Location of Vaucouleurs
|Intercommunality||Val des Couleurs|
|• Mayor (2001–2008)||Gilles Varnier|
|39 km2 (15 sq mi)|
|• Density||50/km2 (130/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+01:00 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+02:00 (CEST)|
|Elevation||242–372 m (794–1,220 ft)|
|1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.|
Airy-0 is a crater on Mars whose location defined the position of the prime meridian of that planet. It is about 0.5 kilometres (0.31 mi) across and lies within the larger crater Airy in the region Sinus Meridiani. The IAU Working Group on Cartographic Coordinates and Rotational Elements has now recommended setting the longitude of the Viking 1 lander (47°.95137 west) as the standard. This deﬁnition maintains the position of the center of Airy-0 at 0° longitude, within the tolerance of current cartographic uncertainties.Merton Davies tied this crater into an extensive geodetic control network of the planet Mars based on Mariner 9 and earlier photographs. The Mariner 9 Geodesy/Cartography Group proposed that the prime meridian of Mars be defined by the center of Airy-0, which was selected by Harold Masursky, Gerard de Vaucouleurs, and Merton Davies at a Group meeting on 14 August 1972.It was named in honor of the British Astronomer Royal Sir George Biddell Airy (1801-1892), who in 1850 built the transit circle telescope at Greenwich. The location of that telescope was subsequently chosen to define the location of Earth's prime meridian.Burey-en-Vaux
Burey-en-Vaux is a commune in the Meuse department in Grand Est in northeastern France.Dagonville
Dagonville is a commune in the Meuse department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.Davies (crater)
Davies is a crater on Mars located at 46°N 0°E on the fringe of Acidalia Planitia near Arabia Terra. It is approximately 48 km in diameter. The crater's name was formally approved by the IAU in 2006.It was named in honor of Merton Davies (1917-2001), a pioneer in the cartography of planetary bodies. An employee of the RAND Corporation, he assisted NASA in mapping Mars with colleagues Gérard de Vaucouleurs and Harold Masursky and defined the prime meridian of Mars as passing through the crater Airy-0. Davies Crater lies on the prime meridian, appropriate because Davies was responsible for its delineation.De Vaucouleurs' law
de Vaucouleurs' law, also known as the de Vaucouleurs profile or de Vaucouleurs model, describes how the surface brightness of an elliptical galaxy varies as a function of apparent distance from the center of the galaxy:
By defining Re as the radius of the isophote containing half of the total luminosity of the galaxy, the half-light radius, de Vaucouleurs' profile may be expressed as:
where Ie is the surface brightness at Re. This can be confirmed by noting
de Vaucouleurs' model is a special case of Sersic's model, with a Sersic index of n=4. A number of (internal) density profiles that approximately reproduce de Vaucouleurs' law after projection onto the plane of the sky include Jaffe's model and Dehnen's model.
The model is named after Gérard de Vaucouleurs who first formulated it in 1948. Although an empirical model rather than a law of physics, it was so entrenched in astronomy during the 20th century that it was referred to as a "law".Galaxy morphological classification
Galaxy morphological classification is a system used by astronomers to divide galaxies into groups based on their visual appearance. There are several schemes in use by which galaxies can be classified according to their morphologies, the most famous being the Hubble sequence, devised by Edwin Hubble and later expanded by Gérard de Vaucouleurs and Allan Sandage. However, galaxy classification and morphology are now largely done using computational methods and physical morphology.Gérard de Vaucouleurs
Gérard Henri de Vaucouleurs (25 April 1918 – 7 October 1995) was a French astronomer.Intermediate spiral galaxy
An intermediate spiral galaxy is a galaxy that is in between the classifications of a barred spiral galaxy and an unbarred spiral galaxy. It is designated as SAB in the galaxy morphological classification system devised by Gerard de Vaucouleurs. Subtypes are labeled as SAB0, SABa, SABb, or SABc, following a sequence analogous to the Hubble sequence for barred and unbarred spirals. The subtype (0, a, b, or c) is based on the relative prominence of the central bulge and how tightly wound the spiral arms are.Messier 77
Messier 77 or M77, also known as NGC 1068, is a barred spiral galaxy about 47 million light-years away in the constellation Cetus. Messier 77 was discovered by Pierre Méchain in 1780, who originally described it as a nebula. Méchain then communicated his discovery to Charles Messier, who subsequently listed the object in his catalog. Both Messier and William Herschel described this galaxy as a star cluster. Today, however, the object is known to be a galaxy.
The morphological classification of NGC 1068 in the De Vaucouleurs system is (R)SA(rs)b, where the '(R)' indicates an outer ring-like structure, 'SA' denotes a non-barred spiral, '(rs)' means a transitional inner ring/spiral structure, and 'b' says the spiral arms are moderately wound. Ann et al. (2015) gave it a class of SAa, suggesting a non-barred spiral galaxy with tightly wound arms. However, infrared images of the inner part of the galaxy reveal a prominent bar feature not seen in visual light, and for this reason it is now considered a barred spiral.Messier 77 is an active galaxy with an Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN), which is obscured from view by astronomical dust at visible wavelengths. The diameter of the molecular disk and hot plasma associated with the obscuring material was first measured at radio wavelengths by the VLBA and VLA. The hot dust around the nucleus was subsequently measured in the mid-infrared by the MIDI instrument at the VLTI. It is the brightest and one of the closest and best-studied type 2 Seyfert galaxies, forming a prototype of this class.X-ray source 1H 0244+001 in Cetus has been identified as Messier 77. Only one supernova has been detected in Messier 77. The supernova, named SN 2018 ivc, was discovered on 24 November 2018 by the DLT40 Survey. It is a type II supernova, and at discovery it was 15th magnitude and brightening.Montigny-lès-Vaucouleurs
Montigny-lès-Vaucouleurs is a commune in the Meuse department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.Méligny-le-Petit
Méligny-le-Petit is a commune in the Meuse department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.Neuville-lès-Vaucouleurs
Neuville-lès-Vaucouleurs is a commune in the Meuse department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.Ourches-sur-Meuse
Ourches-sur-Meuse is a commune in the Meuse department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.Pagny-la-Blanche-Côte
Pagny-la-Blanche-Côte is a commune in the Meuse department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.Troussey
Troussey is a commune in the Meuse department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.Unbarred spiral galaxy
An unbarred spiral galaxy is a type of spiral galaxy without a central bar, or one that is not a barred spiral galaxy. It is designated with an SA in the galaxy morphological classification scheme.
The Sombrero Galaxy is an unbarred spiral galaxy.
Barless spiral galaxies are one of three general types of spiral galaxies under the de Vaucouleurs system classification system, the other two being intermediate spiral galaxy and barred spiral galaxy. Under the Hubble tuning fork, it is one of two general types of spiral galaxy, the other being barred spirals.Void-Vacon
Void-Vacon is a commune in the Meuse department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.Willeroncourt
Willeroncourt is a commune in the Meuse department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.