Variable wheatear

The variable wheatear (Oenanthe picata) is a species of bird in the family Muscicapidae. It is found in Afghanistan, Egypt, India, Iran, Kazakhstan, Lebanon, Nepal, Oman, Pakistan, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, the United Arab Emirates, and Uzbekistan.

Its natural habitat is hot deserts.

Variable wheatear
Variable wheatear (Oenanthe picata picata) male
male O. p. picata
Variable wheatear (Oenanthe picata capistrata) male
male O. p. capistrata
Both Jawai, Rajasthan, India
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Muscicapidae
Genus: Oenanthe
Species:
O. picata
Binomial name
Oenanthe picata
(Blyth, 1847)

Description

Oenanthe picata opistholeuca - Variable Wheatear at Tal Chappar, Rajasthan
O. p. opistholeuca

The Variable Wheatear Oenanthe picata (Muscicapidae: Passeriformes) is a bird of arid and semi-arid region, and is locally abundant in barren rocky areas, sand dunes with scrub vegetation, cultivation, ravines, outside villages and nomadic encampments.[2]

It is polymorphic and has three distinct morphs.

1. Black-bellied phase ('opistholeuca'). Male (adult). Entirely jet black except rump, under tail-coverts, base and sides of tail which are white; central rectrices and terminal band of tail black. Female has black parts replaced by sooty black.

2. White-bellied phase ('picata') Male (adult). Like the preceding but belly white. Female similar to male but black parts replaced by greyish brown; belly more buffish.

3. White-crowned phase ('capistrata'). Male (adult). Like picata, with white belly and black throat, but crown and nape white. Female similar to male but black parts and crown earthy brown; belly more buffish.

The geographical dominance of the three types of females does not exactly correspond to the dominances of the three colour phases of the males, but in their wintering grounds there is some corresponding separation. [3]

Distribution and habitat

This species is found in NE & SE Iran and Turkmenistan E to W Tien Shan, Pamirs, and N & W Pakistan; non-breeding SW Asia.[4] Common and generally distributed in winter in Pakistan and northwestern India southeast to Delhi, central Madhya Pradesh and northern Maharashtra (Khandesh). Arrives on breeding grounds in March (Baluchistan) or mid April (Chitral), remains till September. May be seen in winter quarters from the beginning of August (Karachi dist) till the end of March.[3]

In winter frequents stony semi-desert, and desert with sparsely scrubbed sand dunes, cultivation, ravines, outskirts of villages and nomadic encampments, cattle corrals, etc.; usually from almost sea level to c. 1200 m, but has been observed also at 2700 m in deep snow! [3]

References

  1. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Oenanthe picata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  2. ^ Sanjay Thakur; Rajiv Pandit & Anil Mahabal (2015). "First record of Variable Wheatear Oenanthe picata (Aves: Passeriformes: Muscicapidae) from Osmanabad District and range extension to southeastern Maharashtra, India". Journal of Threatened Taxa. 7 (3): 7042–7043. doi:10.11609/jott.o4265.7042-3.
  3. ^ a b c Salim Ali & S Dillon Ripley (1998). Handbook of the birds of India and Pakistan. 9 (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press. pp. 51–53.
  4. ^ Collar, N. (2016). Variable Wheatear (Oenanthe picata). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from http://www.hbw.com/node/58542 on 31 July 2016)
Hazarganji-Chiltan National Park

Hazarganji Chiltan National Park is a national park in the Mastung District of western Balochistan Province of Pakistan. It lies between Chiltan on its west and Hazarganji on the east. The park was established in 1980 to provide the habitat to rare Chiltan ibexes found in the area.It was established in 1980 and covers 325,000 acre of land located close to the Koh-i-Chiltan mountain in Quetta's outskirt.The park is located in the Sulaiman Mountains, with desert and forest habitats, about 20 kilometres (12 mi) southwest of the city of Quetta.

List of Old World flycatcher species

Old World flycatchers is the common name for the avian family Muscicapidae, which also includes the Old World chats. The International Ornithological Congress (IOC) recognizes these 330 species in the family, distributed among five subfamilies and 51 genera.This list is presented according to the IOC taxonomic sequence and can also be sorted alphabetically by common name and binomial.

List of birds of Afghanistan

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Afghanistan. The avifauna of Afghanistan include a total of 131 species, of which one is endemic, one has been introduced by humans, and two are rare or accidental. Of the species in Afghanistan, 17 species are globally threatened.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced and accidental species are included in the total counts for Afghanistan.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The commonly occurring native species do not fall into any of these categories.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Afghanistan

(E) Endemic - a species that occurs in Afghanistan and nowhere else

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Afghanistan as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

List of birds of India

This is a list of the bird species of India and includes extant and recently extinct species recorded within the political limits of the Republic of India as defined by the Indian government are known to have around 1266 species as of 2016, of which sixty-one are endemic to the country, one has been introduced by humans and twenty-five are rare or accidental. Two species are suspected have been extirpated in India and eighty-two species are globally threatened. The Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus) is the national bird of India. This list does not cover species in Indian jurisdiction areas such as Dakshin Gangothri and oceanic species are delineated by an arbitrary cutoff distance. The list does not include fossil bird species or escapees from captivity.

Two of the most recently discovered birds of India are the Himalayan forest thrush and Bugun liocichla both discovered in Arunachal Pradesh in 2016 and 2006. Also, a few birds considered to be extinct, such as the Jerdon's courser, have been rediscovered. Several species have been elevated from subspecies to full species.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The commonly occurring native species do not fit within any of these categories.

(A) Accidental - Also known as a rarity, it refers to a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in India-typically less than ten confirmed records.

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to India

(Ex) Extirpated - a species that no longer occurs in India although populations exist elsewhere

(NB) Non-breeding range

List of birds of Iran

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Iran. The avifauna of Iran include a total of 551 species, of which two are endemic, three have been introduced by humans and fourteen are rare or accidental. One species listed is extirpated in Iran and is not included in the species count. Nineteen species are globally threatened.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced and accidental species are included in the total counts for Iran.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The commonly occurring native species do not fall into any of these categories.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Iran

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to Iran

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Iran as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(Ex) Extirpated - a species that no longer occurs in Iran although populations exist elsewhere

(X) Extinct - a species or subspecies that no longer exists

List of birds of Israel

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Israel. The avifauna of Israel include a total of 535 species, of which five have been introduced by humans and 141 are rare or accidental. One species listed is extirpated in Israel and is not included in the species count. Fourteen species are globally threatened.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced and accidental species are included in the total counts for Israel.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories, but not all species fall into one of these categories. Those that do not are commonly occurring native species.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Israel

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Israel as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(Ex) Extirpated - a species that no longer occurs in Israel although populations exist elsewhere

(X) Extinct - a species or subspecies that no longer exists

List of birds of Kazakhstan

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Kazakhstan. The avifauna of Kazakhstan include a total of 513 species, of which five are rare or accidental.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Accidental species are included in the total species count for Kazakhstan.

The following tag has been used to highlight accidentals. The commonly occurring native species are untagged.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Kazakhstan

List of birds of Kyrgyzstan

376 bird species have occurred in the Kyrgyz Republic.

List of birds of Lebanon

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Lebanon. The avifauna of Lebanon include a total of 384 species.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of the Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced and accidental species are included in the total counts for Lebanon.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories, but not all species fall into one of these categories. Those that do not are commonly occurring native species.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Lebanon

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to Lebanon

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Lebanon as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(Ex) Extirpated - a species once naturally occurring in Lebanon but no longer so

List of birds of Oman

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Oman. The avifauna of Oman include a total of 494 species, of which five have been introduced by humans and 146 are rare or accidental. The common ostrich is extirpated in Oman and is not included in the species count. Twelve species are globally threatened.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) generally follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition with a few changes based on the list of the Ornithological Society of the Middle East. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect the Clements taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced and accidental species are included in the total counts for Oman.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories, but not all species fall into one of these categories. Those that do not are commonly occurring native species.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Oman

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Oman as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(Ex) Extirpated - a species that no longer occurs in Oman although populations exist elsewhere

(X) Extinct - a species or subspecies that no longer exists

List of birds of Pakistan

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Pakistan. The avifauna of Pakistan include a total of 786 species, of which 39 are rare or accidental. One species listed is extirpated in Pakistan and is not included in the species count. The chukar (Alectoris chukar) is the official national bird of Pakistan, and the shaheen falcon is the symbolic icon of the Pakistan Air Force and Pakistan Avicultural Foundation.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) generally follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Accidental species are included in the total species count for Pakistan.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The commonly occurring native species do not fall into any of these categories.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Pakistan

(Ex) Extirpated - a species that no longer occurs in Pakistan but exists in other places

List of birds of Tajikistan

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Tajikistan. The avifauna of Tajikistan include a total of 353 species, none of which are introduced, accidental or endemic.This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account.

List of birds of Turkmenistan

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Turkmenistan. The avifauna of Turkmenistan include a total of 409 species, of which one is rare or accidental.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Accidental species are included in the total species count for Turkmenistan.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The commonly occurring native species do not fall into any of these categories.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Turkmenistan

List of birds of Uzbekistan

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Uzbekistan. The avifauna of Uzbekistan include a total of 368 species, of which four are rare or accidental.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Accidental species are included in the total species count for Uzbekistan.

The following tag has been used to highlight a category. The commonly occurring native species do not fall into this category.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Uzbekistan

Sibley-Monroe checklist 14

The Sibley-Monroe checklist was a landmark document in the study of birds. It drew on extensive DNA-DNA hybridisation studies to reassess the relationships between modern birds.

Tharparkar District

Tharparkar District (Sindhi: ضلعو ٿرپارڪر‎, Hindi: थारपारकर जिला, Gujarati: થારપાકર જીલ્લા, Urdu: ضِلع تھرپارکر ‎) is one of the twenty nine districts of Sindh province in Pakistan. It is largest district of Sindh province by land area. It has the largest number of Hindu population in Pakistan. It is headquartered at Mithi. It has the lowest Human Development Index of all the districts in Sindh. Thar has a fertile desert and the livelihood of Thari people depends on rainfall agriculture. Tharparkar has the only fertile desert in the world.

Wheatear

The wheatears are passerine birds of the genus Oenanthe. They were formerly considered to be members of the thrush family, Turdidae, but are now more commonly placed in the flycatcher family, Muscicapidae. This is an Old World group, but the northern wheatear has established a foothold in eastern Canada and Greenland and in western Canada and Alaska.

Wildlife of Ladakh

The flora and fauna of [Ladakh] was first studied by [Ferdinand Stoliczka], an [Austria]n[Czech people|Czech][palaeontologist], who carried out a massive expedition in the region in the 1870s. The fauna of Ladakh have much in common with that of Central Asia generally, and especially those of the Tibetan Plateau. An exception to this are the birds, many of which migrate from the warmer parts of India to spend the summer in Ladakh. For such an arid area, Ladakh has a great diversity of birds — a total of 318 species have been recorded (Including 30 species not seen since 1960). Many of these birds reside or breed at high-altitude wetlands such as Tso Moriri.

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