Varahran I Kushanshah

Bahram Kushanshah (fl. 350-365 CE), also Bahram of Gandhara, name also spelled Varahran, was one of the very last kings, or "Kushanshah", of the Indo-Sasanians.[2][3] He was succeeded by the Hunnic Kidarites who then ruled for nearly two centuries in northwestern India.[4][5]

The coinage of Bahram Kushanshah was an inspiration for his successor Kidara I.

Bahram of Gandhara king of the Kushano-Sasanians Circa CE 350-365
Bahram of Gandhara, king of the Kushano-Sasanians. Circa CE 350-365.[1]
Bahram of Gandhara circa 350-365 CE
Bahram of Gandhara circa 350-365 CE.
BahramITheIndoSasanian
Coin of Bahram Kushanshah.
Obv: King Varhran I with characteristic head-dress.
Rev: Shiva with bull Nanda, in Kushan style.

References

  1. ^ CNG Coin [1]
  2. ^ History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Ahmad Hasan Dani, B. A. Litvinsky, Unesco p.105
  3. ^ Numismatic Evidence for Kushano-Sasanian Chronology Joe Cribb 1990 p.171
  4. ^ History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Ahmad Hasan Dani, B. A. Litvinsky, Unesco p.38 sq
  5. ^ History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Ahmad Hasan Dani, B. A. Litvinsky, Unesco p.119 sq
Preceded by
Peroz II Kushanshah
Kushanshah of the Kushano-Sasanian Kingdom
350-365
Succeeded by
Varahran II Kushanshah
Kushano-Sasanian Kingdom

The Kushano-Sassanids (also called Kushanshas or Indo-Sassanians) were a branch of the Sassanid Persians who established their rule in Bactria and in northwestern Indian subcontinent (present day Pakistan) during the 3rd and 4th centuries at the expense of the declining Kushans. They captured the provinces of Sogdiana, Bactria and Gandhara from the Kushans in 225 CE. The Sasanians established governors for the Sasanian Empire, who minted their own coinage and took the title of Kushanshas, i.e. "Kings of the Kushans". They are sometimes considered as forming a "sub-kingdom" inside the Sasanian Empire. This administration continued until 360-370 CE, when the Kushano-Sasanians lost their territories to the invading Kidarite Huns. Thereafter the limit of Sasanian territory was near Merv. Later, the Kidarites were in turn displaced by the Hephthalites. The Sasanians were able to re-establish some authority after they destroyed the Hephthalites with the help of the Turks in 565, but their rule collapsed under Arab attacks in the mid 7th century.

The Kushanshas are mainly known through their coins. Their coins were minted at Kabul, Balkh, Herat, and Merv, attesting the extent of their realm.A rebellion of Hormizd I Kushanshah (277-286 CE), who issued coins with the title Kushanshahanshah ("King of kings of the Kushans"), seems to have occurred against contemporary emperor Bahram II (276-293 CE) of the Sasanian Empire, but failed.

Kushanshah

Kushanshah was the title used by the governors of the Sasanian Empire who ruled the parts of the former Kushan Empire, in the areas of Sogdiana, Bactria and Gandhara, named Kushanshahr by the Sasanians, during the 3rd and 4th centuries CE. They are collectively known as Kushano-Sasanians, or Indo-Sasanians.

The Kushanshahs minted their own coinage, and took the title of Kushanshas, ie "Kings of the Kushans". This administration continued until 360 CE. The Kushanshas are mainly known through their coins.

A rebellion of Hormizd I Kushanshah (277-286 CE), who issued coins with the title Kushanshahanshah ("King of kings of the Kushans"), seems to have occurred against contemporary emperor Bahram II (276-293 CE) of the Sasanian Empire, but failed.The title is first attested in the Paikuli inscription of the Sasanian shah Narseh in ca. 293, where it functioned as a title for the Sasanian governors of the eastern portion of the empire. The title was also used by the Kidarite dynasty, which was the last kingdom to make use of it.

Peroz II Kushanshah

Peroz II Kushanshah (circa 300-325 CE), was a late Kushano-Sasanids Kushanshas ruler, in effect a governor of the Sassanid Empire for the eastern regions of Sogdiana, Bactria and Gandhara which had been captured following the fall of the Kushans in 225 CE.He minted his own coinage and used the title of Kushansha, ie "Kings of the Kushans".The rule of the Kushano-Sasanians ended around 360-370 CE, when they lost their territories to the invading Kidarites Huns.

Varahran II Kushanshah

Varahran II Kushanshah (ruled circa 360 CE), was one of the very last of the Kushano-Sasanids Kushanshas rulers, ruling in the area of Gandhara. His predecessors had been in effect governors of the Sassanid Empire for the eastern regions of Sogdiana, Bactria and Gandhara which had been captured following the fall of the Kushans in 225 CE.He minted his own coinage and used the title of Kushansha, ie "Kings of the Kushans".The rule of the Kushano-Sasanians ended around 360-370 CE, when they lost their territories to the invading Kidarites Huns.

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