Vandals

The Vandals were a large East Germanic tribe or group of tribes that first appear in history inhabiting present-day southern Poland. Some later moved in large numbers, including most notably the group which successively established kingdoms in the Iberian Peninsula and then North Africa in the 5th century.[1]

The traditional view has been that the Vandals migrated from southern Scandinavia to the area between the lower Oder and Vistula rivers during the 2nd century BC and settled in Silesia from around 120 BC.[2][3][4] They are associated with the Przeworsk culture and were possibly the same people as the Lugii. Expanding into Dacia during the Marcomannic Wars and to Pannonia during the Crisis of the Third Century, the Vandals were confined to Pannonia by the Goths around 330 AD, where they received permission to settle from Constantine the Great. Around 400, raids by the Huns forced many Germanic tribes to migrate into the territory of the Roman Empire, and fearing that they might be targeted next the Vandals were pushed westwards, crossing the Rhine into Gaul along with other tribes in 406.[5] In 409 the Vandals crossed the Pyrenees into the Iberian Peninsula, where their main groups, the Hasdingi and the Silingi, settled in Gallaecia (northwest Iberia) and Baetica (south-central Iberia) respectively.[6]

After the Visigoths invaded Iberia in 418, the Iranian Alans and Silingi Vandals voluntarily subjected themselves to the rule of Hasdingian leader Gunderic, who was pushed from Gallaecia to Baetica by a Roman-Suebi coalition in 419. In 429, under king Genseric (reigned 428–477), the Vandals entered North Africa. By 439 they established a kingdom which included the Roman province of Africa as well as Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia, Malta and the Balearic Islands. They fended off several Roman attempts to recapture the African province, and sacked the city of Rome in 455. Their kingdom collapsed in the Vandalic War of 533–4, in which Emperor Justinian I's forces reconquered the province for the Eastern Roman Empire.

Renaissance and early-modern writers characterized the Vandals as barbarians, "sacking and looting" Rome. This led to the use of the term "vandalism" to describe any pointless destruction, particularly the "barbarian" defacing of artwork. However, modern historians tend to regard the Vandals during the transitional period from Late Antiquity to the Early Middle Ages as perpetuators, not destroyers, of Roman culture.[7]

KHM Wien VIIb 105 - Vandalic goldfoil jewelry, c. 300 AD
Vandalic goldfoil jewellery from the 3rd or 4th century

Name

Halsring neck ring with plug clasp from the Vandalic Treasure of Osztrópataka displayed at the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna, Austria
Neck ring with plug clasp from the Vandalic Treasure of Osztrópataka displayed at the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna, Austria.

The name of the Vandals has often been connected to that of Vendel, the name of a province in Uppland, Sweden, which is also eponymous of the Vendel Period of Swedish prehistory, corresponding to the late Germanic Iron Age leading up to the Viking Age. The connection would be that Vendel is the original homeland of the Vandals prior to the Migration Period, and retains their tribal name as a toponym. Further possible homelands of the Vandals in Scandinavia are Vendsyssel in Denmark and Hallingdal in Norway.[8]

The etymology of the name may be related to a Germanic verb *wand- "to wander" (English wend, German wandeln). The Germanic mythological figure of Aurvandil "shining wanderer; dawn wanderer, evening star", or "Shining Vandal" is reported as one of the "Germanic Dioscuri". R. Much has forwarded the theory that the tribal name Vandal reflects worship of Aurvandil or "the Dioscuri", probably involving an origin myth that the Vandalic kings were descended from Aurvandil (comparable to the case of many other Germanic tribal names).[9]

Some medieval authors applied the ethnonym "Vandals" to Slavs: Veneti, Wends, Lusatians or Poles.[10][11][12] It was once thought that the Slovenes were the descendants of the Vandals, but this is not the view of modern scholars.[13]

History

Origins

Origins 300BC
Germanic and Proto-Slavic tribes of Central Europe around 3rd century BC.
Europa Germanen 50 n Chr
Tribes of Central Europe in the mid-1st century AD. The Vandals/Lugii are depicted in green, in the area of modern Poland.

Both Jordanes in his Getica and the Gotlandic Gutasaga tell that the Goths and Vandals migrated from southern Scandinavia[2][3][4] to the area between the lower Oder and Vistula prior to the 2nd century BC, and settled in Silesia from around 120 BC.[4] The earliest mention of the Vandals is from Pliny the Elder, who used the term Vandilii in a broad way to define one of the major groupings of all Germanic peoples. Tribes within this category who he mentions are the Burgundiones, Varini, Carini (otherwise unknown), and the Gutones.[14] According to the Gallaecian Christian priest, historian and theologian Paulus Orosius, the Vandals, who lived originally in Scoringa, near Stockholm, Sweden, were of the same stock as the Suiones ("Swedes") and the Goths.[15]

The Vandals are associated with the Przeworsk culture, but the culture probably extended over several eastern European peoples. Their origin, ethnicity and linguistic affiliation are heavily debated.[16][4][17][18] The bearers of the Przeworsk culture mainly practiced cremation and occasionally inhumation.[18] The Lugii (Lygier, Lugier or Lygians) are identified by modern historians as the same people as the Vandals.[4][4][19][20][21] The Lugii are mentioned by Strabo, Tacitus and Ptolemy as a large group of tribes between the Vistula and the Oder. None of those authors mentions the Vandals, while Pliny the Elder mentions the Vandals but not the Lugii.[17] According to John Anderson, the "Lugii and Vandili are designations of the same tribal group, the latter an extended ethnic name, the former probably a cult-title."[19] Herwig Wolfram notes that "In all likelihood the Lugians and the Vandals were one cultic community that lived in the same region of the Oder in Silesia, where it was first under Celtic and then under Germanic domination."[20]

Introduction into the Roman Empire

Roman Empire 125
The Roman empire under Hadrian (ruled 117–38), showing the location of the Vandilii East Germanic tribes, then inhabiting the upper Vistula region (Poland).

By the end of the 2nd century, the Vandals were divided in two main tribal groups, the Silingi and the Hasdingi, with the Silingi being associated with Silesia and the Hasdingi living in the Sudetes. Around the mid 2nd century AD, there was a significant migration by Germanic tribes of Scandinavian origin (Rugii, Goths, Gepidae, Vandals, Burgundians, and others)[22] towards the south-east, creating turmoil along the entire Roman frontier.[22][23][24][25] The 6th century Byzantine historian Procopius noted that the Goths, Gepidae and Vandals were physically and culturally identical, suggesting a common origin.[26] These migrations culminated in the Marcomannic Wars, which resulted in widespread destruction and the first invasion of Italy in the Roman Empire period.[25] During the Marcomannic Wars (166–180) the Hasdingi (or Astingi), led by the kings Raus and Rapt (or Rhaus and Raptus) moved south, entering Dacia as allies of Rome.[27] However they eventually caused problems in Dacia and moved further south, towards the lower Danube area. Together with the Hasdingi were the Lacringi, who were possibly also Vandals.[28][29] In about 271 AD the Roman Emperor Aurelian was obliged to protect the middle course of the Danube against them. They made peace and stayed on the eastern bank of the Danube.[27]

026 Rekonstruktionsversuch wandalicher Trachten von dem Äußere Karpatensenken und Westbeskiden, 2 bis 3 Jh. PR DSC 1315 przeworsk
Reconstruction of an Iron Age warrior's garments representing a Vandalic man, with his hair in a "Suebian knot" (160 AD), Archaeological Museum of Kraków, Poland.

According to Jordanes' Getica, the Hasdingi came into conflict with the Goths around the time of Constantine the Great. At the time, the Vandals were living in lands later inhabited by the Gepids, where they were surrounded "on the east [by] the Goths, on the west [by] the Marcomanni, on the north [by] the Hermanduri and on the south [by] the Hister (Danube)." The Vandals were attacked by the Gothic king Geberic, and their king Visimar was killed.[30] The Vandals then migrated to Pannonia, where, after Constantine the Great (in about 330) granted them lands on the right bank of the Danube, they lived for the next sixty years.[30][31]

Around this time, the Hasdingi had already been Christianized. During the Emperor Valens's reign (364–78) the Vandals accepted, much like the Goths earlier, Arianism, a belief that was in opposition to that of the Nicene orthodoxy of the Roman Empire.[30] Yet there were also some scattered orthodox Vandals, among whom was the famous magister militum Stilicho, the chief minister of the Emperor Honorius probably more due to Stilicho being half Vandal and half Roman.

In 400 or 401, Hunnic raids forced many Germanic tribes such as the Goths to migrate Westward. Worried that they might be targeted next by the Huns, the Vandals under king Godigisel, along with their allies (the Iranian Alans and Germanic Suebians), moved westwards into Roman territory.[5] Some of the Silingi joined them later. Vandals raided the Roman province of Raetia in the winter of 401/402. From this, historian Peter Heather concludes that at this time the Vandals were located in the region around the Middle and Upper Danube.[32] It is possible that the Vandals were part of the Gothic king Radagaisus' invasion of Italy in 405–406 AD.[33]

In Gaul

In 406 the Vandals advanced from Pannonia travelling west along the Danube without much difficulty, but when they reached the Rhine, they met resistance from the Franks, who populated and controlled Romanized regions in northern Gaul. Twenty thousand Vandals, including Godigisel himself, died in the resulting battle, but then with the help of the Alans they managed to defeat the Franks, and on December 31, 406 the Vandals crossed the Rhine, probably while it was frozen, to invade Gaul, which they devastated terribly. Under Godigisel's son Gunderic, the Vandals plundered their way westward and southward through Aquitaine. One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Vandals" . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.

In Hispania

Vandals Migration pt
Migrations of the Vandals from Scandinavia through Dacia, Gaul, Iberia, and into North Africa. Grey: Roman Empire.

On October 13, 409 they crossed the Pyrenees into the Iberian peninsula. There, the Hasdingi received land from the Romans, as foederati, in Asturia (Northwest) and the Silingi in Hispania Baetica (South), while the Alans got lands in Lusitania (West) and the region around Carthago Nova.[6] The Suebi also controlled part of Gallaecia. The Visigoths, who invaded Iberia before receiving lands in Septimania (Southern France), crushed the Alans in 418, killing the western Alan king Attaces.[34] The remainder of his people and the remnants of the Silingi, who were nearly wiped out, subsequently appealed to the Vandal king Gunderic to accept the Alan crown. Later Vandal kings in North Africa styled themselves Rex Wandalorum et Alanorum ("King of the Vandals and Alans"). In 419 AD the Hasdingi Vandals were defeated by a joint Roman-Suebi coalition. Gunderic fled to Baetica, where he was also proclaimed king of the Silingi Vandals.[4] In 422 Gunderic decisively defeated a Roman-Suebi-Gothic coalition led by the Roman patrician Castinus at the Battle of Tarraco.[35][36][37] It is likely that many Roman and Gothic troops deserted to Gunderic following the battle.[37] For the next five years, according to Hydatius, Gunderic created widespread havoc in the western Mediterranean.[37] In 425, the Vandals pillaged the Balearic Islands, Hispania and Mauritania, sacking Carthago Spartaria (Cartagena) and Hispalis (Seville).[37] The capture of the maritime city of Carthago Spartaria enabled the Vandals to engage in widespread naval activities.[37] In 428 Gunderic captured Hispalis but died while laying siege to the city's church.[37] He was succeeded by his half-brother Genseric, who although he was illegitimate (his mother was a Roman slave) had held a prominent position at the Vandal court, rising to the throne unchallenged.[38]

Genseric is often regarded by historians as the most able barbarian leader of the Migration Period.[39] Michael Frasseto writes that he probably contributed more to the destruction of Rome than any of his contemporaries.[39] Although the barbarians controlled Hispania they still comprised a tiny minority among a much larger Hispano-Roman population, approximately 200,000 out of 6,000,000.[6] Shortly after seizing the throne, Genseric was attacked from the rear by a large force of Suebi under the command of Heremigarius who had managed to take Lusitania.[40] This Suebi army was defeated near Mérida and its leader Hermigario drowned in the Guadiana River while trying to flee.[40]

It is possible that the name Al-Andalus (and its derivative Andalusia) is derived from the Arabic adoption of the name of the Vandals.[41][42]

Kingdom in North Africa

Establishment

Vandal Kingdom at its maximum extent in the 470s
The Vandal Kingdom at its greatest extent in the 470s
Bonifatius Comes Africae 422-431CE
Coin of Bonifacius Comes Africae (422–431 CE), who was defeated by the Vandals.[43]

The Vandals under Genseric (also known as Geiseric) crossed to Africa in 429.[44] Although numbers are unknown and some historians debate the validity of estimates, based on Procopius' assertion that the Vandals and Alans numbered 80,000 when they moved to North Africa,[45] Peter Heather estimates that they could have fielded an army of around 15,000–20,000.[46]

According to Procopius, the Vandals came to Africa at the request of Bonifacius, the military ruler of the region.[47] Seeking to establish himself as an independent ruler in Africa or even become Roman Emperor, Bonifacius had defeated several Roman attempts to subdue him, until he was mastered by the newly appointed Gothic count of Africa, Sigisvult, who captured both Hippo Regius and Carthage.[39] It is possible that Bonifacius had sought Genseric as an ally against Sigisvult, promising him a part of Africa in return.[39]

Advancing eastwards along the coast, the Vandals were confronted on the Numidian border in May–June 430 by Bonifacius. Negotiations broke down, and Bonifacius was soundly defeated.[48][49] Bonifacius subsequently barricaded himself inside Hippo Regius with the Vandals besieging the city.[44] Inside, Saint Augustine and his priests prayed for relief from the invaders, knowing full well that the fall of the city would spell conversion or death for many Roman Christians.

On 28 August 430, three months into the siege, St. Augustine (who was 75 years old) died,[50] perhaps from starvation or stress, as the wheat fields outside the city lay dormant and unharvested. The death of Augustine shocked the Regent of the Western Roman Empire, Galla Placidia, who feared the consequences if her realm lost its most important source of grain.[49] She raised a new army in Italy and convinced her nephew in Constantinople, the Eastern Roman Emperor Theodosius II, to send an army to North Africa led by Aspar.[49]

Around July–August 431, Genseric raised the siege of Hippo Regius,[48] which enabled Bonifacius to retreat from Hippo Regius to Carthage, where he was joined by Aspar's army. Some time in the summer of 432, Genseric soundly defeated the joint forces of both Bonifacius and Aspar, which enabled him to seize Hippo Regius unopposed.[49] Genseric and Aspar subsequently negotiated a peace treaty of some sorts.[48] Upon seizing Hippo Regius, Genseric made it the first capital of the Vandal kingdom.[51]

The Romans and the Vandals concluded a treaty in 435 giving the Vandals control of coastal Numidia. Genseric chose to break the treaty in 439 when he invaded the province of Africa Proconsularis and seized Carthage on October 19.[52] The city was captured without a fight; the Vandals entered the city while most of the inhabitants were attending the races at the hippodrome. Genseric made it his capital, and styled himself the King of the Vandals and Alans, to denote the inclusion of the Alans of northern Africa into his alliance. His forces occupied Sardinia, Corsica and the Balearic Islands, he built his kingdom into a powerful state. His siege of Palermo in 440 was a failure as was the second attempt to invade Sicily near Agrigento in 442 (the Vandals occupied the island from 468-476 when it was ceded to Odovacer).[53] Historian Cameron suggests that the new Vandal rule may not have been unwelcomed by the population of North Africa as the great landowners were generally unpopular.[54]

The impression given by ancient sources such as Victor of Vita, Quodvultdeus, and Fulgentius of Ruspe was that the Vandal take-over of Carthage and North Africa led to widespread destruction. However, recent archaeological investigations have challenged this assertion. Although Carthage's Odeon was destroyed, the street pattern remained the same and some public buildings were renovated. The political centre of Carthage was the Byrsa Hill. New industrial centres emerged within towns during this period.[55] Historian Andy Merrills uses the large amounts of African Red Slip ware discovered across the Mediterranean dating from the Vandal period of North Africa to challenge the assumption that the Vandal rule of North Africa was a time of economic instability.[56] When the Vandals raided Sicily in 440, the Western Roman Empire was too preoccupied with war with Gaul to react. Theodosius II, emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire, dispatched an expedition to deal with the Vandals in 441; however, it only progressed as far as Sicily. The Western Empire under Valentinian III secured peace with the Vandals in 442.[57] Under the treaty the Vandals gained Byzacena, Tripolitania, and part of Numidia, and confirmed their control of Proconsular Africa[58] as well as the Vandal Kingdom as the first barbarian state officially recognized as an independent kingdom in former Roman territory instead of foederati.[59] The Empire regained western Numidia and the two Mauretanian provinces until 455.

Sack of Rome

Genseric sacking rome 456
The Sack of Rome, Karl Briullov, 1833–1836

During the next thirty-five years, with a large fleet, Genseric looted the coasts of the Eastern and Western Empires. Vandal activity in the Mediterranean was so substantial that the sea's name in Old English was Wendelsæ (i. e. Sea of the Vandals).[60] After Attila the Hun's death, however, the Romans could afford to turn their attention back to the Vandals, who were in control of some of the richest lands of their former empire.

In an effort to bring the Vandals into the fold of the Empire, Valentinian III offered his daughter's hand in marriage to Genseric's son. Before this treaty could be carried out, however, politics again played a crucial part in the blunders of Rome. Petronius Maximus killed Valentinian III and claimed the Western throne. Diplomacy between the two factions broke down, and in 455 with a letter from the Empress Licinia Eudoxia, begging Genseric's son to rescue her, the Vandals took Rome, along with the Empress and her daughters Eudocia and Placidia.

The chronicler Prosper of Aquitaine[61] offers the only fifth-century report that, on 2 June 455, Pope Leo the Great received Genseric and implored him to abstain from murder and destruction by fire, and to be satisfied with pillage. Whether the pope's influence saved Rome is, however, questioned. The Vandals departed with countless valuables. Eudoxia and her daughter Eudocia were taken to North Africa.[58]

Consolidation

In 456 a Vandal fleet of 60 ships threatening both Gaul and Italy was ambushed and defeated at Agrigentum and Corsica by the Western Roman general Ricimer.[62] In 457 a mixed Vandal-Berber army returning with loot from a raid in Campania were soundly defeated in a surprise attack by Western Emperor Majorian at the mouth of the Garigliano river.[63]

As a result of the Vandal sack of Rome and piracy in the Mediterranean, it became important to the Roman Empire to destroy the Vandal kingdom. In 460, Majorian launched an expedition against the Vandals, but was defeated at the Battle of Cartagena. In 468 the Western and Eastern Roman empires launched an enormous expedition against the Vandals under the command of Basiliscus, which reportedly was composed of 100,000 soldiers and 1,000 ships. The Vandals defeated the invaders at the Battle of Cap Bon, capturing the Western fleet, and destroying the Eastern through the use of fire ships.[57] Following up the attack, the Vandals tried to invade the Peloponnese, but were driven back by the Maniots at Kenipolis with heavy losses.[64] In retaliation, the Vandals took 500 hostages at Zakynthos, hacked them to pieces and threw the pieces overboard on the way to Carthage.[64]

In the 470s, the Romans abandoned their policy of war against the Vandals. The Western general Ricimer reached a treaty with them,[57] and in 476 Genseric was able to conclude a "perpetual peace" with Constantinople. Relations between the two states assumed a veneer of normality.[65] From 477 onwards, the Vandals produced their own coinage, restricted to bronze and silver low-denomination coins. The high-denomination imperial money was retained, demonstrating in the words of Merrills "reluctance to usurp the imperial prerogative".[66]

Although the Vandals had fended off attacks from the Romans and established hegemony over the islands of the western Mediterranean, they were less successful in their conflict with the Berbers. Situated south of the Vandal kingdom, the Berbers inflicted two major defeats on the Vandals in the period 496–530.[57]

Domestic religious tensions

Vandal Kingdom Hilderic Denarius
A denarius of the reign of Hilderic

Differences between the Arian Vandals and their Trinitarian subjects (including both Catholics and Donatists) were a constant source of tension in their African state. Catholic bishops were exiled or killed by Genseric and laymen were excluded from office and frequently suffered confiscation of their property.[67] He protected his Catholic subjects when his relations with Rome and Constantinople were friendly, as during the years 454–57, when the Catholic community at Carthage, being without a head, elected Deogratias bishop. The same was also the case during the years 476–477 when Bishop Victor of Cartenna sent him, during a period of peace, a sharp refutation of Arianism and suffered no punishment. Huneric, Genseric's successor, issued edicts against Catholics in 483 and 484 in an effort to marginalise them and make Arianism the primary religion in North Africa.[68] Generally most Vandal kings, except Hilderic, persecuted Trinitarian Christians to a greater or lesser extent, banning conversion for Vandals, exiling bishops and generally making life difficult for Trinitarians.

Decline

According to the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia: "Genseric, one of the most powerful personalities of the "era of the Migrations", died on 25 January 477, at the great age of around 88 years. According to the law of succession which he had promulgated, the oldest male member of the royal house was to succeed. Thus he was succeeded by his son Huneric (477–484), who at first tolerated Catholics, owing to his fear of Constantinople, but after 482 began to persecute Manichaeans and Catholics."[69]

Gunthamund (484–496), his cousin and successor, sought internal peace with the Catholics and ceased persecution once more. Externally, the Vandal power had been declining since Genseric's death, and Gunthamund lost early in his reign all but a small wedge of western Sicily to the Ostrogoths and had to withstand increasing pressure from the autochthonous Moors.

According to the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia: "While Thrasamund (496–523), owing to his religious fanaticism, was hostile to Catholics, he contented himself with bloodless persecutions".[69]

Turbulent end

Meister von San Vitale in Ravenna 013
Belisarius may be this bearded figure on the right of Emperor Justinian I in the mosaic in the Church of San Vitale, Ravenna, which celebrates the reconquest of Italy by the Byzantine army under the skillful leadership of Belisarius

Hilderic (523–530) was the Vandal king most tolerant towards the Catholic Church. He granted it religious freedom; consequently Catholic synods were once more held in North Africa. However, he had little interest in war, and left it to a family member, Hoamer. When Hoamer suffered a defeat against the Moors, the Arian faction within the royal family led a revolt, raising the banner of national Arianism, and his cousin Gelimer (530–533) became king. Hilderic, Hoamer and their relatives were thrown into prison.[70]

Byzantine Emperor Justinian I declared war, with the stated intention of restoring Hilderic to the Vandal throne. The deposed Hilderic was murdered in 533 on Gelimer's orders.[70] While an expedition was en route, a large part of the Vandal army and navy was led by Tzazo, Gelimer's brother, to Sardinia to deal with a rebellion. As a result, the armies of the Byzantine Empire commanded by Belisarius were able to land unopposed 10 miles (16 km) from Carthage. Gelimer quickly assembled an army,[71] and met Belisarius at the Battle of Ad Decimum; the Vandals were winning the battle until Gelimer's brother Ammatas and nephew Gibamund fell in battle. Gelimer then lost heart and fled. Belisarius quickly took Carthage while the surviving Vandals fought on.[72]

On December 15, 533, Gelimer and Belisarius clashed again at the Battle of Tricamarum, some 20 miles (32 km) from Carthage. Again, the Vandals fought well but broke, this time when Gelimer's brother Tzazo fell in battle. Belisarius quickly advanced to Hippo, second city of the Vandal Kingdom, and in 534 Gelimer surrendered to the Byzantine conqueror, ending the Kingdom of the Vandals.

Vandal cavalryman, c. AD 500, from a mosaic pavement at Bordj Djedid near Carthage
Vandal cavalryman, c. AD 500, from a mosaic pavement at Bordj Djedid near Carthage

North Africa, comprising north Tunisia and eastern Algeria in the Vandal period, became a Roman province again, from which the Vandals were expelled. Many Vandals went to Saldae (today called Béjaïa in north Algeria) where they integrated themselves with the Berbers. Many others were put into imperial service or fled to the two Gothic kingdoms (Ostrogothic Kingdom and Visigothic Kingdom). Some Vandal women married Byzantine soldiers and settled in north Algeria and Tunisia. The choicest Vandal warriors were formed into five cavalry regiments, known as Vandali Iustiniani, stationed on the Persian frontier. Some entered the private service of Belisarius.[73] The 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia states that "Gelimer was honourably treated and received large estates in Galatia. He was also offered the rank of a patrician but had to refuse it because he was not willing to change his Arian faith".[69] In the words of historian Roger Collins: "The remaining Vandals were then shipped back to Constantinople to be absorbed into the imperial army. As a distinct ethnic unit they disappeared".[71] Some of the few Vandals remained at North Africa while more migrated back to Spain.[5] In 546 the Vandalic Dux of Numidia, Guntarith, defected from the Byzantines and raised a rebellion with Moorish support. He was able to capture Carthage, but was assassinated by the Byzantines shortly afterwards.

Physical appearance

The 6th-century Byzantine historian Procopius wrote that the Vandals were tall and blond haired:

For they all have white bodies and fair hair, and are tall and handsome to look upon...[26]

List of kings

Known kings of the Vandals:

Language

Very little is known about the Vandalic language itself, which was of the East Germanic linguistic branch. The Goths have left behind the only text corpus of the East Germanic language type: a 4th-century translation of the Gospels.[74] All Vandals that modern historians know about were able to speak Latin, which also remained the official language of the Vandal administration (most of the staff seems to have been native Berber/Roman).[75] Levels of literacy in the ancient world are uncertain, but writing was integral to administration and business. Studies of literacy in North Africa have tended to centre around the administration, which was limited to the social elite. However, the majority of the population of North Africa did not live in urban centres.[76]

Judith George explains that "Analysis of the [Vandal] poems in their context holds up a mirror to the ways and values of the times".[77] Very little work of the poets of Vandal North Africa survives, but what does is found in the Latin Anthology; apart from their names, little is known about the poets themselves, not even when they were writing. Their work drew on earlier Roman traditions. Modern scholars generally hold the view that the Vandals allowed the Romans in North Africa to carry on with their way of life with only occasional interference.[78]

Legacy

Heinrich Leutemann, Plünderung Roms durch die Vandalen (c. 1860–1880)
The Vandals' traditional reputation: a coloured steel engraving of the Sack of Rome (455) by Heinrich Leutemann (1824–1904), c. 1860–80

Since the Middle Ages, kings of Denmark were styled "King of Denmark, the Goths and the Wends", the Wends being a group of West Slavs formerly living in Mecklenburg and eastern Holstein in modern Germany. The title "King of the Wends" is translated as vandalorum rex in Latin. The title was shortened to "King of Denmark" in 1972.[79] Starting in 1540, Swedish kings (following Denmark) were styled Suecorum, Gothorum et Vandalorum Rex ("King of the Swedes, Geats, and Wends").[80] Carl XVI Gustaf dropped the title in 1973 and now styles himself simply as "King of Sweden".

The modern term vandalism stems from the Vandals' reputation as the barbarian people who sacked and looted Rome in AD 455. The Vandals were probably not any more destructive than other invaders of ancient times, but writers who idealized Rome often blamed them for its destruction. For example, English Restoration poet John Dryden wrote, Till Goths, and Vandals, a rude Northern race, / Did all the matchless Monuments deface.[81] The term Vandalisme was coined in 1794 by Henri Grégoire, bishop of Blois, to describe the destruction of artwork following the French Revolution. The term was quickly adopted across Europe. This new use of the term was important in colouring the perception of the Vandals from later Late Antiquity, popularizing the pre-existing idea that they were a barbaric group with a taste for destruction. Vandals and other "barbarian" groups had long been blamed for the fall of the Roman Empire by writers and historians.[82]

Robin Hemley wrote a short story, "The Liberation of Rome," in which a professor of ancient history (mainly Roman) is confronted by a student claiming to be an ethnic Vandal.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Vandal". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved 8 March 2014.
  2. ^ a b "Germanic peoples". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved 8 March 2014.
  3. ^ a b "History of Europe: Barbarian migrations and invasions: The Germans and Huns". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Archived from the original on 2014-07-14. Retrieved 8 March 2014.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Waldman & Mason 2006, pp. 821–825
  5. ^ a b c Brian, Adam. "History of the Vandals". Roman Empire. Archived from the original on June 23, 2017. Retrieved May 21, 2017.
  6. ^ a b c "Spain: Visigothic Spain to c. 500". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved 8 March 2014.
  7. ^ Contrasting articles in Frank M. Clover and R.S. Humphreys, eds, Tradition and Innovation in Late Antiquity (University of Wisconsin Press) 1989, highlight the Vandals' role as continuators: Frank Clover stresses continuities in North African Roman mosaics and coinage and literature, whereas Averil Cameron, drawing upon archaeology, documents how swift were the social, religious and linguistic changes once the area was conquered by Byzantium and then by Islam.
  8. ^ Ulwencreutz, Lars (2013). Ulwencreutz's The Royal Families in Europe V. Lulu.com. p. 408.
  9. ^ R. Much, Wandalische Götter, Mitteilungen der Schlesischen Gesellschaft für Volkskunde 27, 1926, 20–41. "R. Much has brought forth a relatively convincing argument to show that the very name Vandal reflects the worship of the Divine Twins." Donald Ward, The divine twins: an Indo-European myth in Germanic tradition, University of California publications: Folklore studies, nr. 19, 1968, p. 53.
  10. ^ Annales Alamannici, 795 ad
  11. ^ Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum by Adam Bremensis 1075 ad
  12. ^ Roland Steinacher under Reiner Protsch "Studien zur vandalischen Geschichte. Die Gleichsetzung der Ethnonyme Wenden, Slawen und Vandalen vom Mittelalter bis ins 18. Jahrhundert Archived 2007-01-19 at the Wayback Machine", 2002
  13. ^ Lenček, Rado L. (1990). "The Terms Wende-Winde, Wendisch-Windisch in the Historiographic Tradition of the Slovene Lands". Slovene Studies Journal. 12 (2). ISSN 0193-1075. Archived from the original on 2012-11-08. Retrieved 2012-05-11.
  14. ^ "Natural History 4.28". Archived from the original on 2013-05-30. Retrieved 2014-01-14.
  15. ^ Orosius (417). The Anglo-Saxon Version, from the Historian Orosius (Alfred the Great ed.). London: Printed by W. Bowyer and J. Nichols and sold by S. Baker. Retrieved 28 March 2016.
  16. ^ "Land and People, p.25" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on September 26, 2007. Retrieved July 30, 2005.
  17. ^ a b Merrils 2004, pp. 32–33
  18. ^ a b Todd 2009, p. 25
  19. ^ a b Anderson 1938, p. 198
  20. ^ a b Wolfram 1997, p. 42
  21. ^ Waldman & Mason 2006, p. 498
  22. ^ a b "History of Europe: The Germans and Huns". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Archived from the original on 2014-07-14. Retrieved January 16, 2015.
  23. ^ "Ancient Rome: The barbarian invasions". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved January 16, 2015.
  24. ^ "Germanic peoples". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Archived from the original on 2013-11-20. Retrieved January 16, 2015.
  25. ^ a b "Germany: Ancient History". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Archived from the original on 2013-08-28. Retrieved January 16, 2015.
  26. ^ a b Procopius. History of the Wars. Book III. II
  27. ^ a b Merrils & Miles 2010, p. 30
  28. ^ Dio Cassius, 72.12
  29. ^ Merrils & Miles 2010, p. 27
  30. ^ a b c Schutte 2013, pp. 50–54
  31. ^ Jordanes chapter 22 Archived 2013-11-05 at the Wayback Machine
  32. ^ Heather 2005, p. 195
  33. ^ Merrils & Miles 2010, p. 34
  34. ^ Vasconcellos 1913, p. 551
  35. ^ Jaques 2007
  36. ^ Jaques 2007, p. 999
  37. ^ a b c d e f Merrils & Mill 2010, p. 50
  38. ^ Merrils & Mills 2010, pp. 49–50
  39. ^ a b c d Frasseto 2003, p. 173
  40. ^ a b Cossue (28 November 2005). "Breve historia del reino suevo de Gallaecia (1)". Celtiberia.net. Archived from the original on 2012-01-07. Retrieved 11 August 2010.
  41. ^ Mokhtar 1981, p. 281 (Volume 2)
  42. ^ Burke 1900, p. 410 (Volume 1)
  43. ^ "CNG Coins". Archived from the original on 2017-08-10. Retrieved 2017-08-10.
  44. ^ a b Collins 2000, p. 124
  45. ^ Procopius Wars 3.5.18–19 in Heather 2005, p. 512
  46. ^ Heather 2005, pp. 197–198
  47. ^ Procopius Wars 3.5.23–24 in Collins 2004, p. 124
  48. ^ a b c Merrils & Mills 2010, pp. 53–55
  49. ^ a b c d Reynolds, pp. 130–131
  50. ^ "Newadvent.org". Archived from the original on 2017-10-20. Retrieved 2009-05-18.
  51. ^ Merrils & Mills 2010, p. 60
  52. ^ Collins 2004, pp. 124–125
  53. ^ J.B. Bury, History of the Later Roman Empire, Dover Vol. I. pp. 254, 258, 410 Library of Congress Catalog Number -58-11273
  54. ^ Cameron 2000, pp. 553–554
  55. ^ Merrills 2004, p. 10
  56. ^ Merrills 2004, p. 11
  57. ^ a b c d Collins 2000, p. 125
  58. ^ a b Cameron 2000, p. 553
  59. ^ Patout Burns, J.; Jensen, Robin M. (November 30, 2014). Christianity in Roman Africa: The Development of Its Practices and Beliefs– Google Knihy. ISBN 978-0-8028-6931-9. Archived from the original on 2016-12-26. Retrieved 2016-12-25.
  60. ^ "Mediterranean". Online Etymology Dictionary. Archived from the original on 2014-04-13. Retrieved 12 April 2014.
  61. ^ Prosper's account of the event was followed by his continuator in the sixth century, Victor of Tunnuna, a great admirer of Leo quite willing to adjust a date or bend a point (Steven Muhlberger, "Prosper's Epitoma Chronicon: was there an edition of 443?" Classical Philology 81.3 (July 1986), pp 240–244).
  62. ^ Jaques 2007, p. 264
  63. ^ Jaques 2008, p. 383
  64. ^ a b Greenhalgh & Eliopoulos 1985, p. 21
  65. ^ Bury 1923, p. 125
  66. ^ Merrills 2004, pp. 11–12
  67. ^ Collins 2004, pp. 125–126
  68. ^ Cameron 2000, p. 555
  69. ^ a b c Löffler 1912
  70. ^ a b Bury 1923, p. 131
  71. ^ a b Collins 2004, p. 126
  72. ^ Bury 1923, pp. 133–135
  73. ^ Bury 1923, pp. 124–150
  74. ^ Mallory & Adams 1997, pp. 217, 301
  75. ^ Wickham 2009, p. 77
  76. ^ Conant 2004, pp. 199–200
  77. ^ George 2004, p. 138
  78. ^ George 2004, pp. 138–139
  79. ^ Norman Berdichevsky (21 September 2011). An Introduction to Danish Culture. McFarland. p. 163. ISBN 978-0-7864-6401-2. Retrieved 3 October 2012.
  80. ^ J. Guinchard (1914). Sweden: Historical and statistical handbook. Stockholm: P. A. Norstedt & Söner. p. 188. Archived from the original on 2013-05-26. Retrieved 2012-10-03.
  81. ^ Dryden, John, "To Sir Godfrey Kneller", 1694. Dryden also wrote of Renaissance Italy "reviving from the trance/Of Vandal, Goth and Monkish ignorance. ("To the Earl of Roscommon", 1680).
  82. ^ Merrills & Miles 2010, pp. 9–10

Bibliography

Attribution:

Further reading

  • Blume, Mary. "Vandals Exhibit Sacks Some Cultural Myths", International Herald Tribune, August 25, 2001.
  • Christian Courtois: Les Vandales et l'Afrique. Paris 1955
  • Clover, Frank M: The Late Roman West and the Vandals. Aldershot 1993 (Collected studies series 401), ISBN 0-86078-354-5
  • Die Vandalen: die Könige, die Eliten, die Krieger, die Handwerker. Publikation zur Ausstellung "Die Vandalen"; eine Ausstellung der Maria-Curie-Sklodowska-Universität Lublin und des Landesmuseums Zamość ... ; Ausstellung im Weserrenaissance-Schloss Bevern ... Nordstemmen 2003. ISBN 3-9805898-6-2
  • John Julius Norwich, Byzantium: The Early Centuries
  • F. Papencordt's Geschichte der vandalischen Herrschaft in Afrika
  • Guido M. Berndt, Konflikt und Anpassung: Studien zu Migration und Ethnogenese der Vandalen (Historische Studien 489, Husum 2007), ISBN 978-3-7868-1489-4.
  • Hans-Joachim Diesner: Vandalen. In: Paulys Realencyclopädie der class. Altertumswissenschaft (RE Suppl. X, 1965), S. 957–992.
  • Hans-Joachim Diesner: Das Vandalenreich. Aufstieg und Untergang. Stuttgart 1966. 5.
  • Helmut Castritius: Die Vandalen. Etappen einer Spurensuche. Stuttgart u.a. 2007.
  • Ivor J. Davidson, A Public Faith, Chapter 11, Christians and Barbarians, Volume 2 of Baker History of the Church, 2005, ISBN 0-8010-1275-9
  • L'Afrique vandale et Byzantine. Teil 1. Turnhout 2002 (Antiquité Tardive 10), ISBN 2-503-51275-5.
  • L'Afrique vandale et Byzantine. Teil 2, Turnhout 2003 (Antiquité Tardive 11), ISBN 2-503-52262-9.
  • Lord Mahon Philip Henry Stanhope, 5th Earl Stanhope, The Life of Belisarius, 1848. Reprinted 2006 (unabridged with editorial comments) Evolution Publishing, ISBN 1-889758-67-1. Evolpub.com
  • Ludwig Schmidt: Geschichte der Wandalen. 2. Auflage, München 1942.
  • Pauly-Wissowa
  • Pierre Courcelle: Histoire littéraire des grandes invasions germaniques. 3rd edition Paris 1964 (Collection des études Augustiniennes: Série antiquité, 19).
  • Roland Steinacher: Vandalen – Rezeptions- und Wissenschaftsgeschichte. In: Hubert Cancik (Hrsg.): Der Neue Pauly, Stuttgart 2003, Band 15/3, S. 942–946, ISBN 3-476-01489-4.
  • Roland Steinacher: Wenden, Slawen, Vandalen. Eine frühmittelalterliche pseudologische Gleichsetzung und ihr Nachleben bis ins 18. Jahrhundert. In: W. Pohl (Hrsg.): Auf der Suche nach den Ursprüngen. Von der Bedeutung des frühen Mittelalters (Forschungen zur Geschichte des Mittelalters 8), Wien 2004, S. 329–353. Uibk.ac.at
  • Stefan Donecker; Roland Steinacher, Rex Vandalorum – The Debates on Wends and Vandals in Swedish Humanism as an Indicator for Early Modern Patterns of Ethnic Perception, in: ed. Robert Nedoma, Der Norden im Ausland – das Ausland im Norden. Formung und Transformation von Konzepten und Bildern des Anderen vom Mittelalter bis heute (Wiener Studien zur Skandinavistik 15, Wien 2006) 242–252. Uibk.ac.at
  • Victor of Vita, History of the Vandal Persecution ISBN 0-85323-127-3. Written 484.
  • Walter Pohl: Die Völkerwanderung. Eroberung und Integration. Stuttgart 2002, S. 70–86, ISBN 3-17-015566-0.
  • Westermann, Grosser Atlas zur Weltgeschichte (in German)
  • Yves Modéran: Les Maures et l'Afrique romaine. 4e.-7e. siècle. Rom 2003 (Bibliothèque des Écoles françaises d'Athènes et de Rome, 314), ISBN 2-7283-0640-0.
  • Robert Kasperski, Ethnicity, ethnogenesis, and the Vandals: Some Remarks on a Theory of Emergence of the Barbarian Gens, „Acta Poloniae Historia” 112, 2015, pp. 201–242.

External links

1927 Idaho Vandals football team

The 1927 Idaho Vandals football team represented the University of Idaho in the 1927 college football season. The Vandals were led by second-year head coach Charles Erb and were members of the Pacific Coast Conference. Home games were played on campus in Moscow at MacLean Field.

Idaho compiled a 4–1–3 overall record and went undefeated in their four conference games at 2–0–2. They did not play the three California schools (Stanford, California, and USC) or Washington. (UCLA joined the conference the following year.)

In the Battle of the Palouse with neighbor Washington State, the Vandals tied 7–7 at Rogers Field in Pullman on Friday, November 11. The Cougars broke the Vandals' three-game winning streak (1923–25) in the rivalry game the previous year.

The only loss was to Gonzaga in the finale; the Bulldogs won 13–0 at Gonzaga Stadium in Spokane on November 26.

1963 Idaho Vandals football team

The 1963 Idaho Vandals football team represented the University of Idaho in the 1963 NCAA University Division football season. The Vandals were led by second-year head coach Dee Andros and were an independent in the NCAA's University Division. Three home games were played on campus at Neale Stadium in Moscow, with one in Boise at old Bronco Stadium at Boise Junior College.

1982 Idaho Vandals football team

The 1982 Idaho Vandals football team represented the University of Idaho in the 1982 NCAA Division I-AA football season. The Vandals, led by first-year head coach Dennis Erickson, were members of the Big Sky Conference and played their home games at the Kibbie Dome, an indoor facility on campus in Moscow, Idaho.

Led by junior quarterback Ken Hobart, the Vandals finished 8–3 in the regular season and 5–2 in the Big Sky in a three-way tie for first, and qualified for the post-season for the first time in school history. Idaho defeated rival Boise State for the first time in six years, the first of twelve straight over the Broncos. The Vandals also defeated Idaho State, the defending conference and national champions; the consecutive intrastate games were both on the road.

Idaho rebounded from the previous season, in which they were preseason favorites, but finished 3–8 overall and winless in conference play under fourth-year head coach Jerry Davitch. The 1981 team lost their final six games, finishing with a fifth consecutive loss to Boise State.

The Vandals won all six home games in 1982 and finished at 9–4 overall. The nine victories were the most in school history, later surpassed only by the 1988 and 1993 teams, both of which won 11 games and reached the I-AA semifinals.

1985 Idaho Vandals football team

The 1985 Idaho Vandals football team represented the University of Idaho in the 1985 NCAA Division I-AA football season. The Vandals, led by fourth-year head coach Dennis Erickson, were members of the Big Sky Conference and played their home games at the Kibbie Dome, an indoor facility on campus in Moscow, Idaho.

The Vandals won their first outright conference title since 1971 (the 1982 team tied for the title, but lost the head-to-head tiebreaker to Montana). Led by quarterbacks Scott Linehan and Rick Sloan, Idaho finished the regular season at 9–2 and 6–1 in the Big Sky.

The 1985 season marked the first time in school history that the Vandals had four consecutive winning seasons in football.

1987 Idaho Vandals football team

The 1987 Idaho Vandals football team represented the University of Idaho in the 1987 NCAA Division I-AA football season. The Vandals, led by second-year head coach Keith Gilbertson, were members of the Big Sky Conference and played their home games at the Kibbie Dome, an indoor facility on campus in Moscow, Idaho.

The Vandals won their second conference title in three seasons, and made the I-AA playoffs for the third consecutive season. Led by redshirt sophomore quarterback John Friesz, Idaho finished the regular season at 9–2 and 7–1 in the Big Sky.

1989 Idaho Vandals football team

The 1989 Idaho Vandals football team represented the University of Idaho in the 1989 NCAA Division I-AA football season. The Vandals, led by first-year head coach John L. Smith, were members of the Big Sky Conference and played their home games at the Kibbie Dome, an indoor facility on campus in Moscow, Idaho.

The Vandals won their third consecutive conference title (fourth in five years), and made the I-AA playoffs for the fifth consecutive season, under a third head coach. Led by senior All-American quarterback John Friesz, Idaho finished the regular season at 9–2 and 8–0 in the Big Sky.

2014 Idaho Vandals football team

The 2014 Idaho Vandals football team represented the University of Idaho in the 2014 NCAA Division I FBS football season. The Vandals are led by second year head coach Paul Petrino and play their home games on campus in Moscow at the Kibbie Dome. They finished the season 1–10, 1–7 in conference play to finish in a tie for ninth place.

Idaho returned to the Sun Belt Conference as a "football only" member in 2014; they previously competed in the conference in the same capacity from 2001 through 2004. Idaho was an independent for football in 2013. The team was ineligible for postseason play regardless of their final record due to an insufficient Academic Progress Rate.

Alans

The Alans (Latin: Alani) were an Iranian nomadic pastoral people of antiquity.The name Alan is an Iranian dialectical form of Aryan. Possibly related to the Massagetae, the Alans have been connected by modern historians with the Central Asian Yancai and Aorsi of Chinese and Roman sources, respectively. Having migrated westwards and become dominant among the Sarmatians on the Pontic Steppe, they are mentioned by Roman sources in the 1st century AD. At the time, they had settled the region north of the Black Sea and frequently raided the Parthian Empire and the Caucasian provinces of the Roman Empire. From 215–250 AD, their power on the Pontic Steppe was broken by the Goths.Upon the Hunnic defeat of the Goths on the Pontic Steppe around 375 AD, many of the Alans migrated westwards along with various Germanic tribes. They crossed the Rhine in 406 AD along with the Vandals and Suebi, settling in Orléans and Valence. Around 409 AD, they joined the Vandals and Suebi in the crossing of the Pyrenees into the Iberian Peninsula, settling in Lusitania and Carthaginensis. The Iberian Alans were soundly defeated by the Visigoths in 418 AD and subsequently surrendered their authority to the Hasdingi Vandals. In 428 AD, the Vandals and Alans crossed the Strait of Gibraltar into North Africa, where they founded a powerful kingdom which lasted until its conquest by the Byzantine Emperor Justinian I in the 6th century AD.The Alans who remained under Hunnic rule founded a powerful kingdom in the North Caucasus in the Middle Ages, which ended with the Mongol invasions in the 13th century AD. These Alans are said to be the ancestors of the modern Ossetians.The Alans spoke an Eastern Iranian language which derived from Scytho-Sarmatian and which in turn evolved into modern Ossetian.

Gaiseric

Gaiseric (c. 400 – 25 January 477), also known as Geiseric or Genseric (Latin: Gaisericus, Geisericus; reconstructed Vandalic: *Gaisarīks), was King of the Vandals and Alans (428–477) who established the Vandal Kingdom and was one of the key players in the troubles of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century. During his nearly 50 years of rule, he raised a relatively insignificant Germanic tribe to the status of a major Mediterranean power. After he died, they entered a swift decline and eventual collapse.

Succeeding his brother Gunderic at a time when the Vandals were settled in Baetica, Roman Hispania (modern Andalusia, Spain), Gaiseric successfully defended himself against a Suebian attack and transported all his people, around 80,000, to Northern Africa in 428. He might have been invited by the Roman governor Bonifacius, who wished to use the military strength of the Vandals in his struggle against the imperial government.

Gaiseric caused great devastation as he moved eastward from the Strait of Gibraltar across Africa. He turned on Bonifacius, defeated his army in 430, and then crushed the joint forces of the Eastern and Western empires that had been sent against him. In 435 Gaiseric concluded a treaty with the Romans under which the Vandals retained Mauretania and part of Numidia as foederati (allies under special treaty) of Rome. In a surprise move on 19 October 439, Gaiseric captured Carthage, striking a devastating blow at imperial power. In a 442 treaty with Rome, the Vandals were recognized as the independent rulers of Byzacena and part of Numidia. He besieged Panormus (Palermo Sicily in 440 AD but was repulsed; and made an incursion near Agrigento in 456 but was repulsed there and defeated by Ricimer in a naval battle off the coast of Corsica. He did in 455 seize the Balearic Islands, Sardinia, Corsica, and Malta, Gaiseric’s fleet soon came to control much of the western Mediterranean. He occupied Sicily in 468 for 8 years until the island was ceded in 476 to Odavacer except for a toehold on the far west coast, Lilybaeum, also was ceded in 491 to Theodoric.p. 410.His most famous exploit, however, was the capture and plundering of Rome in June 455. Subsequently, the King defeated two major efforts by the Romans to overthrow him, that of the emperor Majorian in 460 or 461 and that led by Basiliscus at the Battle of Cape Bon in 468. After dying in Carthage at the age of 77, Gaiseric was succeeded by his son Huneric.

Go, Vandals, Go

Go, Vandals, Go is the official fight song of the University of Idaho in Moscow.

The song was composed 89 years ago in 1930 by John Morris "Morey" O'Donnell (1912–1977), the freshman class vice president from Granite (between Coeur d'Alene and Sandpoint). He graduated from Coeur d'Alene High School, the UI law school, and became a prominent attorney in the state at Moscow. A member of Phi Delta Theta fraternity, O'Donnell was a talented pianist and had played internationally before college.The song was the freshman class' winning entry in the university's annual song and stunt fest in May 1930, and was soon played by the UI pep band at football games at MacLean Field. Previously, the Vandals had used a variation of On, Wisconsin as its fight song.Most fight songs are hard to sing because of the fast beat used to make them sound spirited. However, O'Donnell wrote the song almost entirely with whole notes and half notes to make it easy for a large football crowd to sing; he also added a heavy drumbeat to carry the spirit.

For many years, it has been cited as one of the top fight songs in the United States. For example, 2002, Norm Maves, Jr. of The Oregonian in Portland described it as "the once and future king of college fight songs, with a fanfare lead-in that could motivate a successful infantry charge."

Hasdingi

The Hasdingi were the southern tribes of the Vandals, an East Germanic tribe. They lived in areas of today's southern Poland, western Ukraine, Slovakia and Hungary. They participated in the migratory movements of the Vandals into the Iberian peninsula, and subsequently to North Africa.

The Hasdingi crossed the Rhine into Gaul in 406 AD, although their king Godigisel lost his life in battle against the Franks during the crossing. The Hasdingi settled as foederati in Gallaecia (today Galicia, Asturias and the north of Portugal) along with the Suebi in 409 AD and their kingdom was one of the earliest Barbarian territories to be founded after the fall of the Western Roman Empire.

Gunderic, Godegisel's successor as king of the Hasdingi, lost his kingdom to king Hermeric of the Suebi in 419 after the Battle of the Nervasos Mountains where the Vandals were overwhelmed by an allied force of Suebi and Romans. He fled to Baetica with his army where he became king of the Silingi Vandals and of the Alans. Gunderic was succeeded by his brother Genseric in 428 AD, who subsequently fled from Iberia to North Africa where he established a kingdom at Carthage.

Idaho Vandals

The Idaho Vandals are the intercollegiate athletic teams representing the University of Idaho, located in Moscow. The Vandals compete at the NCAA Division I level as a member of the Big Sky Conference.

The football team was an independent for the 2013 season due to a major wave of departures from the WAC that left just two football-playing schools. In July 2014, Idaho returned its football team to the Sun Belt Conference and the other sports rejoined the Big Sky Conference.The university's official colors are silver and gold, honoring the state's mining tradition. Because these metallic colors in tandem are not visually complementary for athletic uniforms, black and gold are the prevalent colors for the athletic teams, with an occasional use of silver, similar to Colorado, whose official colors are also silver and gold. When Idaho moved out of the Big Sky to the Big West in 1996, the yellow "Green Bay" gold was changed to metallic "Vegas" gold. Yellow gold and black were the colors used by most of the varsity teams from 1978 to 1996, initiated by first-year head football coach Jerry Davitch's new uniforms for 1978.

On April 27, 2016, it was reported that the Vandals would become the first football program to voluntarily drop from the FBS level to the FCS level, beginning in 2018. All previous programs to have moved from FBS to FCS level did so because the NCAA downgraded either the individual programs or their conferences.

Idaho Vandals football

The Idaho Vandals are the college football team that represents the University of Idaho and plays its home games at the Kibbie Dome, an indoor facility on campus in Moscow, Idaho. Idaho is a member of the Big Sky Conference in the Football Championship Subdivision (FCS). The current head coach is Paul Petrino, who began his tenure in 2013.

The Idaho football program began 126 years ago in 1893, and through the 2017 season, the Vandals have an all-time record of 463–611–27 (.433). They have played in three bowl games in their history, all victories in the Humanitarian/Famous Idaho Potato Bowl in Boise in 1998, 2009, and 2016. As a Division I-AA (FCS) program for 18 seasons (1978–1995), Idaho made the playoffs eleven times and advanced to the national semifinals twice (1988, 1993).

On April 28, 2016, university president Chuck Staben announced the football program would return to the Big Sky and FCS in 2018. This followed the Sun Belt Conference's announcement on March 1 that the associate membership of Idaho and New Mexico State for football would end after the 2017 season. Idaho is the first FBS program to voluntarily drop to FCS.

Idaho Vandals men's basketball

The Idaho Vandals men's basketball team represents the University of Idaho, located in Moscow, Idaho, in NCAA Division I basketball competition. They currently compete in the Big Sky Conference. The Vandals are currently coached by Don Verlin and play their home games on campus at the Cowan Spectrum (7,000) at the Kibbie Dome; the Memorial Gym is the alternate venue. The university is preparing to build the new Idaho Central Credit Union Arena; when the 4,200-seat venue opens in 2021, the men's basketball team, as well as the women's basketball and volleyball teams, will move to the new facility.The program's two most notable seasons were in 1962–63 and 1981–82. The Vandals went 20–6 in 1963 and featured future hall of famer Gus Johnson. The 1982 team (27–3) was ranked sixth in both polls at the end of the regular season, repeated as regular season and conference tournament champions, and reached the Sweet Sixteen of the NCAA tournament.

Josh Freese

Joshua Ryan Freese (born December 25, 1972) is an American session drummer, multi-instrumentalist, songwriter, and composer.

He is a permanent member of The Vandals and Devo, having formerly played drums for Guns N' Roses from 1997 to 2000, A Perfect Circle from 1999 to 2012, Nine Inch Nails from 2005 to 2008, Weezer from 2009 to 2011, and Sublime with Rome from 2012 to 2017. He has appeared on over 400 records. In December 2010, Freese began touring with Paramore on their South American tour. In fall 2016 he returned to playing full-time with Sting whom he toured and recorded with in 2005.

Kibbie Dome

The William H. Kibbie-ASUI Activity Center (commonly known as the Kibbie Dome) is a multi-purpose indoor athletic stadium in the northwest United States, on the campus of the University of Idaho in Moscow, Idaho. It is the home of the Idaho Vandals and is used for intercollegiate competition in five sports: football, basketball, tennis, indoor track & field, and soccer.

The Kibbie Dome opened 48 years ago as an outdoor concrete football stadium in October 1971, built on the same site of the demolished wooden Neale Stadium (1937–68), seen in this early 1950s photo. Following the 1974 football season, a barrel-arched roof and vertical end walls were added in ten months and the stadium re-opened as an enclosed facility in September 1975.

With just 16,000 permanent seats, it was the second smallest home stadium for college football in Division I FBS (formerly Division I-A), but Idaho football has rejoined the FCS and is a member of the Big Sky Conference. Since February 2001, the Kibbie Dome has been reconfigured for basketball games and is referred to as the Cowan Spectrum, seating 7,000. The elevation of the playing surface is 2,610 feet (800 m) above sea level.

The Vandals

The Vandals are a punk rock band from the United States established in 1980 in Orange County, California. They have released ten full-length studio albums, two live albums, and have toured the world extensively, including performances on the Vans Warped Tour. They are well known for their use of humor, preferring to use their music as a vehicle for comedy and sarcasm rather than as a platform for more serious issues. As of 2000, they are signed to Kung Fu Records.

The band's lineup fluctuated significantly over their first nine years, though founding members Steven Ronald Jensen, guitarist Jan Nils Ackermann, and first consistent drummer Joe Escalante remained regular fixtures. Of the early members, only Escalante has remained through all subsequent incarnations of the band. The current lineup of Escalante, Dave Quackenbush, Warren Fitzgerald, and Josh Freese has remained intact since 1990 and is generally considered far removed from the band's early 1980s incarnation. Since 2002 Escalante has released all of the band's albums through his Kung Fu Records label, with Fitzgerald generally producing.

Vandal Kingdom

The Vandal Kingdom (Latin: Regnum Vandalum) or Kingdom of the Vandals and Alans (Latin: Regnum Vandalorum et Alanorum) was established by the Germanic Vandal people under Genseric, and ruled in North Africa and the Mediterranean from 435 AD to 534 AD.

In 429, the Vandals, estimated to number 80,000 people, had crossed by boat from Spain to North Africa. They advanced eastward conquering the coastal regions of 21st century Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia. In 435, the Roman Empire, then ruling in North Africa, allowed the Vandals to settle in the provinces of Numidia and Mauretania when it became clear that the Vandal army could not be defeated by Roman military forces. In 439 the Vandals renewed their advance eastward and captured Carthage, the most important city of North Africa. The fledgling kingdom then conquered the Roman-ruled islands of Sicily, Sardinia, and Corsica in the Mediterranean Sea. In the 460s the Romans launched two unsuccessful military expeditions by sea in an attempt to overthrow the Vandals and reclaim North Africa. The conquest of North Africa by the Vandals was a blow to the beleaguered Western Roman Empire as North Africa was a major source of revenue and a supplier of grain (mostly wheat) to the city of Rome.

Although primarily remembered for the sack of Rome in 455 and their persecution of Nicene Christians in favor of Arian Christianity, the Vandals were also patrons of learning. Grand building projects continued, schools flourished and North Africa fostered many of the most innovative writers and natural scientists of the late Latin Western Roman Empire.The Vandal Kingdom ended in 534 when it was conquered by Belisarius in the Vandalic War and incorporated into the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire.

Vandalism on Wikipedia

On Wikipedia, vandalism is the act of editing the project in a malicious manner that is intentionally disruptive. Vandalism includes the addition, removal, or modification of the text or other material that is either humorous, nonsensical, a hoax, or that is an offensive, humiliating, or otherwise degrading nature.

Throughout its history, Wikipedia has struggled to maintain a balance between allowing the freedom of open editing and protecting the accuracy of its information when false information can be potentially damaging to its subjects. Vandalism is easy to commit on Wikipedia because anyone can edit the site, with the exception of articles that are currently semi-protected, which means that new and unregistered users cannot edit them.

Vandalism can be committed by either guest editors or those with registered accounts; however, a semi-protected or protected page can only be edited by autoconfirmed or confirmed Wikipedia editors, or administrators, respectively. Frequent targets of vandalism include articles on hot and controversial topics, famous celebrities, and current events. In some cases, people have been falsely reported as having died. This has notably occurred to United States Senators Ted Kennedy and Robert Byrd (both of whom are now deceased), and American rapper Kanye West (who is alive).The challenge from vandalism on Wikipedia was once characterized by the Former Encyclopædia Britannica editor-in-chief Robert McHenry: "The user who visits Wikipedia ... is rather in the position of a visitor to a public restroom. It may be obviously dirty so that he knows to exercise great care, or it may seem fairly clean, so that he may be lulled into a false sense of security. What he certainly does not know is who has used the facilities before him."

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