Vasily Andreevich Tropinin (Russian: Васи́лий Андре́евич Тропи́нин; March 30 [O.S. March 19] 1776 – May 16 [O.S. May 4] 1857) was a Russian Romantic painter. Much of his life was spent as a serf; he didn't attain his freedom until he was more than forty years old. Three of his more important works are a portrait of Alexander Pushkin and paintings called The Lace Maker and The Gold-Embroideress.
Vasily Andreevich Tropinin
March 30, 1776
|Died||May 16, 1857 (aged 81)|
Moscow, Russian Empire
|Resting place||Vagankovo Cemetery, Moscow|
|Education||Member Academy of Arts (1824)|
|Alma mater||Imperial Academy of Arts (1804)|
|Known for||Painting, Drawing|
Vasily was born as a serf of Count Munnich in the village Korpovo of Novgorod guberniya and then transferred to Count Morkovs as a part of the Munich's daughter's dowry. Soon he was sent to Saint Petersburg to study the trade of a confectioner. Instead of learning his trade Tropinin secretly attended free drawing lessons in the Imperial Academy of Arts.
In 1799, his owner allowed Tropinin's to study at the Academy as a non-degree student (Postoronny uchenik). He took lessons from S. S. Schukin and was supported by the President of the Academy Alexander Sergeyevich Stroganov. In 1804 Tropinin's work Boy Grieving for a Dead Bird was exhibited in the Academy's exhibition and was noted by the Russian Empress at the time (most probably the Dowager Empress Maria Feodorovna).
At the dawn of his success, Count Morkov recalled Tropinin from St. Petersburg to his Ukrainian estate Kukavka. Tropinin was appointed a confectioner and a lackey. Soon the owner changed his mind and assigned Tropinin to copy the works of European and Russian painters and produce portraits of the Morkovs. Tropinin also painted the local church. Tropinin spent around twenty years of his life in Ukraine, and many of his works from that time were of Ukrainian people and the Ukrainian country side.
Still Tropinin continued to work and study. As a well-established portraitist, he wrote:
The most notable works of that period are Portrait of A. I. Tropinina, the Artist's Wife (1809), Portrait of Arseny Tropinin, son of the artist (c. 1818), Portrait of the Writer and Historian N. M. Karamzin (1818).
In 1823 at the age of 47 Tropinin at last became a free man and moved to Moscow. The same year he presented his paintings The Lace Maker, The Beggar and The Portrait of artist Skotnikov to the Imperial Academy of Arts and received the official certificate of a painter (Svobodnyj Khudozhnik). In 1824 he was elected an Academician.
Since 1833 he mastered the Moscow Public Art Classes that later became the famous Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture. In 1843 he was elected an honorary member of the Moscow Art Society. He died in 1857 and was interred in Vagankovo Cemetery. During his life Tropinin painted more than 3,000 portraits.
In 1969 the Tropinin Museum was opened in Moscow.
Events from the year 1857 in art.Coachman
A coachman is a man whose business it is to drive a coach, a horse-drawn vehicle designed for the conveyance of more than one passenger — and of mail — and covered for protection from the elements. He has also been called a coachee, coachy or whip.Ivan Dmitriev
Ivan Ivanovich Dmitriev (Russian: Ива́н Ива́нович Дми́триев, IPA: [ɪˈvan ɪˈvanəvʲɪtɕ ˈdʲmʲitrʲɪjɪf] (listen); 21 September [O.S. 10 September] 1760 – 15 October [O.S. 3 October] 1837) was a Russian statesman and poet associated with the sentimentalist movement in Russian literature.
Dmitriev was born at his father's estate in the government of Simbirsk. In consequence of the revolt of Yemelyan Pugachev, the family had to flee to Saint Petersburg, and there Ivan was entered at the school of the Semenov Guards, and afterwards obtained a post in the military service. On the accession of Paul I to the imperial throne, he quit the army with the title of colonel; and his appointment as procurator for the senate was soon after renounced for the position of privy councillor.
During the four years from 1810 to 1814 he served as minister of justice under the Emperor Alexander I; but at the close of this period he retired into private life, and though he lived more than twenty years, he never again took office, but occupied himself with his literary labors and the collection of books and works of art.
In the matter of language he sided with Karamsin, and did good service by his own pen against the Old Slavonic party. His poems include songs, odes, satires, tales, epistles, and others, as well as the fables—partly original and partly translated from La Fontaine, Florian and Arnault—on which his fame chiefly rests. Several of his lyrics have become thoroughly popular from the readiness with which they can be sung; and a short dramatico-epic poem on Yermak, the Cossack conqueror of Siberia, is well known.
His writings occupy three volumes in the first five editions; in the 6th (Saint Petersburg, 1823) there are only two. His memoirs, to which he devoted the last years of his life, were published at Moscow in 1866.Ivan Vitali
Ivan Petrovich Vitali (Иван Петрович Витали; 1794–1855) was a Russian sculptor of Italian descent. Born in Saint Petersburg, he was apprenticed to his father, Pietro Vitali, from an early age. After attending the Imperial Academy of Arts he moved to Moscow in 1818. His major works include a six-horse chariot for Bove's Triumphal Arch, a fountain in front of the Bolshoi Theatre, the bas-reliefs above the doors of St. Isaac's Cathedral, and an outdoor bronze statue of Emperor Paul in Gatchina.Konstantin Makovsky
Konstantin Yegorovich Makovsky (Russian: Константин Егорович Маковский; June 20 [O.S. July 2] 1839 —September 17 [O.S. September 30] 1915) was an influential Russian painter, affiliated with the "Peredvizhniki (Wanderers)". Many of his historical paintings, such as Beneath the Crown (1889) also known as The Russian Bride's Attire and Before the Wedding, showed an idealized view of Russian life of prior centuries. He is often considered a representative of Academic art.List of 19th-century Russian painters
This is a list of 19th-century Russian painters.
Abram Arkhipov, 1862–1930
Ivan Aivazovsky, 1817–1900
Nikolai Bogdanov-Belsky, 1868–1945
Alexander Golovin 1863–1930
Pavel Fedotov, 1815–1852
Nikolai Ge, 1831–1894
Alexander Ivanov 1806–1858
Vasily Kamensky 1866–1944
Nikolai Kasatkin 1859–1930
Orest Kiprensky 1782–1836
Konstantin Korovin 1861–1939
Alexei Korzukhin 1835–1894
Nikolay Koshelev 1840–1918
Evgraf Fedorovich Krendovsky, 1810–1870
Eugene Lanceray 1875–1946
Klavdiy Lebedev 1852–1916
Mikhail Lebedev 1811–1837
Anton Legashov 1798–1865
Dmitry Levitsky 1735–1822
Konstantin Makovsky 1839–1915
Nikolay Makovsky 1841–1886
Vladimir Makovsky 1846–1920
Vassily Maximov 1844–1911
Grigoriy Myasoyedov 1834–1911
Mikhail Nesterov 1862–1942
Nikolai Nevrev 1830–1904
Ilya Ostroukhov 1858–1929
Vasily Perov 1834–1882
Vasily Polenov 1844–1927
Yelena Polenova 1850–1898
Illarion Pryanishnikov 1840–1894
Vasili Pukirev 1832–1890
Ilya Repin 1844–1930
Fyodor Rokotov 1736–1808
Andrei Ryabushkin 1861–1904
Konstantin Savitsky 1844–1905
Alexei Savrasov 1830–1897
Valentin Serov 1865–1911
Silvestr Schchedrin 1791–1830
Semion Shchedrin 1745–1804
Ivan Tarkhanov 1780–1848
Fyodor Tolstoy 1783–1873
Vasily Tropinin 1776–1856
Fyodor Vasilyev 1850–1873
Apollinary Vasnetsov 1856–1933
Viktor Vasnetsov 1848–1926
Vasily Vereshchagin 1842–1904
Konstantin Yuon 1875–1958Nikolai Utkin
Nikolai Ivanovich Utkin (Russian: Николай Иванович Уткин; (19 May 1780, Tver — 17 March 1863, Saint Petersburg) was a Russian graphic artist, engraver and illustrator. He also served as curator of prints at the Hermitage and superintendent of the museum at the Imperial Academy of Arts.Ochipok
The Ochipok (Ukrainian: Очіпок, also намітка, namitka; перемітка, peremitka; серпанок, serpanok; рантух, rantukh; склендячка, sklendyachka; хустка, khustka) is a married woman's headdress as part of traditional Ukrainian folk dress, often decorated with Ukrainian embroidery.
An ochipok is a cap that covers the entire head with a slit in the back and laces that pull it tightly around the head.They were mainly worn by women in the middle Dnieper River region, including the Left-Bank and steppe areas, however the ochipok was also used in other regions of Ukraine. It is thought to have originated during the Hetmanate period. The specific characteristics of the ochipok varied from region to region.
In Europe in the Middle Ages, uncovered hair was a sign of virginity. A married woman covered her hair completely, including forehead, ears and often the neck.
Namitka is a long, thin fabric wrapped around the head and tied in the back. It was the original Slavic head covering for men and women, and could be used to cover the face. Eventually, it gave rise to the Russian kokoshnik. The ends of the fabric are embroidered, usually with red thread.
During the Ukrainian wedding ceremony, the bride's hair was covered by an ochipok and namitka. She would wear the ochipok for the rest of her life with various headgear on top of it.
Peremitka is part of traditional Hutsul dress. It is a long strip of cloth ornamented on both ends and tied with a knot on each side. It is worn wrapped around the hair, neck, and chin.Bavnytsia is an embroidered ring of cloth fitted around the head, open at the top, with a ring of fringe or gathers stitched to the top edge. It was covered with a namitka or a kerchief. Bavnytsia was traditional dress in Galicia.
Instructions and examples of traditional Ukrainian headgear are on display at the Ivan Honchar Museum In Kiev.Podolyans
Podolyans (Ukrainian: Подоляни, Polish: Podolanie) is one of Ukrainian ethnographic groups given to the people who populated the region of Podolia.
In the 19th century, Gustave Le Bon has found a new peculiar race in the Tatra Mountains, named "Podolians".Pyotr Sokolov (portraitist)
Pyotr Fyodorovich Sokolov (Russian: Пётр Фёдорович Сóколов) (1791, Moscow – 15 August [O.S. 3 August] 1848, Merchik, Kharkov Governorate) was a Russian aquarelle portraitist who painted many of the most distinguished figures of the Pushkin era. He was the father of the painters Pyotr Sokolov, Pavel Sokolov and Alexander Sokolov.Romance (music)
The term romance (Spanish: romance/romanza, Italian: romanza, German: Romanze, French: romance, Russian: романс, Portuguese: romance, Romanian: romanţă) has a centuries-long history. Applied to narrative ballads in Spain, it came to be used by the 18th century for simple lyrical pieces not only for voice, but also for instruments alone. The Oxford Dictionary of Music states that "generally it implies a specially personal or tender quality".Stepan Nechayev
Stepan Dmitriyevich Nechayev (Russian: Степа́н Дми́триевич Неча́ев; 1792–1860) was a Procurator of the Most Holy Synod and a senator. Nechayev was the first one to study the materials about the Kulikovo Field. He picked up some findings on the place of the Battle of Kulikovo and created a private museum in the Palace Polibino, using those findings. He was the first historian, who carried out the location researches and tried to connect the description of the Battle of Kulikovo with the real landscape. There are records about some other collections of the archeological findings from the Kulikovo Field, part of which was in his possession.Stepan Shchukin
Stepan Semyonovich Shchukin (Russian: Степан Семёнович Щукин; 1754, Moscow - 10 October 1828, Saint Petersburg) was a Russian portrait and watercolor painter. Some sources give his year of birth as 1762.Ukrainian embroidery
Ukrainian embroidery (Ukrainian: вишивка, vyshyvka) occupies an important place among the various branches of Ukrainian decorative arts. Embroidery has a rich history in Ukraine, and has long appeared in Ukrainian folk dress as well as played a part in traditional Ukrainian weddings and other celebrations. Appearing all across the country, Ukrainian embroidery varies depending on the region of origin. From Poltava, Kiev, and Chernihiv in the east, to Volyn and Polissia in the northwest, to Bukovyna, and the Hutsul area in the southwest, the designs have a long history which defines its ornamental motifs and compositions, as well as its favorite choice of colors and types of stitches.Ustym Karmaliuk
Ustym Yakymovych Karmaliuk (or Karmeliuk Ukrainian: Устим Якимович Кармалюк (Кармелюк)) (March 10, 1787 – October 22, 1835) was a Ukrainian outlaw of less wealth who became a folk hero to the commoners of Ukraine. He is often referred to as the "Ukrainian Robin Hood" and "the last Haydamak".Vagankovo Cemetery
Vagankovo Cemetery (Vagan'kovskoye Cemetery; Ваганьковское кладбище), established in 1771, is located in the Presnya district of Moscow. It started in the aftermath of the Moscow plague riot of 1771 outside the city proper, so as to prevent the contagion from spreading.
Half a million people are estimated to have been buried at Vagankovo throughout its history. As of 2010, the existing cemetery contains more than 100,000 graves. The vast necropolis contains the mass graves from the Battle of Borodino, the Battle of Moscow, and the Khodynka Tragedy. It is the burial site for a number of people from the artistic and sports community of Russia and the old Soviet Union. During the Great Purge, alcohol-soused guards would execute weeping prisoners after they had dug their graves in the cemetery.The cemetery is served by several Orthodox churches constructed between 1819 and 1823 in the Muscovite version of the Empire style.Vasily Karatygin
Vasily Andreevich Karatygin (Russian: Василий Андреевич Каратыгин) (10 March [O.S. 26 February] 1802–-25 March [O.S. 13 March] 1853) was a leading actor of Russian Romanticism.
Karatygin joined the Bolshoi Theatre in St Petersburg in 1820 and moved to the Alexandrine Theatre in 1832. He particularly excelled in the numerous productions of Shakespeare's and Schiller's plays, rivalling Moscow's Pavel Mochalov as the greatest Russian actor of his time. The two volumes of his Memoirs are invaluable.
Like other actors of his theatre, Karatygin was buried at the Smolensky Cemetery on Vasilievsky Island. His remains were later transferred to the national pantheon, the Alexander Nevsky Lavra. His wife Alexandra Kolosova was admired for her roles in Molière's comedies.Vasily Sadovnikov
Vasily Semyonovich Sadovnikov (Russian: Василий Семёнович Садовников) (28 December [O.S. 16 December] 1800 – 10 March [O.S. 26 February] 1879) was a Russian painter, and a leading Russian master of perspective painting.Yuri Samarin
Yuri Fyodorovich Samarin (Russian: Ю́рий Фёдорович Сама́рин; May 3, 1819, Saint Petersburg – March 31, 1876, Berlin) was a leading Russian Slavophile thinker and one of the architects of the Emancipation reform of 1861.
He came from a noble family and befriended Konstantin Aksakov from an early age. An ardent admirer of Hegel and Khomyakov, Samarin attended the Moscow University, where his teachers included Mikhail Pogodin. He came to believe that "Orthodoxy, and Orthodoxy alone, is a religion which philosophy can recognize" and that "the Orthodox church cannot exist apart from Hegel's philosophy". Samarin's dissertation was a study of Feofan Prokopovich's influence on the Russian Orthodox Church.
He later joined the government service and settled in Riga, where the well entrenched influence of Baltic German nobility exasperated him to such a degree that he urged the government to step up Russification activities in the region. This outburst of chauvinism led to his brief imprisonment in the Peter and Paul Fortress. (Samarin's Slavophilism passed for Pan-Slavism, which was viewed by Nicholas I as a "rebellious doctrine").
In his latter years, Samarin continued to write copiously on national and "peasant" questions, advocating the step-by-step abolition of serfdom. After the January Uprising he advised Nikolai Milyutin to support Polish peasantry as the embodiment of "the Slavic soul" of Poland at the expense of "the forces of Latinism", i.e., rebellious nobility and Catholic clergy. He died in Berlin of sepsis and was buried next to Khomyakov in the Danilov Monastery.