In botanical nomenclature, a validly published name is a name that meets the requirements in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants for valid publication. Valid publication of a name represents the minimum requirements for a botanical name to exist: terms that appear to be names but have not been validly published are referred to in the ICN as "designations".
Nevertheless, invalid names (nomen invalidum, nom. inval.) are sometimes in use. This may occur when a taxonomist finds and recognises a taxon and thinks of a name, but delays publishing it in an adequate manner. A common reason for this is that a taxonomist intends to write a magnum opus that provides an overview of the group, rather than a series of small papers. Another reason is that the code of nomenclature changes with time, and most changes have retroactive effect, which has resulted in some names that the author thought were validly published, becoming invalid.
In zoology, the term "valid name" has a different meaning, analogous to (corresponding to) the botanical term "correct name". The term "validly published name" is more like (and it corresponds to) the zoological term "available name".
Aquifex is a genus of bacteria, one of the few in the phylum Aquificae. There is one species of Aquifex with a validly published name - A. pyrophilus - but "A. aeolicus" is sometimes considered as species though it has no standing as a name given it has not been validly or effectively published. Aquifex spp. are extreme thermophiles, growing best at temperature of 85 °C to 95 °C. They are members of the Bacteria as opposed to the other inhabitants of extreme environments, the Archaea.Aquifex spp. are rod-shaped bacteria with a length of 2 to 6 µm and a diameter of around 0.5 µm. They are non-sporeforming, Gram negative autotrophs. Aquifex means water-maker in Latin, and refers to the fact that its method of respiration creates water. Aquifex tend to form cell aggregates composed of up to 100 individual cells.
Aquifex spp. are thermophilic and often grow near underwater volcanoes or hot springs. A. aeolicus requires oxygen to survive, but can grow in levels of oxygen as low as 7.5 ppm. A. pyrophilus can even grow anaerobically by reducing nitrogen instead of oxygen. Like other thermophilic bacteria, Aquifex has important uses in industrial processes.
The genome of "A. aeolicus" has been completed., This was made easier by the fact that the length of the genome is only about a third of the length of the genome for E. coli. Comparison of the A. aeolicus genome to other organisms showed that around 16% of its genes originated from the Archaea domain. Members of this genus are thought to be some of the earliest members of the eubacteria domain.
"A. aeolicus" was discovered north of Sicily, while A. pyrophilus was first found just north of Iceland.Available name
In zoology, an available name is a scientific name for a taxon of animals that has been published conforming to all the mandatory provisions of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature for the establishment of a zoological name.
For a name to be available, there are a number of general requirements it must fulfill: it must use only the Latin alphabet, be published in a timely fashion by a reputable source, etc. In some rare cases, a name which does not meet these requirements may nevertheless be available, for historical reasons.An available name is not necessarily a valid name, because an available name may be in synonymy. However, a valid name must always be an available one.Botanical name
A botanical name is a formal scientific name conforming to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) and, if it concerns a plant cultigen, the additional cultivar or Group epithets must conform to the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP). The code of nomenclature covers "all organisms traditionally treated as algae, fungi, or plants, whether fossil or non-fossil, including blue-green algae (Cyanobacteria), chytrids, oomycetes, slime moulds and photosynthetic protists with their taxonomically related non-photosynthetic groups (but excluding Microsporidia)."The purpose of a formal name is to have a single name that is accepted and used worldwide for a particular plant or plant group. For example, the botanical name Bellis perennis denotes a plant species which is native to most of the countries of Europe and the Middle East, where it has accumulated various names in many languages. Later, the plant was introduced worldwide, bringing it into contact with more languages. English names for this plant species include: daisy, English daisy, and lawn daisy. The cultivar Bellis perennis 'Aucubifolia' is a golden-variegated horticultural selection of this species.Cryosophila
Cryosophila is a genus of medium-sized fan palms that range from central Mexico to northern Colombia. Species in the genus can be readily distinguished from related genera by their distinctive downward-pointing spines on the stem, which are actually modified roots. They are known as the "root spine palms".Gaura parviflora
Gaura parviflora (syn. G. mollis E.James; velvetweed, velvety gaura, downy gaura, or smallflower gaura) is a species of Gaura native to the central United States and northern Mexico, from Nebraska and Wyoming south to Durango and Nuevo Leon.It is an annual plant growing to 0.2–2 m (rarely 3 m) tall, unbranched, or if branched, only below the flower spikes. The leaves are 2–20 centimetres (0.79–7.87 in) long, lance-shaped, and are covered with soft hair. The flower spikes are 20–30 centimetres (7.9–11.8 in) long, covered with green flower buds, which open at night or before dawn with small flowers 5 millimetres (0.20 in) diameter with four pink petals.Genus
A genus (, pl. genera ) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology. In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family. In binomial nomenclature, the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus.
E.g. Panthera leo (lion) and Panthera onca (jaguar) are two species within the genus Panthera. Panthera is a genus within the family Felidae.The composition of a genus is determined by a taxonomist. The standards for genus classification are not strictly codified, so different authorities often produce different classifications for genera. There are some general practices used, however, including the idea that a newly defined genus should fulfill these three criteria to be descriptively useful:
monophyly – all descendants of an ancestral taxon are grouped together (i.e. phylogenetic analysis should clearly demonstrate both monophyly and validity as a separate lineage).
reasonable compactness – a genus should not be expanded needlessly; and
distinctness – with respect to evolutionarily relevant criteria, i.e. ecology, morphology, or biogeography; DNA sequences are a consequence rather than a condition of diverging evolutionary lineages except in cases where they directly inhibit gene flow (e.g. postzygotic barriers).Moreover, genera should be composed of phylogenetic units of the same kind as other (analogous) genera.Infraspecific name
In botany, an infraspecific name is the scientific name for any taxon below the rank of species, i.e. an infraspecific taxon. (A "taxon", plural "taxa", is a group of organisms to be given a particular name.) The scientific names of botanical taxa are regulated by the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN). This specifies a 'three part name' for infraspecific taxa, plus a 'connecting term' to indicate the rank of the name. An example of such a name is Astrophytum myriostigma subvar. glabrum, the name of a subvariety of the species Astrophytum myriostigma (bishop's hat cactus).
Names below the rank of species of cultivated kinds of plants and of animals are regulated by different codes of nomenclature and are formed somewhat differently.Melaleuca glauca
Melaleuca glauca, commonly known as Albany bottlebrush is a plant in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae and is endemic to the south-west of Western Australia. (Some Australian state herbaria continue to use the name Callistemon glaucus. Lyndley Craven claims that there is no type material for Callistemon speciosus and includes it here as a synonym.) It is a tall shrub with glaucous leaves and spikes of red flowers in spring.Nepenthes viridis
Nepenthes viridis is a tropical pitcher plant endemic to the Philippines. It is known only from coastal areas at low altitude and has been recorded from Dinagat, Samar, and a number of surrounding islets. It is closely allied to the N. alata group of species.The specific epithet viridis is Latin for "green" and refers to the plant's typical yellowish-green pitcher colouration, which is maintained irrespective of sun exposure.Nomen illegitimum
Nomen illegitimum (Latin for illegitimate name) is a technical term, used mainly in botany. It is usually abbreviated as nom. illeg. Although the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants uses Latin terms for other kinds of name (e.g. nomen conservandum for "conserved name"), the glossary defines the English phrase "illegitimate name" rather than the Latin equivalent. However, the Latin abbreviation is widely used by botanists and mycologists.
A superfluous name is often an illegitimate name. Again, although the glossary defines the English phrase, the Latin equivalent nomen superfluum, abbreviated nom. superfl. is widely used by botanists.Rhizoctonia
Rhizoctonia is a genus of anamorphic fungi in the order Cantharellales. Species do not produce spores, but are composed of hyphae and sclerotia (hyphal propagules) and are asexual states of fungi in the genus Thanatephorus. Rhizoctonia species are saprotrophic, but are also facultative plant pathogens, causing commercially important crop diseases. They are also endomycorrhizal associates of orchids. The genus name was formerly used to accommodate many superficially similar, but unrelated fungi.Sanvitalia
The creeping zinnias (genus Sanvitalia ) are plants belonging to the sunflower family. They are native to mostly to Mexico, with a few species in Central America, South America, and the Southwestern United States.
SpeciesSanvitalia abertii A.Gray - Abert's creeping zinnia - Mexico (Sonora), southwestern United States (CA NV AZ NM TX)
Sanvitalia acapulcensis (DC.) Benth. & Hook.f. ex Hemsl. - Guerrero
Sanvitalia angustifolia Engelm. ex A.Gray - Coahuila, Chihuahua, Guanajuato, Nuevo León, San Luis Potosí; introduced in western Texas
Sanvitalia fruticosa Hemsl. - Puebla, Oaxaca, Guanajuato
Sanvitalia ocymoides DC. -- yellow creeping zinnia - Tamaulipas, Nuevo León, Texas
Sanvitalia procumbens Lam. - Mexican creeping zinnia - Mexico from Chihuahua to Chiapas; Central America; naturalized in scattered locations in Europe, East Asia, South America, and United States
Sanvitalia versicolor Griseb. - Bolivia, Paraguay, ArgentinaNote: Sanvitalia speciosa is a term commonly used in the horticultural trade, but this is not a validly published name. Many specimens so labelled are not even Sanvitalia, and is most likely Melampodium.Scarlet myzomela
The scarlet myzomela or scarlet honeyeater (Myzomela sanguinolenta) is a small passerine bird of the honeyeater family Meliphagidae native to Australia. It was described by English ornithologist John Latham in 1801. At 9 to 11 centimetres (3.5 to 4.3 in) long, it is the smallest honeyeater in Australia. It has a short tail and relatively long down-curved bill. It is sexually dimorphic; the male is a striking bright red with black wings, while the female is entirely brown. It is more vocal than most honeyeaters, and a variety of calls have been recorded, including a bell-like tinkling.
The scarlet myzomela is found along most of the eastern coastline, from Cape York in the far north to Gippsland in Victoria. It is migratory in the southern parts of its range, with populations moving north in the winter. Its natural habitat is forest, where it forages mainly in the upper tree canopy. It is omnivorous, feeding on insects as well as nectar. Up to three broods may be raised over the course of a breeding season. The female lays two or rarely three flecked white eggs in a 5 centimetres (2 in) diameter cup-shaped nest high in a tree. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has assessed it as being of least concern on account of its large range and apparently stable population.Species
In biology, a species ( (listen)) is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individuals of the appropriate sexes or mating types can produce fertile offspring, typically by sexual reproduction. Other ways of defining species include their karyotype, DNA sequence, morphology, behaviour or ecological niche. In addition, paleontologists use the concept of the chronospecies since fossil reproduction cannot be examined.
All species (except viruses) are given a two-part name, a "binomial". The first part of a binomial is the genus to which the species belongs. The second part is called the specific name or the specific epithet (in botanical nomenclature, also sometimes in zoological nomenclature). For example, Boa constrictor is one of four species of the genus Boa.
While the definitions given above may seem adequate, when looked at more closely they represent problematic species concepts. For example, the boundaries between closely related species become unclear with hybridisation, in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies, and in a ring species. Also, among organisms that reproduce only asexually, the concept of a reproductive species breaks down, and each clone is potentially a microspecies. Though none of these are entirely satisfactory definitions, scientists and conservationists need a species definition which allows them to work, regardless of the theoretical difficulties. If species were fixed and clearly distinct from one another, there would be no problem, but evolutionary processes cause species to change continually, and to grade into one another.
Species were seen from the time of Aristotle until the 18th century as fixed categories that could be arranged in a hierarchy, the great chain of being. In the 19th century, biologists grasped that species could evolve given sufficient time. Charles Darwin's 1859 book The Origin of Species explained how species could arise by natural selection. That understanding was greatly extended in the 20th century through genetics and population ecology. Genetic variability arises from mutations and recombination, while organisms themselves are mobile, leading to geographical isolation and genetic drift with varying selection pressures. Genes can sometimes be exchanged between species by horizontal gene transfer; new species can arise rapidly through hybridisation and polyploidy; and species may become extinct for a variety of reasons. Viruses are a special case, driven by a balance of mutation and selection, and can be treated as quasispecies.Spirillum minus
Spirillum minus is an organism associated with rat-bite fever and sodoku that has never been fully identified and was assigned to the genus Spirillum in the early 1900s based on morphology, although it is not a validly published name. As Spirillum species generally obligately microaerophiles and are not found in mammals, this organism may be misclassified. Sequencing data should help to resolve this question.Synonym (taxonomy)
In scientific nomenclature, a synonym is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that (now) goes by a different scientific name, although the term is used somewhat differently in the zoological code of nomenclature. For example, Linnaeus was the first to give a scientific name (under the currently used system of scientific nomenclature) to the Norway spruce, which he called Pinus abies. This name is no longer in use: it is now a synonym of the current scientific name, Picea abies.
Unlike synonyms in other contexts, in taxonomy a synonym is not interchangeable with the name of which it is a synonym. In taxonomy, synonyms are not equals, but have a different status. For any taxon with a particular circumscription, position, and rank, only one scientific name is considered to be the correct one at any given time (this correct name is to be determined by applying the relevant code of nomenclature). A synonym cannot exist in isolation: it is always an alternative to a different scientific name. Given that the correct name of a taxon depends on the taxonomic viewpoint used (resulting in a particular circumscription, position and rank) a name that is one taxonomist's synonym may be another taxonomist's correct name (and vice versa).
Synonyms may arise whenever the same taxon is described and named more than once, independently. They may also arise when existing taxa are changed, as when two taxa are joined to become one, a species is moved to a different genus, a variety is moved to a different species, etc. Synonyms also come about when the codes of nomenclature change, so that older names are no longer acceptable; for example, Erica herbacea L. has been rejected in favour of Erica carnea L. and is thus its synonym.Tautonym
A tautonym is a scientific name of a species in which both parts of the name have the same spelling, for example Rattus rattus. The first part of the name is the name of the genus and the second part is referred to as the specific epithet in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants and the specific name in the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature.
Tautonymy (i.e., the usage of tautonymous names) is permissible in zoological nomenclature (see List of tautonyms for examples). In past editions of the zoological Code, the term tautonym was used, but it has now been replaced by the more inclusive "tautonymous names"; these include trinomial names such as Gorilla gorilla gorilla, and Bison bison bison.
For animals, a tautonym implicitly indicates that the species is the type of its genus. This can also be indicated by a species name with the specific epithet typus or typicus, although more commonly the type species is designated another way.Valid name
Valid name can refer to:
Valid name (zoology), equivalent to the correct name in botany and bacteriology.
A validly published name in botany, not necessarily legitimate or correct.
A validly published name in bacteriology, not necessarily legitimate or correct.Other:
Name at birth
Legal name (business)Valid name (zoology)
In zoological nomenclature, the valid name of a taxon is the zoological name that is to be used for that taxon following the rules in the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN). In other words: a valid name is the correct zoological name of a taxon.In contrast, an invalid name is a name that violates the rules of the ICZN. An invalid name is not considered to be a correct scientific name for a taxon. Invalid names may be divided into:
Subjectively invalid names - Names that have been rendered invalid by individual scientific judgement or opinion. Taxonomists may differ in their opinion and names considered invalid by one researcher, can be accepted as valid by another; thus they are still potentially valid names. It includes:Junior subjective synonyms - synonyms described from different types previously described as separate taxa.
Junior secondary homonyms - species synonyms arising from merging two taxonomic groups previously considered separate. In this case, the taxa are separate species, but by chance, had the same specific name resulting in homonymy when their generic names are synonymized.
Conditionally suppressed names - are special cases where a name which would otherwise have been valid has been petitioned for suppression by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. This is usually because the junior synonym (the later name) has wider common usage than the senior synonym (the older name).Objectively invalid names - Names that have been rendered invalid for factual reasons. These names are universally accepted as invalid and not merely a matter of individual opinion as is the case with subjectively invalid names. It includes:Junior objective synonyms - names describing a taxon (the junior synonym) that have already been described by another name earlier (the senior synonym). ICZN follows the Principle of Priority, in which the oldest available name is applied in preference to newer names where possible.
Junior homonyms in the family and genus group - names of families and genera which have the same spelling but refer to different taxa.
Junior primary homonyms in a species group - species synonyms resulting from two different organisms being originally described with the same name spelled in the same way. Compare with the previously discussed junior secondary homonyms.
Completely suppressed names - are special cases where a name is completely suppressed by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. It is treated as if it had never been published and is never to be used, regardless of actual availability.
Partially suppressed names - are special cases where a name is partially suppressed by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. Unlike completely suppressed names, partially suppressed names are still acknowledged as having been published but is used only for the purpose of homonymy, not priority.