospital in July 2011, and a tender for bids to construct it will be issued in 2014 or 2015.[24] Land preparation for construction began in the summer of 2014.[25] The expected date of completion is 2019.[26] It will be part of a regional hospital system with a "single governance, administration and medical staff"[24] managed by Mackenzie Richmond Hill Hospital.



Ethnic Origin (2016)[27] Population Percent
Italian 94,730 31.1
Russian 25,635 8.4
Canadian 24,185 8.0
Chinese 24,130 7.9
East Indian 20,595 6.7
Polish 18,265 6.0
Jewish 13,650 4.5
English 11,575 3.8
Ukrainian 9,570 3.1
Portuguese 9,145 3.0
Filipino 9,140 3.0
Irish 7,185 2.4
Vietnamese 6,845 2.2
Scottish 6,775 2.2
Iranian 6,685 2.2
Historical populations

According to Statistics Canada, the population grew 6.2 percent from 2011 to 2016.[1] Median age as of 2016 was 40.2, lower than the Ontario median age of 41.3.[1]

Vaughan is known as having some of the highest concentrations of southern Europeans (notably Italians), Eastern Europeans (chiefly Russians) and Jewish people in Ontario, while those who are of British and/or Irish origin form a smaller proportion than in many other Southern Ontario cities.

Visible minorities make up 35.4% of the population.[1] Vaughan has small but growing Chinese, Hispanic, Jamaican, Indian and Vietnamese populations.

According to the 2016 Census, English is the mother tongue of 45.2% of the residents of Vaughan. Italian is the mother tongue for 12.3% of the population, followed by Russian (6.8%) and Spanish (2.4%). Each of Punjabi, Tagalog (Filipino), Hebrew, Persian, Mandarin, Urdu, Cantonese, and Vietnamese has a percentage ranging from 1.5% to 2.9%, signifying Vaughan's high linguistic diversity.[1]

As of 2011, 60.62% of the city's population adheres to Christianity, mostly Catholicism (46.23%). Those who practice non-Christian religions adhere to, in order of size, Judaism (15.28%), Islam (4.92%), Hinduism (4.50%), and Buddhism (2.52%). Those who do not have a religious affiliation account for 10.04% of the population.[28]


The total crime against persons in 2017 was 619.43 per 100,000 population, with 1.49 per 100,000 being violations causing death.[29] Organized crime also has a notable presence in Vaughan.[30] Notable incidents include mob shootings outside the Terrace Banquet Hall in July 2013 resulting in two deaths, one of which was mobster Salvatore Calautti[31] and the Regina Sports Café in April 2014 resulting in the death of Carmine Verduci,[32] as well as the Woodbridge Cafe shooting at Islington Avenue and Highway 7 in June 2015.[33] Three killings in March 2017; on March 14, a 28-year-old Vaughan woman was shot as she sat in a car parked outside of a lighting business on Caster Avenue, on March 23, a shooting of a 26-year-old Ajax man at Jane Street and Highway 7,[34] and on March 30, a private social club shooting near Martin Grove Road and Highway 7.[35] In April 2017, Mayor Maurizio Bevilacqua spoke after the third March murder, stating people "should not live in fear".[36][37]




Vaughan is home to many amateur sports teams for a variety of sports, with an organization running a league for each of the four major sports. There are also rep and select levels of these sports where the Vaughan Rangers, Vaughan Panthers, and Vaughan Kings represent the city in youth hockey,[39][40] the Vaughan Vikings represent the city in baseball,[41] the Vaughan Rebels represent the city in football,[42] and the Vaughan Panthers represent the city in basketball.[43] Vaughan also has a high softball following, with the Vaughan Vikings and Woodbridge Warriors offering house league and rep opportunities, as well as and adult World Series Slo Pitch league.[44] The city also hosts the Vaughan Flames, a youth organization exclusively for woman's hockey.[45] The name also belonged to the former CWHL hockey team that folded in 2010. Additionally, the Vaughan Vipers formerly played in the Ontario Provincial Junior A Hockey League. In 2012, the Vipers were decommissioned and withdrew from their league.[46]

The city is also home to numerous gold and country clubs. These include The National Golf Club of Canada, one of Canada's highest ranking golf clubs.[47]


Vaughan SC and Woodbridge SC offer house league and rep programs for youth soccer, as players for Vaughan Azzurri and Woodbridge Stikers respectively. These team names are also used for the city's two League1 Ontario teams. Additionally, Vaughan is home to the Ontario Soccer Association, the largest sports organization in Canada.[48] The OSA has over 400,000 registered players, and runs leagues across the entire province.[49] Vaughan is also home to the Canadian Soccer Hall of Fame and Museum.[50] Vaughan is also home to the semi-professional York Region Shooters from the Canadian Soccer League.

Prior to 2018, Vaughan also played home to Toronto FC II, the United Soccer League affiliate team for Toronto FC.[51] Because the stadium's expansion to include more seating fell through, the team announced it would be moving to play in BMO Field / Lamport Stadium for the 2018 season.[52]



Vaughan's weekly newspaper the Vaughan Citizen was first published in 2001 and has a circulation of roughly 59,000. The neighbourhood of Thornhill has its own weekly paper, the Thornhill Liberal. From 1878 to 2000 Vaughan's news was covered by The Liberal published in Richmond Hill.[53]

Lo Specchio is an Italian-language newspaper published in Vaughan since 1984.[54]

City Life is a Vaughan-specific lifestyle magazine published bi-monthly by Dolce Publishing since 2003.[55]


Kleinburg is home to the Cinespace Film Studios, a centre for television and motion picture production. Several famous movie stars are often spotted around Kleinburg, making it a popular tourist/gawker attraction. The popular children's TV show The Forest Rangers, starring Gordon Pinsent, was filmed here between 1963 and 1965. In 2006, the movie The Sentinel was filmed at the McMichael Art Gallery.


The American private Catholic Niagara University runs a campus in Vaughan, its first university in the city.[56]

York University in North York, Ontario lies on the Toronto side of the Toronto-Vaughan border. It is a major comprehensive university, with more than 43,000 students enrolled through 10 different faculties.

There are also a number of elementary and high schools in Vaughan, which operate under the York Region District School Board and the York Catholic District School Board. There are also some private schools, the largest of which is the Anne & Max Tanenbaum Community Hebrew Academy of Toronto (TanenbaumCHAT), a Jewish day school serving over 600 high school students. There is also a Waldorf school, the Toronto Waldorf School, which offers early childhood, elementary and accredited high school programs.


Vaughan is home to a number of small to large corporations that provide employment opportunities:


Vaughan is located in Ontario
Seed-Barker site
Seed-Barker site
Seed-Barker site 16th century Iroquoian village, Vaughan, ON

The Seed-Barker archaeological site is a 16th-century Iroquois village on the Humber River in Vaughan. It has been used as a summer school field trip site since 1976 by the Boyd archaeological field summer school for high school students. The school is sponsored by the York Region district school board in co-operation with the Royal Ontario Museum and the Toronto and Region Conservation Authority (TRCA). In 1895, a local farmer began finding Iroquoian artifacts in the area. In 1895, Roland Orr recognized the classic ecological features favoured by the Iroquoian people for their villages: floodplains along a river, an easily defensible plateau and nearby forests. The Iroquois used the floodplains to plant maize, beans and squash,:1 known as the three sisters. In the 1950s, University of Toronto professor Norman Emerson and the students excavated artifacts from the Seed-Baker site. Since 1975, more that a million artifacts were discovered and nineteen longhouses were excavated revealing that the village was occupied by the Iroquois from c. 1500 - 1550 AD.[59]

Notable people

Order of Vaughan

In 2016, to celebrate the city's 25th anniversary, Mayor Bevilacqua introduced the Order of Vaughan. This award is meant to be the highest honour bestowed by the city.[60] Initially, twenty-five recipients were given the award as a reflection of the anniversary; however, the city announced in 2017 that up to ten new individuals would receive the award each year after.[61][62] The award is meant to recognize people in the categories of: accessibility, arts and entertainment, athletics, business, education, environment and spirituality, equity and diversity, health and wellness, media and communications, not-for-profit, philanthropy, public service, and science and technology.[63]

Twin cities


See also


  1. ^ a b c d e f g Canada, Government of Canada, Statistics (February 8, 2017). "Census Profile, 2016 Census - Vaughan, City [Census subdivision], Ontario and Canada [Country]". Retrieved March 21, 2017.
  2. ^ "Changes in population at the community level". A profile of the Canadian population: where we live. Statistics Canada. 2003-01-20. Retrieved 2006-10-29.
  3. ^ Salvage excavations of nationally significant Huron sites in Vaughan continue into 2010. Cf., Gail Swainson, Toronto Star, First Nations want say in the preservation of important archaeological sites in Ontario, Aug. 29, 2010; U of T basements hold thousands of remains, Sept. 3, 2010; First Nation battles for history in court, Sept. 10, 2010. See also Archaeological Services, Inc., "Stage 4 Salvage Excavation of the Baker Site Archived 2013-11-10 at the Wayback Machine, June 2006.
  4. ^ University of Toronto, Anthropology Dept., Seed-Barker Site.
  5. ^ Rumble, Mrs. Arnold (1948-10-28). "Historical Notes on Maple" (PDF). The Liberal. Richmond Hill, Ontario. p. 1. Retrieved 2018-12-14.
  6. ^ Somerville, Patricia; Macfarlane, Catherine (1984). A History of Vaughan Township Churches. Maple, Ontario: Vaughan Township Historical Society. ISBN 0-9692207-0-7.
  8. ^ "History of Vaughan Road". The Tollkeepers Cottage and Early Roads such as Vaughan Road. Retrieved 2008-02-19.
  9. ^ Bulletin #4: Settlement, Education, Social and Political History. City of Vaughan Archives, Cultural Services Division. 1992.
  10. ^ "'Miracle no one killed' by Vaughan tornado, mayor says". Vaughan Citizen. 2009-08-20. Retrieved 2009-08-21.
  11. ^ "Relief and disbelief in Vaughan". Archived from the original on 2012-07-09. Retrieved 2012-01-02.
  12. ^ Roberts, Rob (2009-08-21). "Vaughan man suffers heart attack after tornado injuries; McGuinty visits damaged neighbourhood". National Post. Retrieved 2009-08-21.
  13. ^ "Vaughan Highlights Environmental Partnerships at 2006 Smog Summit". 2006-06-07. Archived from the original on 2007-09-28. Retrieved 2008-02-19.
  14. ^ "Youth in Politics Article" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-02-05. Retrieved 2012-01-02.
  15. ^ "City of Vaughan Celebrates 25 Years since Incorporation". GTA Real Estate News | Presented by Living Realty. 2016-09-27. Retrieved 2018-02-04.
  16. ^ Vaughan mayor to face election-financing charges CBC News 25 June 2008
  17. ^ Vaughan mayor faces charges over election Phinjo Gombu, Toronto Star 25 June 2008.
  18. ^ Former Vaughan mayor Di Biase faces 27 election-related charges Caroline Grech, 17 Sept 2009
  19. ^ "Vaughan–Woodbridge - Maps Corner - Elections Canada Online".
  20. ^ "Woodbridge, Ontario". Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010. Environment Canada. Retrieved 2013-12-17.
  21. ^ "Ontario starts planning for new hospital in Vaughan". Archived from the original on 2012-08-20. Retrieved 2012-01-02.
  22. ^ Dobranowski, Alexis (May 28, 2009). "Where is our hospital?". Vaughan Today. Archived from the original on October 28, 2010.
  23. ^ "City of Vaughan Hospital Announcement" (PDF). Councillor Alan Shefman's Ward 5 - Thornhill Update. April 27, 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-04-01.
  24. ^ a b "York Central Hospital Receives Approval to Build New Hospital in Vaughan". Vaughan: CNW Group Ltd. Canada NewsWire. 21 July 2011. Archived from the original on 2011-07-23. Retrieved 2011-07-22.
  25. ^ Guran, Catalina. "Early Work Preparation to Begin on Site of New Mackenzie Vaughan Hospital". Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2016-01-06.
  26. ^ Cardoso, Nelson. "Mackenzie Vaughan Hospital". Archived from the original on 2016-02-13. Retrieved 2016-01-06.
  27. ^ "Immigration and Ethnocultural Diversity Highlight Tables". Statistics Canada.
  28. ^ "NHS Profile, Vaughan, CY, Ontario, 2011". Statistics Canada. 8 May 2013. Retrieved 15 May 2015.
  30. ^ Grimaldi, Jeremy (30 December 2015). "Organized crime continues to be huge problem in Vaughan -".
  31. ^ "Alleged mobsters shot to death at Vaughan stag party". 12 July 2013.
  32. ^ "Rizzuto revenge suspected in murder of GTA mobster Carmine Verduci in Woodbridge - Toronto Star".
  33. ^ "Double murder in Vaughan close to 2 other café murders over last year".
  34. ^ Kelly, Tim (23 March 2017). "Second Vaughan killing in nine days; man shot on Hwy. 7 near Jane -".
  35. ^ Kelly, Tim (1 April 2017). "UPDATE: Police identify man killed outside Vaughan private club -".
  36. ^ Kelly, Tim (2 April 2017). "Vaughan Mayor Maurizio Bevilacqua speaks after third recent murder -".
  37. ^ Herhalt, Chris (1 April 2017). "Vaughan mayor urges residents not to 'live in fear' after 3 deadly shootings".
  38. ^ "LEGOLAND® Discovery Centre Toronto | The Ultimate Indoor LEGO Playground". Toronto. Retrieved 2019-04-16.
  39. ^ "About Us (City of Vaughan Hockey)". Retrieved 2018-02-03.
  40. ^ "Home". Vaughan Kings. Retrieved 2018-02-03.
  41. ^ "Mission & Rules – Vaughan Vikings". Retrieved 2018-02-03.
  42. ^ "Vaughan Football". Retrieved 2018-02-03.
  43. ^ "Vaughan Panthers Basketball | Rep Basketball". Retrieved 2018-02-03.
  44. ^ "Vaughan World Series Slo-Pitch | ..: the sunday night league :." Retrieved 2018-02-03.
  45. ^ "Vaughan Girls Hockey Association powered by". Retrieved 2018-02-03.
  46. ^ Hayakawa, Michael (2012-03-09). "OJHL decomissions Vaughan Vipers". Retrieved 2018-02-03.
  47. ^ "2017-18 Ranking: Top 30 Courses in Canada - Golf Digest". Golf Digest. Retrieved 2018-02-04.
  48. ^ "Contact Us". Retrieved 2018-02-02.
  49. ^ "Who We Are". Retrieved 2018-02-02.
  50. ^ "Canadian Soccer Hall of Fame, Vaughan". 2007-06-28. Retrieved 2018-02-02.
  51. ^ Kelly, Tim (April 15, 2016). "Toronto FC II Aims to Take Strong Start Into Home Opener".
  52. ^ "Toronto FC II announce 2018 home venues". Toronto FC. 2018-01-26. Retrieved 2018-02-03.
  53. ^ "York Region : About Us |". 2017-04-25. Archived from the original on 2017-04-25. Retrieved 2018-02-18.
  54. ^ Kelly, Tim (February 2, 2016). "In Memoriam: Sergio Tagliavini, 80: co-founder, co-editor of Lo Specchio". Vaughan Citizen. Retrieved December 4, 2018.
  55. ^ "Publications | City Life Magazine Vaughan Woodbridge". 2017-07-21. Archived from the original on 2017-07-21. Retrieved 2018-02-18.
  56. ^ "Niagara University campus opens doors to 300 students in Vaughan". 21 January 2019.
  57. ^
  58. ^ Home. Toys R Us. Retrieved on April 3, 2018. "Toys"R"Us (Canada) Ltd. 2777 Langstaff Road, Concord ON L4K 4M5"
  59. ^ Burgar & Crinnion 2005.
  60. ^ "Vaughan celebrates 25 years". Retrieved 2018-01-30.
  61. ^ Kelly, Tim (2016-10-21). "City reveals 25 who make cut for Order of Vaughan". Retrieved 2018-01-30.
  62. ^ "Ten residents invested with the Order of Vaughan". Retrieved 2018-01-30.
  63. ^ "Vaughan introduces the Order of Vaughan". Retrieved 2018-01-30.
  64. ^ "City of Vaughan Economic Development Strategy" (PDF). Millier Dickinson Blais. August 18, 2010.

External links

Antiarrhythmic agent

Antiarrhythmic agents, also known as cardiac dysrhythmia medications, are a group of pharmaceuticals that are used to suppress abnormal rhythms of the heart (cardiac arrhythmias), such as atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, ventricular tachycardia, and ventricular fibrillation.

Many attempts have been made to classify antiarrhythmic agents. The problem arises from the fact that many of the antiarrhythmic agents have multiple modes of action, making any classification imprecise.

Arky Vaughan

Joseph Floyd "Arky" Vaughan (March 9, 1912 – August 30, 1952) was an American professional baseball player. He played 14 seasons in Major League Baseball between 1932 and 1948 for the Pittsburgh Pirates and Brooklyn Dodgers, primarily as a shortstop. He was elected to the National Baseball Hall of Fame in 1985.

Brian K. Vaughan

Brian Keller Vaughan (born July 17, 1976) is an American comic book and television writer, best known for the comic book series Y: The Last Man, Ex Machina, Runaways, Pride of Baghdad, Saga, and, most recently, Paper Girls.

Vaughan was a writer, story editor and producer of the television series Lost during seasons three through five. He was nominated for a Writers Guild of America Award for Best Dramatic Series at the February 2009 ceremony for his work on the fourth season. The writing staff was nominated for the award again at the February 2010 ceremony for their work on the fifth season. He was formerly the showrunner and executive producer of the TV series Under the Dome.Wired describes Vaughan's comics work as "quirky, acclaimed stories that don't pander and still pound pulses". His creator-owned comics work is also characterized by "finite, meticulous, years-long story arcs", on which Vaughan comments, "That's storytelling, with a beginning, a middle, and an end. Something like Spider-Man, a book that never has a third act, that seems crazy." Erik Malinowski, also of Wired, has called Vaughan "the greatest comic book visionary of the last five years", comparing him to Frank Miller, Alan Moore, Paul Pope, and Steve Niles, and praised his addition to the TV series Lost as redeeming that series' third season.For his writing, Vaughan has won 14 Eisner Awards, 14 Harvey Awards, as well as a Hugo Award.

Ivan Vaughan

Ivan Vaughan (18 June 1942 – 16 August 1993) was a boyhood friend of John Lennon, and later schoolmate of Paul McCartney at the Liverpool Institute, both commencing school there in September 1953. He was born on the same day as McCartney in Liverpool. He played bass part-time in Lennon's first band, The Quarrymen, and was responsible for introducing Lennon to McCartney at a community event (the Woolton village fête) on 6 July 1957, where The Quarrymen were performing. McCartney impressed Lennon, who invited McCartney to join the band, which he did a day later. This led to the formation of Lennon and McCartney's songwriting partnership, and later of The Beatles.

James Vaughan (footballer, born 1988)

James Oliver Vaughan (born 14 July 1988) is an English professional footballer who plays as a forward for Portsmouth of League One, on loan from Championship club Wigan Athletic.

Vaughan, who was born in Birmingham, signed his first professional contract with Everton. He played for the club between 2005 and 2011, including loan spells at Derby County, Leicester City and Crystal Palace, before signing for Norwich in May 2011. He then had a loan spell at Huddersfield Town for the majority of the 2012–13 season, before signing permanent terms on 3 July 2013. He spent two-and-a-half seasons with Huddersfield before joining Birmingham City on loan. The move was made permanent at the end of the 2015–16 season, but his stay was brief, as he joined Bury in August 2016. Vaughan played for just a single season at Bury, making 40 appearances and scoring 24 times. He completed a move to Championship club Sunderland in July 2017, playing 27 times before leaving to join Wigan Athletic in January 2018.

He has represented England at under-17, under-19 and under-21 age groups, but has since expressed a desire to represent Jamaica at international level. He is the Premier League's youngest-ever goalscorer.

Jimmie Vaughan

Jimmie Lawrence Vaughan (born March 20, 1951, Oak Cliff, Dallas County, Texas, United States) is an American blues rock guitarist and singer based in Austin, Texas. He is the older brother of Texas blues guitar legend Stevie Ray Vaughan.

Several notable blues guitarists have had a significant influence on Vaughan's playing style including the "Three Kings" (Albert, Freddie, and B.B. King) and Johnny "Guitar" Watson.


King—Vaughan is a federal electoral district in Ontario, Canada.

King—Vaughan was created by the 2012 federal electoral boundaries redistribution and was legally defined in the 2013 representation order. It came into effect upon the dropping of the writs for the 2015 federal election. It was created out of parts of the ridings of Oak Ridges—Markham and Vaughan.

League1 Ontario

League1 Ontario (L1O) is a semi-professional men's and women's soccer league in Ontario, Canada, and is sanctioned by the Canadian Soccer Association and the Ontario Soccer Association as a Division III league in the Canadian soccer league system. The 2019 season will include 16 teams in the men's division and 14 teams in the women's division.

In the Canadian soccer league system, its men's division is behind the Canadian Premier League (CPL), Major League Soccer (MLS) (Division I), USL Championship (Division II), while roughly equal to the Première Ligue de soccer du Québec (PLSQ). The L1O women's division is behind the U.S.-based National Women's Soccer League, which has no Canadian teams but is partially backed by the CSA, with many Canada national team members assigned to NWSL teams. As such, it is roughly equivalent to the Women's Premier Soccer League and United Women's Soccer, which form the unofficial second level of the U.S. women's game; each of those leagues also has one Canadian team.

Michael Vaughan

Michael Paul Vaughan (born 29 October 1974) is an English cricket commentator and former cricketer, who played all forms of the game and a former English captain in all formats. He represented Yorkshire in the domestic arena.

Vaughan was ranked one of the best batsmen in the world following the 2002/03 Ashes, in which he scored 633 runs, including three centuries. Vaughan was an opening batsman and forged a successful England partnership with Marcus Trescothick, though he often batted in the middle order for England. He was the captain of the England team when they regained the Ashes in 2005, eighteen years after having last won the trophy.

Vaughan captained England in 51 Tests between 2003 and 2008, winning 26 (a national record) and losing 11; England won all seven home Tests of the 2004 summer under Vaughan, and the pinnacle of his captaincy career came with a 2–1 victory in the 2005 Ashes, England's first Ashes victory since 1986/87. However, a recurring knee injury, his decision to move down the batting order to accommodate other openers (Andrew Strauss and Alastair Cook) and the pressures of captaincy took their toll on Vaughan's batting during the latter part of his career: in Tests he averaged 50.95 when not captain, and 36.02 as captain. Vaughan announced his retirement from first-class cricket on 30 June 2009.


Oakwood–Vaughan is a multicultural neighbourhood in the York district of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The central strip of Oakwood–Vaughan, along Oakwood Avenue, is more recently known as Oakwood Village, the name of the neighbourhood's Business Improvement Area (BIA), annual arts festival, and public library built in 1997.

The neighbourhood, commonly known as OV, is bordered by Eglinton Avenue West to the north (Briar Hill–Belgravia), Dufferin Street to the west (Caledonia–Fairbank), St. Clair Avenue West to the south (Corso Italia and Bracondale Hill), and Winona Drive to the east (Humewood–Cedarvale). Oakwood–Vaughan was part of the former City of York before the amalgamation of Toronto in 1998. The neighbourhood's northern half is nicknamed Five Points for the intersection of Oakwood Avenue, Vaughan Road, and Belvidere Avenue. The western half was called Northcliffe and is more recently known as Northcliffe Village.

Peter Vaughan

Peter Vaughan (born Peter Ewart Ohm; 4 April 1923 – 6 December 2016) was an English character actor, known for many supporting roles in British film and television productions. He also worked extensively on the stage.

He was best known for his role as Grouty in the sitcom Porridge (despite appearing in only three episodes and the 1979 film) and also had a recurring role alongside Robert Lindsay in Citizen Smith, written by John Sullivan. He also had parts as Tom Franklin in Chancer (1990–91), playing the father of Anthony Hopkins's character in The Remains of the Day, and as Maester Aemon in HBO's Game of Thrones (2011–15), his final role.

Ralph Vaughan Williams

Ralph Vaughan Williams ( (listen); 12 October 1872 – 26 August 1958) was an English composer. His works include operas, ballets, chamber music, secular and religious vocal pieces and orchestral compositions including nine symphonies, written over sixty years. Strongly influenced by Tudor music and English folk-song, his output marked a decisive break in British music from its German-dominated style of the 19th century.

Vaughan Williams was born to a well-to-do family with strong moral views and a progressive social outlook. Throughout his life he sought to be of service to his fellow citizens, and believed in making music as available as possible to everybody. He wrote many works for amateur and student performance. He was musically a late developer, not finding his true voice until his late thirties; his studies in 1907–1908 with the French composer Maurice Ravel helped him clarify the textures of his music and free it from Teutonic influences.

Vaughan Williams is among the best-known British symphonists, noted for his very wide range of moods, from stormy and impassioned to tranquil, from mysterious to exuberant. Among the most familiar of his other concert works are Fantasia on a Theme by Thomas Tallis (1910) and The Lark Ascending (1914). His vocal works include hymns, folk-song arrangements and large-scale choral pieces. He wrote eight works for stage performance between 1919 and 1951. Although none of his operas became popular repertoire pieces, his ballet Job: A Masque for Dancing (1930) was successful and has been frequently staged.

Two episodes made notably deep impressions in Vaughan Williams's personal life. The First World War, in which he served in the army, had a lasting emotional effect. Twenty years later, though in his sixties and devotedly married, he was reinvigorated by a love affair with a much younger woman, who later became his second wife. He went on composing through his seventies and eighties, producing his last symphony months before his death at the age of eighty-five. His works have continued to be a staple of the British concert repertoire, and all his major compositions and many of the minor ones have been recorded.

Runaways (comics)

Runaways is a superhero comic book series published by Marvel Comics. The series features a group of teenagers who discover that their parents are part of an evil crime organization known as "The Pride". Created by Brian K. Vaughan and Adrian Alphona, the series debuted in July 2003 as part of Marvel Comics' "Tsunami" imprint. The series was canceled in September 2004 at issue eighteen, but due to high numbers of trade collection sales, Marvel revived the series in February 2005.

Originally, the series featured a group of six kids whose parents routinely met every year for a charity event. One year, the kids spy on their parents and learn they are "the Pride", a criminal group of mob bosses, time-travelers, dark wizards, mad scientists, alien invaders and telepathic mutants. The kids steal weapons and resources from their parents, and learn they themselves inherited their parents' powers; Alex Wilder, a prodigy, leads the team while Nico Minoru learns she is a powerful witch, Karolina Dean discovers she is an alien, Gertrude Yorkes learns of her telepathic link to a dinosaur, Chase Stein steals his father's futuristic gloves, and young Molly Hayes learns she is a mutant with incredible strength. The kids band together and defeat their parents, and atone for the sins of their parents by fighting the new threats trying to fill in the Pride's void. Later they are joined by cyborg Victor Mancha, shape-shifting Skrull Xavin, and plant-manipulator Klara Prast.

Since the original groups' introduction, the Runaways have been portrayed as a somewhat dysfunctional yet loving family. Series creators Brian K. Vaughan and Adrian Alphona left the series at issue 24 of the title's second volume (which ended at issue 30). The series was cancelled in November 2009 after issue 14 of Volume 3, but the characters have been seen in other comics.

On June 1, 2017, it was announced that Rainbow Rowell and Kris Anka would be the new creative team in a revival of the series, which debuted in September of the same year.A live-action adaptation of the series was in development for several years, leading to the Runaways TV series set in the Marvel Cinematic Universe. It debuted on Hulu in 2017.

Sarah Vaughan

Sarah Lois Vaughan (March 27, 1924 – April 3, 1990) was an American jazz singer.

Nicknamed "Sassy" and "The Divine One", she won four Grammy Awards, including the Lifetime Achievement Award. She was given an NEA Jazz Masters Award in 1989. Critic Scott Yanow wrote that she had "one of the most wondrous voices of the 20th century".

Stevie Ray Vaughan

Stephen Ray Vaughan (October 3, 1954 – August 27, 1990) was an American musician, singer, songwriter, and record producer, and one of the most influential guitarists in the revival of blues in the 1980s. He is commonly referred to as one of the greatest guitar players of all time.

Vaughan was born and raised in Dallas, Texas. He began playing guitar at the age of seven, inspired by his older brother Jimmie. He dropped out of high school in 1971 and moved to Austin the following year. He played gigs with numerous bands, earning a spot in Marc Benno's band the Nightcrawlers and later with Denny Freeman in the Cobras, with whom he continued to work through late 1977. He then formed his own group Triple Threat Revue, but he renamed them Double Trouble after hiring drummer Chris Layton and bassist Tommy Shannon. He gained fame after his performance at the Montreux Jazz Festival in 1982, and his debut studio album Texas Flood charted at number 38 in 1983, a commercially successful release that sold over half a million copies. Vaughan headlined concert tours with Jeff Beck in 1989 and Joe Cocker in 1990. He died in a helicopter crash on August 27, 1990 at the age of 35.

Vaughan received several music awards during his lifetime and posthumously. In 1983, readers of Guitar Player voted him Best New Talent and Best Electric Blues Guitar Player. In 1984, the Blues Foundation named him Entertainer of the Year and Blues Instrumentalist of the Year, and in 1987, Performance Magazine honored him with Rhythm and Blues Act of the Year. He won six Grammy Awards and ten Austin Music Awards and was inducted posthumously into the Blues Hall of Fame in 2000 and the Musicians Hall of Fame in 2014. Rolling Stone ranked him as the 12th greatest guitarist of all time. In 2015, Vaughan and Double Trouble were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.

The Tempest

The Tempest is a play by William Shakespeare, probably written in 1610–1611, and thought to be one of the last plays that Shakespeare wrote alone. After the first scene, which takes place on a ship at sea during a tempest, the rest of the story is set on a remote island, where the sorcerer Prospero, a complex and contradictory character, lives with his daughter Miranda, and his two servants — Caliban, a savage monster figure, and Ariel, an airy spirit. The play contains music and songs that evoke the spirit of enchantment on the island. It explores many themes including magic, betrayal, revenge, and family. In act four, a wedding masque serves as a play-within-the play, and contributes spectacle, allegory, and elevated language. Though The Tempest is listed in the First Folio as the first of Shakespeare’s comedies, it deals with both tragic and comic themes, and modern criticism has created a category of romance for this and others of Shakespeare’s late plays. The Tempest has been subjected to varied interpretations—from those that see it as a fable of art and creation, with Prospero representing Shakespeare, and Prospero’s renunciation of magic signaling Shakespeare's farewell to the stage, to interpretations that consider it an allegory of European man colonizing foreign lands.

Toronto Star

The Toronto Star is a Canadian broadsheet daily newspaper. Based on 2015 statistics, it is Canada's highest-circulation newspaper on overall weekly circulation; although it is a close second to The Globe and Mail in daily circulation on weekdays, it overtakes the Globe in weekly circulation because the Globe does not publish a Sunday edition. The Toronto Star is owned by Toronto Star Newspapers Limited, a subsidiary of Torstar Corporation and part of Torstar's Daily News Brands division.


Vaughan—King—Aurora was a federal electoral riding in Ontario, Canada, that was represented in the House of Commons of Canada from 1997 to 2004, and was a provincial electoral riding represented in the Legislative Assembly of Ontario from 1999 to 2007.

Vince Vaughn

Vincent Anthony Vaughn (born March 28, 1970) is an American actor, producer, screenwriter, and comedian.

Vaughn began acting in the late 1980s, appearing in minor television roles before attaining wider recognition with the 1996 comedy-drama film Swingers. He has appeared in a number of films in the 1990s, including the sports film Rudy (1993), the sci-fi adventure dinosaur film The Lost World: Jurassic Park (1997), and the drama-thriller Return to Paradise (1998).

Other than his dramatic role in The Cell (2000), in the 2000s he acted in several comedies, including Old School (2003), Dodgeball: A True Underdog Story (2004), Wedding Crashers (2005), The Break-Up (2006), Fred Claus (2007), and Four Christmases (2008). He continued his comedic roles in the 2010s with The Dilemma (2011), The Watch (2012), and The Internship (2013). In 2015, he starred as Frank Semyon in the second season of the HBO anthology crime drama television series True Detective alongside Colin Farrell, Taylor Kitsch and Rachel McAdams.

Climate data for Vaughan 1981–2010 (Woodbridge)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 17.0
Average high °C (°F) −2.5
Daily mean °C (°F) −6.6
Average low °C (°F) −10.7
Record low °C (°F) −34.5
Average precipitation mm (inches) 50.3
Average rainfall mm (inches) 20.4
Average snowfall cm (inches) 29.9
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm) 13.5 10.3 10.7 11.8 12.0 10.8 9.5 9.6 10.6 12.7 13.1 12.8 137.4
Average rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm) 4.2 4.4 6.4 10.7 12.0 10.8 9.5 9.6 10.6 12.6 11.1 6.5 108.3
Average snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm) 10.2 6.8 5.1 1.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.23 3.0 7.5 34.3
Source: Environment Canada[20]
Vaughan Professional Sports Teams
Sport Team League Years Stadium League


Soccer Toronto FC II USL 2015-2017 Ontario Soccer Centre 0
Vaughan Azzurri L1O 2014–present McNaughton Turf 1
Woodbridge Strikers L1O 2014–present Vaughan Grove 1 0
York Region Shooters CSL 1998–present St. Joan of Arc Turf Field 3
Hockey Vaughan Flames CWHL 1999-2010 Vaughan Sports Village 0
Places adjacent to Vaughan
Culture and services

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