Vasily Zhukovsky

Vasily Zhukovsky was the foremost Russian poet of the 1810s and a leading figure in Russian literature in the first half of the 19th century. He held a high position at the Romanov court as tutor to the Grand Duchess Alexandra Feodorovna and later to her son, the future Tsar-Liberator Alexander II.

Zhukovsky is credited with introducing the Romantic Movement into Russia. The main body of his literary output consists of free translations covering an impressively wide range of poets, from ancients like Ferdowsi and Homer to his contemporaries Goethe, Schiller, Byron, and others. Many of his translations have become classics of Russian literature, better written and more enduring in Russian than in their original languages.[1][2]

Vasily Andreyevich Zhukovsky
Zhukovsky 1815
BornFebruary 9, 1783
village of Mishenskoe
DiedApril 24, 1852 (aged 69)
OccupationPoet

Life

Zhukovsky was born in the village of Mishenskoe, in Tula Governorate, Russian Empire, the illegitimate son of a landowner named Afanasi Bunin and his Turkish housekeeper Salkha. The Bunin family had a literary bent and some 90 years later produced the Nobel Prize-winning modernist writer Ivan Bunin. Although raised in the Bunin family circle, the infant poet was formally adopted by a family friend for reasons of social propriety and kept his adopted surname and patronymic for the rest of his life. At the age of fourteen, he was sent to Moscow to be educated at the Moscow University Noblemen's Pension. There he was heavily influenced by Freemasonry, as well as by the fashionable literary trends of English Sentimentalism and German Sturm und Drang. He also met Nikolay Karamzin, the preeminent Russian man of letters and the founding editor of the most important literary journal of the day, The Herald of Europe (Вестник Европы).

In December 1802, the 19-year-old Zhukovsky published a free translation of Thomas Gray's "Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard" in Karamzin's journal. The translation was the first sustained example of his trademark sentimental-melancholy style, which at the time was strikingly original in Russian. It made him so well known among Russian readers that in 1808 Karamzin asked him to take over the editorship of The Herald of Europe. The young poet used this position to explore Romantic themes, motifs, and genres—largely by way of translation.

Zhukovsky was among the first Russian writers to cultivate the mystique of the Romantic poet. Much of his original work was inspired by his half-niece Maria "Masha" Protasova, the daughter of one of his several half-sisters, with whom he had a passionate but ultimately Platonic affair. He also came under the influence of Romanticism in the medieval Hansa cities of Dorpat and Revel, now called Tartu and Tallinn, which had recently been brought into the Russian Empire. The university at Dorpat (now Tartu University) had been reopened as the only German-speaking university in Imperial Russia.

Zhukovsky's rise at court began with Napoleon's invasion of 1812 and with the consequent revilement of French as the favored foreign language of the Russian aristocracy. Like thousands of others, Zhukovsky volunteered for the defense of Moscow and was present at the Battle of Borodino. There he joined the Russian general staff under Field Marshal Kutuzov, who drafted him to work on propaganda and morale. After the war, he settled down temporarily in the village of Dolbino, near Moscow, where in 1815 he experienced a burst of poetic creativity known as the Dolbino Autumn. His work in this period attracted the attention of Grand Duchess Alexandra Feodorovna, the German-born wife of Grand Duke Nicholas, the future Tsar Nicholas I. Alexandra invited Zhukovsky to St. Petersburg to be her personal Russian tutor. Many of Zhukovsky's best translations from German, including almost all of his translations of Goethe, were made as practical language exercises for Alexandra.

Zhukovsky's pedagogical career removed him in some respects from the forefront of Russian literary life, while at the same time positioning him to become one of the most powerful intellectuals in Russia. Among his first acts on moving to St. Petersburg was to establish the jocular Arzamas literary society in order to promote Karamzin's European-oriented, anti-classicist aesthetics. Members of the Arzamas included the teenage Alexander Pushkin, who rapidly emerged as his poetic heir apparent. Indeed, by the early 1820s, Pushkin had upstaged Zhukovsky in terms of the originality and brilliance of his work—even in Zhukovsky's own estimation. Yet the two remained lifelong friends, with the older poet acting as a literary mentor and protector at court.

Much of Zhukovsky's subsequent influence can be attributed to this gift for friendship. His good personal relations with Nicholas spared him the fate of other liberal-intellectuals following the ill-starred 1825 Decembrist Revolt. Shortly after Nicholas ascended the throne, he appointed Zhukovsky tutor to the tsarevich Alexander, later to become the Tsar-Liberator Alexander II. Zhukovsky's progressive educational methods influenced the young Alexander so deeply that many historians attribute the liberal reforms of the 1860s at least partially to them. The poet also used his high station at court to take up the cudgels for such free-thinking writers as Mikhail Lermontov, Alexander Herzen, and Taras Shevchenko (Zhukovsky was instrumental in buying him out of serfdom), as well as many of the persecuted Decembrists. On Pushkin's early death in 1837, Zhukovsky stepped in as his literary executor, not only rescuing his work from a hostile censorship (including several unpublished masterpieces), but also diligently collecting and preparing it for publication. Throughout the 1830s and 1840s, Zhukovsky also promoted the career of Nikolay Gogol, another close personal friend. In this way, he acted as an impresario for the developing Russian Romantic Movement.

Baden-Baden 10-2015 img28 Zhukovsky bust
Bust of Zhukovsky in Baden-Baden

Like his mentor Karamzin, Zhukovsky travelled widely in Europe, above all in the German-speaking world, where his connections with the Prussian court in Berlin gave him access to high society in spa-towns like Baden-Baden and Bad Ems. He also met and corresponded with world-class cultural figures like Goethe, the poet Ludwig Tieck, and the landscape painter Caspar David Friedrich. In 1841, Zhukovsky retired from court and settled near Düsseldorf, where he married Elisabeth von Reutern, the 18-year-old daughter of Gerhardt Wilhelm von Reutern, an artist friend. The couple had two children, a girl named Alexandra and a boy named Pavel. Alexandra later had a much talked-about affair with Grand Duke Alexei Alexandrovich.

Zhukovsky died in Baden-Baden in 1852, aged 69. His body was returned to St. Petersburg and buried in the Alexander Nevsky Lavra. His crypt can be found directly behind the monument to Dostoevsky.

Works

In the opinion of Vladimir Nabokov, Zhukovsky belonged to the class of poets who verge on greatness but never quite attain to that glory. His main contribution was as a stylistic and formal innovator who borrowed freely from European literature in order to provide high-quality models for "original" works in Russian. His translation of Gray's "Elegy" is still cited by scholars as the conventional starting-point for the Russian Romantic Movement. He also wrote some prose, the best known example of which is the 1809 short story "Marina roshcha" ("Mary's grove"), about the ancient past of Moscow; it was inspired by Nikolay Karamzin's famous story "Bednaya Liza" ("Poor Liza", 1792).[3]

Zhukovsky translated from a staggeringly wide range of sources, often without attribution, given that modern ideas of intellectual property did not exist in his day. In his choice of original, however, he was consistently motivated by formal principles, above all generic. Following his initial success with the "Elegy", he was especially admired for his first-rate melodious translations of German and English ballads. Among these, the ballad "Ludmila" (1808) and its companion piece "Svetlana" (1813) are considered landmarks in the Russian poetic tradition. Both are free translations of Gottfried August Burger's well-known German ballad "Lenore", although each renders the original in a completely different way. Characteristically, Zhukovsky later translated "Lenore" yet a third time as part of his lifelong effort to develop a natural-sounding Russian dactylic hexameter. His many translations of Schiller—including both Classical and Romantic ballads, lyrics, and the verse drama Jungfrau von Orléans (about Joan of Arc)—became classic works in Russian that many consider to be of equal if not higher quality than their originals. They were remarkable for their psychological depth, strongly influencing the younger generation of Russian realists, among them Dostoevsky, who famously called them "nash Schiller" ("our Schiller").

Zhukovsky also wrote original verse. His love lyrics to Masha Protasova, such as "Moi drug, khranitel'-angel moi" ("My friend, my guardian angel ..."), are minor classics of the genre. Probably his best-known original poem is the patriotic ode "A Bard in the Camp of the Russian Warriors", which he wrote to boost the morale of Russian troops during his service on Kutuzov's general staff. He also composed the lyrics for the national anthem of Imperial Russia, "God Save the Tsar!"

In the late 1830s, after a period of partial withdrawal from the literary scene, Zhukovsky staged a comeback with a highly original verse translation of his German friend Friedrich de la Motte Fouqué's prose novella Undine. Written in a waltzing hexameter, Zhukovsky's version later inspired the libretto for an opera by Tchaikovsky.

On retiring from court, Zhukovsky devoted his remaining years to hexameter translations of Eastern poetry, including long excerpts from the Persian epic Shahnameh. His greatest achievement in this period, however, was his translation of Homer's Odyssey, which he finally published in 1849. Although the translation has been strongly criticized for its distortions of the original, it became a classic in its own right and occupies a notable place in the history of Russian poetry. Some scholars argue that both his Undina and his Odyssey—as long narrative works in verse—made a significant, albeit oblique contribution to the development of the 19th-century Russian novel.

All in all, Zhukovsky's work probably constitutes the most important body of literary hermeneutics in the modern Russian language. He is often considered the founder of a "German school" of Russian poets and as such has influenced figures as far afield as Fyodor Tyutchev and Marina Tsvetaeva.

Notes

  1. ^ "Vasily Zhukovsky". sputniknews.com. Retrieved 2016-08-12.
  2. ^ "Vasily Andreevich Zhukovsky". max.mmlc.northwestern.edu. Retrieved 2016-08-12.
  3. ^ John Garrard and Carol Garrard, Russian Orthodoxy Resurgent: Faith and Power in the New Russia (Princeton University Press, 2009; ISBN 0691125732), p. 269, n. 8.

Sources

  • Nabokov, Vladimir (1981). Lectures in Russian Literature. New York: Harcourt.
  • Pein, Annette (1991). Schiller and Zhukovsky: Aesthetic Theory in Poetic Translation. Mainz: Liber.
  • Rueckert, George (2003). Zhukovsky and the Germans: A Study in Romantic Hermeneutics. Seattle: Univ. of WA Doctoral Dissertation.
  • Semenko, I.M. (1975). Zhizn' i poeziia Zhukovskogo. Moscow: Khudozhestvennaia literatura.
  • Semenko, I.M. (1976). Vasily Zhukovsky. Boston: Twayne Publishers.
  • Veselovsky, A.N. (1999). V.A. Zhukovskii: Poeziia chuvstva i "serdechnogo voobrazheniia". Moscow: Intrada.
  • Yanushkevich, A.S. (1985). Etapy i problemy tvorcheskoi evolutsii V.A. Zhukovskogo. Tomsk: Izd. Tomskogo Universiteta.
  • Yesuitova, R.V. (1989). Zhukovskii i ego vremia. Leningrad: Nauka.

External links

A Life for the Tsar

A Life for the Tsar (Russian: "Жизнь за царя", Zhizn' za tsarya),

is a "patriotic-heroic tragic opera" in four acts with an epilogue by Mikhail Glinka.

During the Soviet era the opera was known under the name Ivan Susanin (Russian: "Иван Сусанин").

The original Russian libretto, based on historical events, was written by Nestor Kukolnik, Egor Fyodorovich (von) Rozen, Vladimir Sollogub and Vasily Zhukovsky. It premiered on 27 November 1836 OS (9 December NS) at the Bolshoi Kamenny Theatre in St. Petersburg. The historical basis of the plot involves Ivan Susanin, a patriotic hero of the early 17th century who gave his life in the expulsion of the invading Polish army for the newly elected Tsar Mikhail, the first of the Romanov dynasty, elected in 1613.

Alexander Garden (Saint Petersburg)

This park should not be confused with Alexander Park in St. Petersburg and Alexander Garden in Moscow.

The Alexander Garden (Александровский сад) lies along the south and west façades of the Russian Admiralty in St. Petersburg, parallel to the Neva River and Admiralty Quay, extending from Palace Square in the east to St. Isaac's Cathedral in the west. The English park is named after Alexander II of Russia who ordered some 52 species of trees to be planted there. It was formerly known as the Admiralty Boulevard, the Admiralty Meadow, and the Labourers Garden.

The garden was designed by Luigi Rusca in 1805. William Gould, an English-born gardener, was hired to raze the southern ramparts of the Admiralty Fortress, replacing them with four lime-tree alleys. The moat of the fortress was filled in 1819, making room for additional lanes. The garden was a traditional place for Easter and Maslenitsa revels. Three lanes leading from the Admiralty tower to Nevsky Avenue, Voznesensky Avenue and Gorokhovaya Street were designed by Ivan Fomin in 1923. This arrangement made the Admiralty Tower the focal point of the entire downtown.

By contrast with the Summer Garden, the Alexander Garden originally had no statuary. It was not until 1833 that Paolo Triscorni's marble copies of the Farnese Hercules and Farnese Flora appeared. A fountain was installed in front of the Admiralty tower in 1879. The Nikolai Przhevalsky monument and four busts (Mikhail Glinka, by Vladimir Pashchenko, and three by Vasily Kreitan; namely Nikolai Gogol, Mikhail Lermontov and Vasily Zhukovsky) date from the 1890s. Chancellor Gorchakov's statue was added in 1998.

Alexander I Palace

Alexander I Palace in Taganrog is a one-story stone building in Russian classicism style on Grecheskaya Street, 40 where Russian emperor Alexander I of Russia died in 1825.

The mansion was built in 1806 and belonged to different owners. The most significant of them was the Governor of Taganrog Pyotr Papkov. Emperor Alexander I of Russia stayed there twice – in 1818 and 1825. After his death the building was bought by his widow empress consort Elizabeth Alexeievna (Louise of Baden) and the first memorial museum in Russia dedicated to the Emperor was established there. Among the visitors to the palace of Alexander I were the Russian emperors Alexander II of Russia and Alexander III, poets Alexander Pushkin and Vasily Zhukovsky, artist Ivan Aivazovsky, People’s commissar of enlightenment Anatoly Lunacharsky, and many others.

For 12 years beginning in 1864 an amateur choir conducted by Pavel Chekhov (Anton Chekhov's father) sang in the Church of Exaltation of the Cross, which was established within the mansion to honor the emperor. At the end of 1860s – beginning of 1870s Alexander, Nicolas and Anton Chekhov sang there in choral parts of descant and alto. In 1928 the memorial museum was closed and some of the exhibits were moved into the Alferaki Palace.

The building of the Palace of Alexander I houses a children’s sanatorium called “Beryozka”.

Alexander Shakhovskoy

Prince Alexander Alexandrovich Shakhovskoy (Russian: Александр Александрович Шаховской, 5 May 1777, Smolensk Governorate, Russian Empire, – 3 February 1846, Moscow, Russian Empire) was a Russian playwright, writer, poet, librettist, pedagogue, critic, memoirist and administrator (the head, in 1802–1826, of the Imperial Theatres); arguably the most influential figure in the Russian theatre in the early 19th century.Shakhovskoy, who debuted in 1795 with the comedy Zhenskaya shutka (Ladies' Joke) and enjoyed his first success with Novy Stern (The New Stern, 1805), wrote more than a hundred comedies and vaudevilles, as well as opera librettos and divertissements. Aristophanes (Аристофан, 1825) is considered to be his most accomplished work. Shakhovskoy's way of lampooning in his plays revered figures, like Nikolai Karamzin and Vasily Zhukovsky (whom he became great friends with in the 1820s), was commented upon by one of his admirers, Alexander Pushkin in Evgeny Onegin ("...And there caustic Shakhovskoy / Let out his comedies' noisy swarm").Prince Shakhovskoy tutored (and was instrumental in their respective career development of) several leading Russian actors and actresses, including Vasily Karatygin, Alexandra Kolosova, Ekaterina Semyonova, Ivan Sosnitsky, Yakov Bryansky, Maria Varberkhova and Nikolai Dyur, among others.

Alexandra Smirnova

Alexandra Osipovna Smirnova (Russian: Александра Осиповна Смирнова, née Rosset, known also as Smirnova-Rosset, Смирнова-Россет; March 6, 1809 in Odessa, Russian Empire – June 7, 1882 in Paris, France) was a Russian Imperial court lady-in-waiting who served first widow Empress Maria Fyodorovna, then, after her death in 1828, Empress Alexandra Fyodorovna. Alexandra Rosset (who in 1832 married Russian diplomat Nikolai Smirnov), was an elitist Saint Petersburg salon hostess and a friend of Alexander Pushkin, Vasily Zhukovsky, Pyotr Vyazemsky, Nikolai Gogol and Mikhail Lermontov. She is best remembered for her memoirs, unusually frank, occasionally caustic, and, as it was argued decades later, not necessarily accurate.

Amphion (magazine)

Amphion (Russian: Амфион, pre-1917: Амфiонъ) was a Russian monthly literary magazine published in Moscow in 1815. Prose was but a small part of its genda; what prevailed there were odes, fables in verse, elegies and translations of classics like Horace, Titus Livius and Lucian. It was the first Russian magazine where serious critical analysis of poetry, prose, drama and theatre productions started to feature on regular basis.

The central figure in Amphion was its editor-in-chief and co-publisher (alongside with S.Smirnov and Fyodor Ivanov), the poet and literary critic Alexey Merzlyakov (who also went down in history as the young Mikhail Lermontov's personal tutor). His in-depth analysis of Kheraskov's Rossiyada (serialized in Nos. 1—3, 5—6, 8—9), which is considered to be the first work of literary criticism in Russia, had a strong formative influence on Russian literary scene of the time.The magazine proved to be short-lived, only 12 issues of it came out, but among the authors whose work appeared there for the first time were Vasily Zhukovsky, Konstantin Batyushkov, Pyotr Vyazemsky, Fyodor Kokoshkin, Denis Davydov and Wilhelm Küchelbecker.

Antonina Bludova

Countess Antonina Dmitrievna Bludova (Антонина Дмитриевна Блудова; 25 April 1813 – 9 April 1891) was a Russian philanthropist, salonist, memoirist and lady-in-waiting.

Antonina Bludova was the eldest child of Count Dmitry Bludov, one of Nicholas I's trusted ministers and advisors. She was born in Stockholm, where her father was on the Russian embassy staff. From an early age, she met Alexander Pushkin, Vasily Zhukovsky, Nikolai Gogol, Mikhail Lermontov, Aleksey Khomyakov and other luminaries of the literary world. Her salon was one of the most fashionable in Saint Petersburg, serving as a vital link between the imperial court and the Slavophile (or Pan-Slavist) circles. She was made a senior lady-in-waiting in 1863.After her father's death in 1864, this influential spinster decided to leave the capital in order to devote herself to Christian causes. She founded an Orthodox bratstvo in Ostrog which included an elementary school, a school for girls, a public library, a hospital, a drug store and a home for pilgrims travelling to the Pochayev Monastery. She died in Moscow at the age of 77 and was buried in the Novodevichy Convent. Her memoirs were published in 1889.

Barbara the Fair with the Silken Hair

Barbara the Fair with the Silken Hair (Russian: Варвара-краса, длинная коса, romanized: Varvara-krasa, dlinnaya kosa) is a 1969 Soviet fantasy film directed by Alexander Rowe and based on the fairy tale The Tale of Tsar Berendey by Vasily Zhukovsky.The film premiered December 30, 1970.

Dmitry Bludov

Count Dmitry Nikolayevich Bludov (1785–1864) was a Russian imperial official who filled a variety of posts under Nicholas I - Deputy Education Minister (1826–28), Minister of Justice (1830–31, 1838–39), Minister of the Interior (1832–38), Chief of the Second Section (1839–62). Alexander II appointed him President of the Academy of Sciences (1855) and Chairman of the State Council (1862).

Despite his distinguished official career, Bludov is also notable for his literary background. He was related by blood to Gavrila Derzhavin and Vladislav Ozerov. He was also a founding member of the Arzamas Society, with Cassandra as his alias. Bludov's personal friends included Nikolay Karamzin and Vasily Zhukovsky. It was Bludov who edited and published their posthumous works. Antonina Bludova, a writer and salon-holder, was his daughter.

Bludov headed the Russian embassy in London in 1817–20. Although on friendly terms with many of the Decembrists, Bludov presided over the court that condemned them to death. During Nicholas I's reign he was considered one of the more liberal officials. He was in charge of reorganizing the courts and drafting a new criminal code (adopted in 1845). Bludov's extensive diaries have never been published.Leo Tolstoy described Bludov's house on Nevsky Avenue as the place "where writers, and in general, the best people of the time would gather. I remember that I read Two Hussars there for the first time. Bludov was a man who was at one time close to the Decembrists and sympathetic in spirit to the whole progressive movement. All the same he continued in government service under Nicholas".In 1830, Carl Friedrich von Ledebour in 'Icones Plantarum' (Icon. Pl.) Vol.2 page5 named an iris with specific name of Iris bloudowii after Dmitry.

God Save the Tsar!

"God Save the Tsar!" (Russian: Боже, Царя храни!, romanized: Bozhe, Tsarya khrani!) was the national anthem of the Russian Empire. The song was chosen from a competition held in 1833 and was first performed on 18 December 1833. The composer was violinist Alexei Lvov, and the lyrics were by the court poet Vasily Zhukovsky. It was the anthem until the Russian Revolution of 1917, after which "Worker's Marseillaise" was adopted as the new national anthem until the overthrow of the Russian Provisional Government.

Golden Age of Russian Poetry

Golden Age of Russian Poetry is the name traditionally applied by philologists to the first half of the 19th century. It is also called the Age of Pushkin, after its most significant poet (in Nabokov's words, the greatest poet this world was blessed with since the time of Shakespeare). Mikhail Lermontov and Fyodor Tyutchev are generally regarded as two most important Romantic poets after Pushkin. Vasily Zhukovsky and Konstantin Batyushkov are the best regarded of his precursors. Pushkin himself, however, considered Evgeny Baratynsky to be the finest poet of his day.

Ivan Soshenko

Ivan Maksymovych Soshenko (Ukrainian: Іван Максимович Сошенко, 2 June 1807 Bohuslav, in the Kiev Governorate of the Russian Empire — 18 July 1876 Korsun) was a Ukrainian painter.

Soshenko studied at the Saint Petersburg Academy of Arts from 1834–8, then taught painting in gymnasiums in Nizhyn from 1839–46, Nemyriv from 1846–56, and Kiev. His work included portraits, genre scenes, landscapes, and religious icons.In 1835 he met and befriended Taras Shevchenko. Along with teaching him the use of watercolors, Soshenko also introduced him to authors and painters Yevhen Hrebinka, Vasily Zhukovsky, Karl Briullov, and Alexey Venetsianov, and helped in the purchase Shevchenko's freedom from serfdom. Later, he helped Shevchenko to be admitted to the St Petersburg Academy of Arts.

Mykhailo Chaly published a biography of Soshenko in Kiev in 1876.

List of compositions by Mikhail Glinka

Below is a sortable list of compositions by Mikhail Glinka. The works are categorized by genre, date of composition and titles.

Pohádka

Pohádka (traditionally translated as Fairy Tale, or more literally from the Czech: A Tale) is a chamber composition for cello and piano by Czech composer Leoš Janáček.

Pohádka is based on an epic poem by the Russian author Vasily Zhukovsky entitled The Tale of Tsar Berendyey (Russian: Сказка о царе Берендее), which unsurprisingly piqued Janáček's interest in Russian culture. The composition presents scenes from the story rather than being a complete description of the tale.

It was composed at a difficult time for Janáček, following the death of his daughter Olga and when he was still seeking musical recognition. Much of the music is in keys or modes with six flats, which gives the music a somewhat veiled quality similar to Janáček's piano work In the Mists. Several different versions of the piece existed during his lifetime, although only the last is usually performed today. It is his only published composition for this combination of instruments.

Pyotr Yefremov

Pyotr Alexandrovich Yefremov (Russian: Пётр Александрович Ефремов, born November 17 (O.S., 2), 1830, Moscow, Russian Empire, - died January 8, 1908 [O.S. December 26, 1907], Saint Petersburg, Russian Empire) was a Russian literary historian, publisher, editor and essayist whose works were published regularly by Sovremennik (where he debuted in 1857), Otechestvennye Zapiski, Russky Arkhiv, Russkaya Starina, Istorichesky Vestnik, newspapers Golos, Novoye Vremya, Russkiye Vedomosti. In 1864-1865 he edited the Knizhny Vestnik (The Books Herald) magazine. Praised as one of the most competent literary scholars of the 19th century, Pyotr Yefremov compiled, edited and published the series of The Works of: Denis Fonvizin (1866), Valerian Maykov (1867), Antiochus Kantemir (1867-1868), Vladimir Lukin (1868), Bogdan Yelchaninov (1868), Alexander Radishchev (1872, Saint Petersburg; banned at the time), Kondraty Ryleyev (1872, 1874), Mikhail Lermontov (1873, 1880, 1887, 1889, also the Early Dramas compilation, 1880), Vasily Zhukovsky (1878, 1885), Alexander Pushkin (1880, 1882, 1905, plus two Yevgeny Onegin editions, 1874, 1882), Alexander Polezhayev (1889). He is credited with having discovered, published and written analytical essays on numerous hitherto unknown autographs by classics like Pushkin, Ryleyev, Lermontov, Radishchev, Fonvizin, Zhukovsky.

Svetlana

Svetlana (Russian, Bulgarian, Serbian Cyrillic: Светлана; Belarusian: Святла́на; Ukrainian: Світла́на) is a common Orthodox Slavic female name, deriving from the East and South Slavic root свет svet, which translates into English as "light", "shining", "luminescent", "pure", "blessed", or "holy", depending upon context similar if not the same as the word Shwet in Sanskrit. The name was coined by Alexander Vostokov and popularized by Vasily Zhukovsky in his eponymous ballad "Svetlana", first published in 1813. The name is also used in Ukraine, Belarus, Slovakia, and Serbia, with a number of occurrences in non-Slavic countries.In the Russian Orthodox Church Svetlana is used as a Russian translation of Photina (derived from φως (phos), meaning "light" in Greek), a name sometimes ascribed to the Samaritan woman at Jacob's well (the Bible, John 4).

Semantically, similar names to this are Lucia (of Latin origin, meaning "light"), Claire ("light" or "clear" in French, equivalent to Spanish Clara), Roxana (from Old Persian, "little shiny star, light"), and Shweta (Sanskrit, "white, pure").

The Prayer of Russians

"The Prayer of Russians" (Russian: Молитва русских, tr. Molitva russkih, IPA: [mɐˈlʲitvə ˈruskʲɪx]) was a song used as the national anthem of Imperial Russia from 1816 to 1833.

After defeating the First French Empire, Tsar Alexander I of Russia recommended a national anthem for Russia. The lyrics were written by Vasily Zhukovsky, and the music of the British anthem "God Save the Queen" was used.

In 1833, "The Prayer of Russians" was replaced with "God Save the Tsar" (Bozhe, tsarya khrani). The two songs both start with the same words Bozhe, tsarya khrani but differ after that.

Some consider God Save the Tsar Russia's first true national anthem, as both its words and music were Russian. Others say the title belongs to Grom pobedy, razdavaysya!, another popular song of the time, although it never had official status.

The Tale of the Priest and of His Workman Balda

"The Tale of the Priest and of his Workman Balda" (Russian: «Сказка о попе и о работнике его Балде», romanized: Skazka o pope i o rabotnike yevo Balde) is a fairy tale in verse by Alexander Pushkin. Pushkin wrote the tale on September 13, 1830 while staying at Boldino. It is based on a Russian folk tale which Pushkin collected in Mikhaylovskoye early on. The Tale of the Priest and of his Workman Balda consists of 189 extremely varied lines that range from three to fourteen syllables but made to rhyme in couplets.

In the summer of 1831, Pushkin read the tale to Nikolai Gogol who liked it a great deal. The Tale was first published posthumously by Vasily Zhukovsky in 1840 with considerable alterations due to censorship; the Priest character was replaced by a merchant.

Zhukovsky (surname)

Zhukovsky, Zhukovski or Zhukowski (Russian: Жуковский}}, Ukrainian: Жуковський, Belarusian: Жукоўскі, Polish: Żukowski) is a Slavic masculine surname. Its feminine counterpart is Zhukovskaya (Russian or Ukrainian) or Żukowska (Polish). It originates from the noun zhuk, which means beetle and is used as slang for a person with dark hair. Notable people with the surname include:

Alexandra Zhukovskaya (1842–1899), Russian noble and lady in waiting

Aleksey Belevsky-Zhukovsky (1871–1931), Russian nobleman

Christine Zukowski (born 1989), American retired competitive figure skater

Denis Zhukovskiy (born 1980), Russian football player

Feliks Żukowski (1904–1976), Polish actor and theatre director

Nikolay Zhukovsky (revolutionary) (1833–1895), Russian revolutionary

Nikolay Zhukovsky (scientist) (1847–1921), Russian scientist

Robert K. Zukowski (1925–2015), American politician, member of the Wisconsin State Assembly

Stanislav Zhukovsky (1875–1944), Polish-Russian impressionist painter

Valentin Zhukovski (1858–1918), Russian orientalist

Valery Zhukowski (born 1984), Belarusian footballer

Vasily Zhukovsky (1783–1852), Russian poet

Vitaly Zhukovsky (born 1984), Belarusian football coach and a former player

Wojciech Żukowski (born 1964), Polish politician, ex-Voivode of Lublin, member of Sejm

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