Valencia (/vəˈlɛnsiə/; Spanish: [baˈlenθja]), officially València (Valencian: [vaˈlensia]), on the east coast of Spain, is the capital of the autonomous community of Valencia and the third-largest city in Spain after Madrid and Barcelona, with around 800,000 inhabitants in the administrative centre. Its urban area extends beyond the administrative city limits with a population of around 1.6 million people. Valencia is Spain's third largest metropolitan area, with a population ranging from 1.7 to 2.5 million depending on how the metropolitan area is defined. The Port of Valencia is the 5th busiest container port in Europe and the busiest container port on the Mediterranean Sea. The city is ranked at Beta-global city in the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. Valencia is integrated into an industrial area on the Costa del Azahar (Orange Blossom Coast).
Valencia was founded as a Roman colony by the consul Decimus Junius Brutus Callaicus in 138 BC, and called Valentia Edetanorum. In 714 Moroccan and Arab Moors occupied the city, introducing their language, religion and customs; they implemented improved irrigation systems and the cultivation of new crops as well. Valencia was the capital of the Taifa of Valencia. In 1238 the Christian king James I of Aragon conquered the city and divided the land among the nobles who helped him conquer it, as witnessed in the Llibre del Repartiment. He also created a new law for the city, the Furs of Valencia, which were extended to the rest of the Kingdom of Valencia. In the 18th century Philip V of Spain abolished the privileges as punishment to the kingdom of Valencia for aligning with the Habsburg side in the War of the Spanish Succession. Valencia was the capital of Spain when Joseph Bonaparte moved the Court there in the summer of 1812. It also served as capital between 1936 and 1937, during the Second Spanish Republic.
The city is situated on the banks of the Turia, on the east coast of the Iberian Peninsula, fronting the Gulf of Valencia on the Mediterranean Sea. Its historic centre is one of the largest in Spain, with approximately 169 ha (420 acres); this heritage of ancient monuments, views and cultural attractions makes Valencia one of the country's most popular tourist destinations.
Due to its long history, this is a city with numerous popular celebrations and traditions, such as the Fallas (featuring the traditional Spanish dish paella), which were declared as Fiestas of National Tourist Interest of Spain in 1965 and Intangible cultural heritage by UNESCO in November 2016. From 1991 to 2015, Rita Barberá Nolla was the mayor of the city, yet in 2015, Joan Ribó from Coalició Compromís, became mayor.
Clockwise from top: City of Arts and Sciences, modernist buildings in Town Hall Square, Silk Exchange, Queen Square with a view of the Cathedral and its tower the Micalet, Business Offices in France Avenue, the America's Cup port and the Malva-rosa beach.
Coat of arms
Location of Valencia within Spain / Valencian Community
Valencia (Valencian Community)
|Comarca||Horta de València|
|• Type||Mayor-council government|
|• Body||Ajuntament de València|
|• Mayor||Joan Ribó i Canut (2015) (Compromís)|
|• Municipality||134.65 km2 (51.99 sq mi)|
|• Urban||628.81 km2 (242.78 sq mi)|
|Elevation||15 m (49 ft)|
|• Density||5,900/km2 (15,000/sq mi)|
valencià, -ana (va)
valenciano, -na (es)
|Time zone||UTC+01:00 (CET (GMT))|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+02:00 (CEST (GMT))|
The original Latin name of the city was Valentia (IPA: [waˈlɛntɪa]), meaning "strength", or "valour", the city being named according to the Roman practice of recognising the valour of former Roman soldiers after a war. The Roman historian Livy explains that the founding of Valentia in the 2nd century BC was due to the settling of the Roman soldiers who fought against an Iberian rebel, Viriatus.
During the rule of the Muslim kingdoms in Spain, it had the nickname Medina at-Tarab ('City of Joy') according to one transliteration, or Medina at-Turab ('City of Sands') according to another, since it was located on the banks of the River Turia. It is not clear if the term Balansiyya was reserved for the entire Taifa of Valencia or also designated the city.
By gradual sound changes, Valentia has become Valencia [baˈlenθja] (i.e. before a pausa or nasal sound) or [-βaˈlenθja] (after a continuant) in Castilian and València [vaˈlensia] in Valencian. In Valencian, the grave accent ⟨è⟩ /ɛ/ contrasts with the acute accent ⟨é⟩ /e/—but the word València is an exception to this rule. It is spelled according to Catalan etymology, though its pronunciation is closer to Vulgar Latin.
Valencia stands on the banks of the Turia River, located on the eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula and the western part of the Mediterranean Sea, fronting the Gulf of Valencia. At its founding by the Romans, it stood on a river island in the Turia, 6.4 kilometres (4.0 mi) from the sea. The Albufera, a freshwater lagoon and estuary about 11 km (7 mi) south of the city, is one of the largest lakes in Spain. The City Council bought the lake from the Crown of Spain for 1,072,980 pesetas in 1911, and today it forms the main portion of the Parc Natural de l'Albufera (Albufera Nature Reserve), with a surface area of 21,120 hectares (52,200 acres). In 1976, because of its cultural, historical, and ecological value, the Generalitat Valenciana declared it a natural park.
Its average annual temperature is 18.4 °C (65.1 °F); 23.0 °C (73.4 °F) during the day and 13.8 °C (56.8 °F) at night. In the coldest month, January, the maximum temperature typically during the day ranges from 14 to 21 °C (57 to 70 °F), the minimum temperature typically at night ranges from 5 to 11 °C (41 to 52 °F). In the warmest month – August, the maximum temperature during the day typically ranges from 28–34 °C (82–93 °F), about 22 to 23 °C (72 to 73 °F) at night. Generally, similar temperatures to those experienced in the northern part of Europe in summer last about 8 months, from April to November. March is transitional, the temperature often exceeds 20 °C (68 °F), with an average temperature of 19.3 °C (66.7 °F) during the day and 10.0 °C (50.0 °F) at night. December, January and February are the coldest months, with average temperatures around 17 °C (63 °F) during the day and 8 °C (46 °F) at night. Valencia has one of the mildest winters in Europe, owing to its southern location on the Mediterranean Sea and the Foehn phenomenon. The January average is comparable to temperatures expected for May and September in the major cities of northern Europe.
Sunshine duration hours are 2,696 per year, from 155 (average nearly 5 hours of sunshine duration a day) in December to 315 (average above 10 hours of sunshine duration a day) in July. The average temperature of the sea is 15–16 °C (59–61 °F) during winters and 26–28 °C (79–82 °F) during summers. Average relative humidity is 60% in April to 68% in August.
Valencia enjoyed strong economic growth before the economic crisis of 2008, much of it spurred by tourism and the construction industry, with concurrent development and expansion of telecommunications and transport. The city's economy is service-oriented, as nearly 84% of the working population is employed in service sector occupations. However, the city still maintains an important industrial base, with 8.5% of the population employed in this sector. Growth has recently improved in the manufacturing sector, mainly automobile assembly; (The large factory of Ford Motor Company lies in a suburb of the city, Almussafes). Agricultural activities are still carried on in the municipality, even though of relatively minor importance with only 1.9% of the working population and 3,973 ha (9,820 acres) planted mostly in orchards and citrus groves.
Since the onset of the Great Recession (2008), Valencia had experienced a growing unemployment rate, increased government debt, etc. Severe spending cuts had been introduced by the city government.
In 2009, Valencia was designated "the 29th fastest-improving European city". Its influence in commerce, education, entertainment, media, fashion, science and the arts contributes to its status as one of the world's "Gamma"-rank global cities.
Valencia's port is the biggest on the Mediterranean western coast, the first of Spain in container traffic as of 2008 and the second of Spain in total traffic, handling 20% of Spain's exports. The main exports are foodstuffs and beverages. Other exports include oranges, furniture, ceramic tiles, fans, textiles and iron products. Valencia's manufacturing sector focuses on metallurgy, chemicals, textiles, shipbuilding and brewing. Small and medium-sized industries are an important part of the local economy, and before the current crisis unemployment was lower than the Spanish average.
Valencia's port underwent radical changes to accommodate the 32nd America's Cup in 2007. It was divided into two parts—one was unchanged while the other section was modified for the America's Cup festivities. The two sections remain divided by a wall that projects far into the water to maintain clean water for the America's Cup side.
Public transport is provided by the Ferrocarrils de la Generalitat Valenciana (FGV), which operates the Metrovalencia and other rail and bus services. The Estació del Nord (North Station) is the main railway terminus in Valencia. A new temporary station, Estació de València-Joaquín Sorolla, has been built on land adjacent to this terminus to accommodate high speed AVE trains to and from Madrid, Barcelona, Seville and Alicante. Valencia Airport is situated 9 km (5.6 mi) west of Valencia city centre. Alicante Airport is situated about 133 km (83 mi) south of center of Valencia.
The City of Valencia also makes available a bicycle sharing system named Valenbisi to both visitors and residents. As of 13 October 2012, the system has 2750 bikes distributed over 250 stations all throughout the city.
The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Valencia, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 44 min. 6% of public transit riders, ride for more than 2 hours every day. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 10 min, while 9% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 5.9 km, while 8% travel for over 12 km in a single direction.
Starting in the mid-1990s, Valencia, formerly an industrial centre, saw rapid development that expanded its cultural and tourism possibilities, and transformed it into a newly vibrant city. Many local landmarks were restored, including the ancient Towers of the medieval city (Serrans Towers and Quart Towers), and the Saint Miquel dels Reis monastery (es:Monasterio de San Miguel de los Reyes), which now holds a conservation library. Whole sections of the old city, for example the Carmen Quarter, have been extensively renovated. The Passeig Marítim, a 4 km (2 mi) long palm tree-lined promenade was constructed along the beaches of the north side of the port (Platja de Les Arenes, Platja del Cabanyal and Platja de la Malva-rosa).
The city has numerous convention centres and venues for trade events, among them the Feria Valencia Convention and Exhibition Centre (Institución Ferial de Valencia) and the Palau de congres (Conference Palace), and several 5-star hotels to accommodate business travelers.
In its long history, Valencia has acquired many local traditions and festivals, among them the Falles, which were declared Celebrations of International Tourist Interest (Festes de Interés Turístic Internacional) on 25 January 1965 and UNESCO's intangible cultural heritage of humanity list on 30 November 2016, and the Water Tribunal of Valencia (Tribunal de les Aigües de València), which was declared an intangible cultural heritage of humanity (Patrimoni Cultural Inmaterial de la Humanitat) in 2009. In addition to these Valencia has hosted world-class events that helped shape the city's reputation and put it in the international spotlight, e.g., the Regional Exhibition of 1909, the 32nd and the 33rd America's Cup competitions, the European Grand Prix of Formula One auto racing, the Valencia Open 500 tennis tournament, and the Global Champions Tour of equestrian sports. The final round of the MotoGP Championship is held annually at the Circuito de la Communitat Valenciana.
The 2007 America's Cup yachting races were held at Valencia in June and July 2007 and attracted huge crowds. The Louis Vuitton stage drew 1,044,373 visitors and the America's Cup match drew 466,010 visitors to the event.
The third largest city in Spain and the 24th most populous municipality in the European Union, Valencia has a population of 809,267 within its administrative limits on a land area of 134.6 km2 (52 sq mi). The urban area of Valencia extending beyond the administrative city limits has a population of between 1,564,145 and 1,595,000. Also according to Spanish Ministry of Development, Greater Urban Area (es. Gran Área Urbana) within Horta of Valencia has a population of 1,551,585 on area of 628,81 km², in period of 2001-2011 there was a population increase of 191,842 people, an increase of 14.1%. About 2 million people live in the Valencia metropolitan area. According to the CityPopulation.de, metropolitan area has a population of 1,770,742, according to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development: 2,300,000, according to the World Gazetteer: 2,513,965 and according to the Eurostat: 2,522,383. Between 2007 and 2008 there was a 14% increase in the foreign born population with the largest numeric increases by country being from Bolivia, Romania and Italy. This growth in the foreign born population, which rose from 1.5% in the year 2000 to 9.1% in 2009, has also occurred in the two larger cities of Madrid and Barcelona. The main countries of origin were Romania, United Kingdom and Bulgaria.
The 10 largest groups of foreign born people by 2018 are :
Valencia is known internationally for the Falles (Les Falles), a local festival held in March, as well as for paella valenciana, traditional Valencian ceramics, craftsmanship in traditional dress, and the architecture of the City of Arts and Sciences, designed by Santiago Calatrava and Félix Candela.
La Tomatina, an annual tomato fight, draws crowds to the nearby town of Buñol in August. There are also a number of well-preserved traditional Catholic festivities throughout the year. Holy Week celebrations in Valencia are considered some of the most colourful in Spain.
Valencia was once the site of the Formula One European Grand Prix, first hosting the event on 24 August 2008, but was dropped at the beginning of the Grand Prix 2013 season, though still holds the annual Moto GP race at the Circuit Ricardo Tormo, usually that last race of the season in November.
The University of Valencia (officially Universitat de València Estudi General) was founded in 1499, being one of the oldest surviving universities in Spain and the oldest university in the Valencian Community. It was listed as one of the four leading Spanish universities in the 2011 Shanghai Academic Ranking of World Universities.
In 2012, Boston's Berklee College of Music opened a satellite campus at the Palau de les Arts Reina Sofia, its first and only international campus outside the U.S. Since 2003, Valencia also hosts the music courses of Musikeon, the leading musical institution in the Spanish-speaking world.
Valencia is a bilingual city: Valencian and Spanish are the two official languages. Spanish is official in all of Spain, whereas Valencian is official in the Valencian Community. Despite distinct dialectal traits and political tension between Catalonia and Valencia, Catalan and Valencian are mutually intelligible and considered two varieties of the same language by the linguistic academies and governments of both regions, just under different names.
Valencian has been historically de-emphasised in favour of Spanish. The effects have been more noticeable in the city proper where its daily use is favoured by only 10% of the population, although virtually all know Valencian to one degree or another. This situation also applies in the city of Alicante, population 350,000, the southernmost section of Alicante province with 400,000 inhabitants, and the traditionally Spanish-speaking population in the western regions of the Valencian Community. Whereas the language has remained active in the rural, coastal and metropolitan areas which have a population of 3.4 million. Ability to understand Valencian approaches 80% overall and fluency is 57% in a population of 5 million. If the Spanish-speaking regions with 500,000 are not included comprehension is about 85% and fluency rises to 62%.
After the Castille-Aragon unification, a Spanish-speaking elite established itself in the city.The upper classes in Valenician favoured Spanish while the opposite was the case in Catalonia. In more recent history, the establishment of Franco's military and administrative apparatus in Valencia further excluded Valencian from public life. Valencian recovered its official status, prestige and use in education after the transition to democracy in 1978. However, due to industrialisation in recent decades, Valencia has attracted immigration from other regions in Spain, and hence there is also a demographic factor for its declining social use. Due to a combination of these reasons, Valencia has become the bastion of anti-Catalan blaverism, which celebrates Valencian as merely folkloric, but rejects the existing standard which was adapted from Catalan orthography.
Spanish is currently the predominant language in the city proper.
Due to the education system, most Valencians know Spanish and Valencian, and either can be used in the city. Valencia is therefore the second biggest Catalan-speaking city after Barcelona. Institutional buildings and streets are named in Valencian. The city is also home to many pro-Valencian political and civil organisations. Furthermore, education entirely in Valencian is offered in more than 70 state-owned schools in the city, as well as by the University of Valencia across all disciplines.
Valencia is known for its gastronomic culture. The paella (a simmered rice dish with meat (usually chicken or rabbit) or seafood) was born in Valencia; Other traditional dishes of Valencian gastronomy includes "fideuà", "arròs a banda", "arròs negre" (black rice), "fartons", "bunyols", the Spanish omelette, "pinchos" or "tapas" and "calamares"(squid).
Every year, the five days and nights from 15 to 19 March, called Falles, are a continual festival in Valencia; beginning on 1 March, the popular pyrotechnic events called mascletàes start every day at 2:00 pm. The Falles (Fallas in Spanish) is an enduring tradition in Valencia and other towns in the Valencian Community, where it has become an important tourist attraction. The festival began in the 18th century, and came to be celebrated on the night of the feast day of Saint Joseph, the patron saint of carpenters, with the burning of waste planks of wood from their workshops, as well as worn-out wooden objects brought by people in the neighborhood.
This tradition continued to evolve, and eventually the parots were dressed with clothing to look like people—these were the first ninots, with features identifiable as being those of a well-known person from the neighborhood often added as well. In 1901 the city inaugurated the awarding of prizes for the best Falles monuments, and neighborhood groups still vie with each other to make the most impressive and outrageous creations. Their intricate assemblages, placed on top of pedestals for better visibility, depict famous personalities and topical subjects of the past year, presenting humorous and often satirical commentary on them.
19 March at night Valencians burn all the Falles in an event called "La Cremà".
Valencia is one of the oldest cities in Spain, founded in the Roman period, c. 138 BC, under the name "Valentia Edetanorum". A few centuries later, with the power vacuum left by the demise of the Roman imperial administration, the Catholic Church assumed the reins of power in the city, coinciding with the first waves of the invading Germanic peoples (Suevi, Vandals and Alans, and later the Visigoths).
The Castilian nobleman Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar, known as El Cid, in command of a combined Christian and Moorish army, besieged the city beginning in 1092. After the siege ended in May 1094, he ruled the city and its surrounding territory as his own fiefdom for five years from 15 June 1094 to July 1099.
The city remained in the hands of Christian troops until 1102, when the Almoravids retook the city and restored the Muslim religion. Alfonso VI of León and Castile, drove them from the city, but was unable to hold it. The Almoravid Mazdali took possession on 5 May 1109, then the Almohads, seized control of it in 1171.
Many Jews lived in Valencia during early Muslim rule, including the accomplished Jewish poet Solomon ibn Gabirol, who spent his last years in the city. Jews continued to live in Valencia throughout the Almoravid and Almohad dynasties, many of them being artisans such as silversmiths, shoemakers, blacksmiths, locksmiths, etc.; a few were rabbinic scholars. When the city fell to James I of Aragon, the Jewish population of the city constituted about 7 percent of the population.
In 1238, King James I of Aragon, with an army composed of Aragonese, Catalans, Navarrese and crusaders from the Order of Calatrava, laid siege to Valencia and on 28 September obtained a surrender. Fifty thousand Moors were forced to leave.
The city endured serious troubles in the mid-14th century, including the decimation of the population by the Black Death of 1348 and subsequent years of epidemics — as well as a series of wars and riots that followed. In 1391, the Jewish quarter was destroyed.
The 15th century was a time of economic expansion, known as the Valencian Golden Age, during which culture and the arts flourished. Concurrent population growth made Valencia the most populous city in the Crown of Aragon.
Some of the most emblematic buildings of the city were built during this period, including the Serrans Towers (1392), the Silk Exchange (1482), the Micalet, and the Chapel of the Kings of the Convent of Sant Domènec. In painting and sculpture, Flemish and Italian trends had an influence on Valencian artists.
Valencia rose to become one of the most influential cities on the Mediterranean in the 15th and 16th centuries. However, following the discovery of the Americas, the Valencians, just like the Catalans, Aragonese and Majorcans, were unable to profit from participation in New World commerce due to their location far from the Atlantic coast. With this loss of trade, Valencia eventually suffered an economic crisis.
The crisis deepened during the 17th century with the expulsion in 1609 of the Jews and the Moriscos, descendants of the Muslim population that had converted to Christianity. The Spanish government systematically forced Moriscos to leave the kingdom for Muslim North Africa. They were concentrated in the former Kingdom of Aragon, and in the Valencia area specifically, they constituted roughly a third of the total population. The expulsion caused the financial ruin of some of the nobility and the bankruptcy of the Taula de Canvi financial institution in 1613.
The decline of the city reached its nadir with the War of Spanish Succession (1702–1709), marking the end of the political and legal independence of the Kingdom of Valencia. During the War of the Spanish Succession, Valencia sided with the Habsburg ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, Charles of Austria. On 24 January 1706, Charles Mordaunt, 3rd Earl of Peterborough, 1st Earl of Monmouth, led a handful of English cavalrymen into the city after riding south from Barcelona, captured the nearby fortress at Sagunt, and bluffed the Spanish Bourbon army into withdrawal.
The English held the city for 16 months and defeated several attempts to expel them. After the victory of the Bourbons at the Battle of Almansa on 25 April 1707, the English army evacuated Valencia and Philip V ordered the repeal of the privileges of Valencia as punishment for the kingdom's support of Charles of Austria. By the Nueva Planta decrees (Decretos de Nueva Planta) the ancient Charters of Valencia were abolished and the city was governed by the Castilian Charter.
The Valencian economy recovered during the 18th century with the rising manufacture of woven silk and ceramic tiles. The Palau de Justícia is an example of the affluence manifested in the most prosperous times of Bourbon rule (1758–1802) during the rule of Charles III. The 18th century was the age of the Enlightenment in Europe, and its humanistic ideals influenced such men as Gregory Maians and Perez Bayer in Valencia, who maintained correspondence with the leading French and German thinkers of the time.
The 19th century began with Spain embroiled in wars with France, Portugal, and England—but the War of Independence most affected the Valencian territories and the capital city. The repercussions of the French Revolution were still felt when Napoleon's armies invaded the Iberian Peninsula. The Valencian people rose up in arms against them on 23 May 1808, inspired by leaders such as Vicent Doménech el Palleter.
The mutineers seized the Citadel, a Supreme Junta government took over, and on 26–28 June, Napoleon's Marshal Moncey attacked the city with a column of 9,000 French imperial troops in the First Battle of Valencia. He failed to take the city in two assaults and retreated to Madrid. Marshal Suchet began a long siege of the city in October 1811, and after intense bombardment forced it to surrender on 8 January 1812. After the capitulation, the French instituted reforms in Valencia, which became the capital of Spain when the Bonapartist pretender to the throne, José I (Joseph Bonaparte, Napoleon's elder brother), moved the Court there in the middle of 1812. The disaster of the Battle of Vitoria on 21 June 1813 obliged Suchet to quit Valencia, and the French troops withdrew in July.
Ferdinand VII became king after the victorious end of the Peninsular War, which freed Spain from Napoleonic domination. When he returned on 24 March 1814 from exile in France, the Cortes requested that he respect the liberal Constitution of 1812, which seriously limited royal powers. Ferdinand refused and went to Valencia instead of Madrid. Here, on 17 April, General Elio invited the King to reclaim his absolute rights and put his troops at the King's disposition. The king abolished the Constitution of 1812 and dissolved the two chambers of the Spanish Parliament on 10 May. Thus began six years (1814–1820) of absolutist rule, but the constitution was reinstated during the Trienio Liberal, a period of three years of liberal government in Spain from 1820–1823.
On the death of King Ferdinand VII in 1833, Baldomero Espartero became one of the most ardent defenders of the hereditary rights of the king's daughter, the future Isabella II. During the regency of Maria Cristina, Espartero ruled Spain for two years as its 18th Prime Minister from 16 September 1840 to 21 May 1841. City life in Valencia carried on in a revolutionary climate, with frequent clashes between liberals and republicans.
The reign of Isabella II as an adult (1843–1868) was a period of relative stability and growth for Valencia. During the second half of the 19th century the bourgeoisie encouraged the development of the city and its environs; land-owners were enriched by the introduction of the orange crop and the expansion of vineyards and other crops,. This economic boom corresponded with a revival of local traditions and of the Valencian language, which had been ruthlessly suppressed from the time of Philip V. Around 1870, the Valencian Renaissance, a movement committed to the revival of the Valencian language and traditions, began to gain ascendancy.
In the early 20th century Valencia was an industrialised city. The silk industry had disappeared, but there was a large production of hides and skins, wood, metals and foodstuffs, this last with substantial exports, particularly of wine and citrus. Small businesses predominated, but with the rapid mechanisation of industry larger companies were being formed. The best expression of this dynamic was in the regional exhibitions, including that of 1909 held next to the pedestrian avenue L'Albereda (Paseo de la Alameda), which depicted the progress of agriculture and industry. Among the most architecturally successful buildings of the era were those designed in the Art Nouveau style, such as the North Station (Estació del Nord) and the Central and Columbus markets.
World War I (1914–1918) greatly affected the Valencian economy, causing the collapse of its citrus exports. The Second Spanish Republic (1931–1939) opened the way for democratic participation and the increased politicisation of citizens, especially in response to the rise of Conservative Front power in 1933. The inevitable march to civil war and the combat in Madrid resulted in the removal of the capital of the Republic to Valencia.
On 6 November 1936, the city became the capital of Republican Spain. The city was heavily bombarded by air and sea, and by the end of the war the city had survived 442 bombardments, leaving 2,831 dead and 847 wounded, although it is estimated that the death toll was higher. The Republican government moved to Barcelona on 31 October of that year. On 30 March 1939, Valencia surrendered and the Nationalist troops entered the city. The postwar years were a time of hardship for Valencians. During Franco's regime speaking or teaching Valencian was prohibited; in a significant reversal it is now compulsory for every schoolchild in Valencia.
The economy began to recover in the early 1960s, and the city experienced explosive population growth through immigration spurred by the jobs created with the implementation of major urban projects and infrastructure improvements. With the advent of democracy in Spain, the ancient kingdom of Valencia was established as a new autonomous entity, the Valencian Community, the Statute of Autonomy of 1982 designating Valencia as its capital.
Valencia has since then experienced a surge in its cultural development, exemplified by exhibitions and performances at such iconic institutions as the Palau de la Música, the Palacio de Congresos, the Metro, the City of Arts and Sciences (Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències), the Valencian Museum of Enlightenment and Modernity (Museo Valenciano de la Ilustracion y la Modernidad), and the Institute of Modern Art (Institut Valencià d'Art Modern). The various productions of Santiago Calatrava, a renowned structural engineer, architect, and sculptor and of the architect Félix Candela have contributed to Valencia's international reputation. These public works and the ongoing rehabilitation of the Old City (Ciutat Vella) have helped improve the city's livability and tourism is continually increasing.
On 9 July 2006, the World Day of Families, during Mass at Valencia's Cathedral, Our Lady of the Forsaken Basilica, Pope Benedict XVI used, the Sant Calze, a 1st-century Middle-Eastern artifact that some Catholics believe is the Holy Grail. It was supposedly brought to that church by Emperor Valerian in the 3rd century, after having been brought by St. Peter to Rome from Jerusalem. The Sant Calze (Holy Chalice) is a simple, small stone cup. Its base was added during the medieval period and consists of fine gold, alabaster and gem stones.
Valencia was selected in 2003 to host the historic America's Cup yacht race, the first European city ever to do so. The America's Cup matches took place from April to July 2007. On 3 July 2007, Alinghi defeated Team New Zealand to retain the America's Cup. Twenty-two days later, on 25 July 2007, the leaders of the Alinghi syndicate, holder of the America's Cup, officially announced that Valencia would be the host city for the 33rd America's Cup, held in June 2009.
In the Valencia City Council elections from 1991 to 2015 the City Council was governed by the People's Party of Spain (Partido Popular) (PP) and Mayor Rita Barberá Nolla who became mayor by a pact made with the Valencian Union.
Major monuments include Valencia Cathedral, the Torres de Serrans, the Torres de Quart (es:Torres de Quart), the Llotja de la Seda (declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1996), and the Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències (City of Arts and Sciences), an entertainment-based cultural and architectural complex designed by Santiago Calatrava and Félix Candela. The Museu de Belles Arts de València houses a large collection of paintings from the 14th to the 18th centuries, including works by Velázquez, El Greco, and Goya, as well as an important series of engravings by Piranesi. The Institut Valencià d'Art Modern (Valencian Institute of Modern Art) houses both permanent collections and temporary exhibitions of contemporary art and photography.
The ancient winding streets of the Barrio del Carmen contain buildings dating to Roman and Arabic times. The Cathedral, built between the 13th and 15th centuries, is primarily of Valencian Gothic style but contains elements of Baroque and Romanesque architecture. Beside the Cathedral is the Gothic Basilica of the Virgin (Basílica De La Mare de Déu dels Desamparats). The 15th-century Serrans and Quart towers are part of what was once the wall surrounding the city.
UNESCO has recognised the Silk Exchange market (La Llotja de la Seda), erected in early Valencian Gothic style, as a World Heritage Site. The Central Market (Mercat Central) in Valencian Art Nouveau style, is one of the largest in Europe. The main railway station Estació Del Nord is built in Valencian Art Nouveau (a Spanish version of Art Nouveau) style.
World-renowned (and city-born) architect Santiago Calatrava produced the futuristic City of Arts and Sciences (Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències), which contains an opera house/performing arts centre, a science museum, an IMAX cinema/planetarium, an oceanographic park and other structures such as a long covered walkway and restaurants. Calatrava is also responsible for the bridge named after him in the centre of the city. The Music Palace (Palau De La Música) (es:Palacio de la Música de Valencia) is another noteworthy example of modern architecture in Valencia.
The Valencia Cathedral was called Iglesia Major in the early days of the Reconquista, then Iglesia de la Seu (Seu is from the Latin sedes, i.e., (archiepiscopal) See), and by virtue of the papal concession of 16 October 1866, it was called the Basilica Metropolitana. It is situated in the centre of the ancient Roman city where some believe the temple of Diana stood. In Gothic times, it seems to have been dedicated to the Holy Saviour; the Cid dedicated it to the Blessed Virgin; King James I of Aragon did likewise, leaving in the main chapel the image of the Blessed Virgin, which he carried with him and is reputed to be the one now preserved in the sacristy. The Moorish mosque, which had been converted into a Christian Church by the conqueror, was deemed unworthy of the title of the cathedral of Valencia, and in 1262 Bishop Andrés de Albalat laid the cornerstone of the new Gothic building, with three naves; these reach only to the choir of the present building. Bishop Vidal de Blanes built the chapter hall, and James I added the tower, called El Micalet because it was blessed on St. Michael's day in 1418. The tower is about 58 metres (190 feet) high and is topped with a belfry (1660–1736).
In the 15th century the dome was added and the naves extended back of the choir, uniting the building to the tower and forming a main entrance. Archbishop Luis Alfonso de los Cameros began the building of the main chapel in 1674; the walls were decorated with marbles and bronzes in the Baroque style of that period. At the beginning of the 18th century the German Conrad Rudolphus built the façade of the main entrance. The other two doors lead into the transept; one, that of the Apostles in pure pointed Gothic, dates from the 14th century, the other is that of the Palau. The additions made to the back of the cathedral detract from its height. The 18th-century restoration rounded the pointed arches, covered the Gothic columns with Corinthian pillars, and redecorated the walls.
The dome has no lantern, its plain ceiling being pierced by two large side windows. There are four chapels on either side, besides that at the end and those that open into the choir, the transept, and the sanctuary. It contains many paintings by eminent artists. A silver reredos, which was behind the altar, was carried away in the war of 1808, and converted into coin to meet the expenses of the campaign. There are two paintings by Francisco de Goya in the San Francesco chapel. Behind the Chapel of the Blessed Sacrament is a small Renaissance chapel built by Calixtus III. Beside the cathedral is the chapel dedicated to the Our Lady of the Forsaken (Mare de Déu dels desamparats).
The Tribunal de les Aigües (Water Court), a court dating from Moorish times that hears and mediates in matters relating to irrigation water, sits at noon every Thursday outside the Porta dels Apostols (Portal of the Apostles).
In 1409, a hospital was founded and placed under the patronage of Santa Maria dels Innocents; to this was attached a confraternity devoted to recovering the bodies of the unfriended dead in the city and within a radius of 5 km around it. At the end of the 15th century this confraternity separated from the hospital, and continued its work under the name of "Cofradia para el ámparo de los desamparados". King Philip IV of Spain and the Duke of Arcos suggested the building of the new chapel, and in 1647 the Viceroy, Conde de Oropesa, who had been preserved from the bubonic plague, insisted on carrying out their project. The Blessed Virgin was proclaimed patroness of the city under the title of Virgen de los desamparados (Virgin of the Forsaken), and Archbishop Pedro de Urbina, on 31 June 1652, laid the cornerstone of the new chapel of this name. The archiepiscopal palace, a grain market in the time of the Moors, is simple in design, with an inside cloister and a handsome chapel. In 1357, the arch that connects it with the cathedral was built. Inside the council chamber are preserved the portraits of all the prelates of Valencia.
El Temple (the Temple), the ancient church of the Knights Templar, which passed into the hands of the Order of Montesa and was rebuilt in the reigns of Ferdinand VI and Charles III; the former convent of the Dominicans, at one time the headquarters of the Capitan General, the cloister of which has a Gothic wing and chapter room, large columns imitating palm trees; the Colegio del Corpus Christi, which is devoted to the Blessed Sacrament, and in which perpetual adoration is carried on; the Jesuit college, which was destroyed in 1868 by the revolutionary Committee of the Popular Front, but later rebuilt; and the Colegio de San Juan (also of the Society), the former college of the nobles, now a provincial institute for secondary instruction.
The largest plaza in Valencia is the Plaça del Ajuntament; it is home to the City Hall (Ajuntament) on its western side and the central post office (Edifici de Correus) on its eastern side, a cinema that shows classic movies, and many restaurants and bars. The plaza is triangular in shape, with a large cement lot at the southern end, normally surrounded by flower vendors. It serves as ground zero during the Les Falles when the fireworks of the Mascletà can be heard every afternoon. There is a large fountain at the northern end.
The Plaça de la Mare de Déu contains the Basilica of the Virgin and the Turia fountain, and is a popular spot for locals and tourists. Around the corner is the Plaça de la Reina, with the Cathedral, orange trees, and many bars and restaurants.
The Palau de la Música is adjacent to the Turia gardens and the City of Arts and Sciences lies at one end. The Valencia Bioparc is a zoo, also located in the Turia riverbed.
Other gardens in Valencia include:
|Valencia C.F.||La Liga||Football||Mestalla||1919||49,000|
|Levante UD||La Liga||Football||Estadi Ciutat de València||1909||25,354|
|Valencia CF Mestalla||Segunda División B||Football||Estadi Antonio Puchades||1944||4,000|
|Valencia Basket Club||ACB||Basketball||Pavelló Municipal Font de Sant Lluís||1986||9,000|
|Valencia Giants||LNFA||American football||Instalacions polideportives del Saler||2003|
|Valencia Firebats||LNFA||American football||Estadi Municipal Jardí del Turia||1993|
|Valencia FS||Tercera División||Futsal||San Isidro||1983||500|
|Les Abelles||División de Honor B||Rugby Union||Poliesportiu Quatre carreres||1971||500|
|CAU Rugby Valencia||División de Honor B||Rugby Union||Camp del Riu Turia||1973||750|
|Rugby Club Valencia||División de Honor B||Rugby Union||Poliesportiu Quatre carreres||1966||500|
Valencia is also internationally famous for its football club, Valencia C.F., one of the most successful clubs in Europe and La Liga, winning the Spanish league a total of six times including in 2002 and 2004 (the year it also won the UEFA Cup), and was a UEFA Champions League runner-up in 2000 and 2001. The club is currently owned by Peter Lim, a Singaporean businessman who bought the club in 2014. The team's stadium is the Mestalla. The club's city rival, Levante UD, also plays in La Liga and its stadium is Estadi Ciutat de València.
Valencia is the only city in Spain with two American football teams in LNFA Serie A, the national first division: Valencia Firebats and Valencia Giants. The Firebats have been national champions four times and have represented Valencia and Spain in the European playoffs since 2005. Both teams share the Jardín del Turia stadium.
Once a year between 2008–2012 the European Formula One Grand Prix took place in the Valencia Street Circuit. Valencia is among (with Barcelona, Porto and Monte Carlo) the only European cities ever to host Formula One World Championship Grands Prix on public roads in the middle of cities. The final race in 2012 European Grand Prix saw home driver Fernando Alonso win for Ferrari, in spite of starting halfway down the field. The Valencian Community motorcycle Grand Prix (Gran Premi de la Comunitat Valenciana de motociclisme) is part of the Grand Prix motorcycle racing season at the Circuit Ricardo Tormo (also known as Circuit de Valencia) held in November. Periodically the Spanish round of the Deutsche Tourenwagen Masters touring car racing Championship (DTM) is held in Valencia.
Valencia is also the home of the Asociación Española de Rugby League, who are the governing body for Rugby league in Spain. The city plays host to a number of clubs playing the sport and to date has hosted all the country's home international matches. In 2015 Valencia hosted their first match in the Rugby league European Federation C competition, which was a qualifier for the 2017 Rugby League World Cup. Spain won the fixture 40-30
These towns administratively are within of districts of Valencia.
Luis Antonio Valencia Mosquera, known as Antonio Valencia (Spanish pronunciation: [anˈtonjo βaˈlensja]; born 4 August 1985), is an Ecuadorian professional footballer who plays for and captains both English Premier League club Manchester United and the Ecuador national team. Primarily a right-back, he had previously played as a right winger for a large duration of his career.
After progressing through the youth system at El Nacional, Valencia became a first team regular and made over 80 appearances for the club. He won the Ecuadorian Serie A with them before signing for La Liga side Villarreal in 2005. He only made two league appearances for the Spanish side in between loan spells at Recreativo for the 2005–06 season and later English Premier League club Wigan Athletic from 2006 to 2008. Wigan Athletic later signed Valencia on a three-year deal for an undisclosed fee in January 2008. His performances for Wigan Athletic soon attracted attention from several high-profile clubs, eventually signing for Manchester United in June 2009. Valencia has since won two Premier League titles, an FA Cup, two League Cups, the UEFA Europa League and three FA Community Shields. Valencia was voted into the PFA Team of the Year in his debut season with the club.
Valencia made his Ecuador debut in 2004 and has represented his country at the 2006 FIFA World Cup, the 2007 Copa América, the 2011 Copa América, the 2014 FIFA World Cup and the Copa América Centenario. Since making his debut, Valencia has won over 90 caps and scored 11 goals for his country.Circuit Ricardo Tormo
Circuit Ricardo Tormo, also known as Circuit de Valencia and officially named Circuit de la Comunitat Valenciana Ricardo Tormo, is a motorsport race track located in Cheste (Valencia, Spain) and built in 1999. It has a capacity of 120,000 and a main straight of 876 metres. It is often used as a test track by the Formula One teams, because of the mild temperatures in winter. Anthony Davidson holds the unofficial lap record, set in 2006 while testing a Honda RA106, with a time of 1 m 08.540sec.The track hosts the MotoGP Valencian Community Grand Prix. Also, the FIA GT Championship had a race there in 2000 and 2004, the World Touring Car Championship from 2005 to 2012, the European Le Mans Series in 2007, and the DTM from 2010 to 2012. It has also been Formula E's pre-season test venue since the 2017–18 season, having moved from Donington Park, and also was the GP3 Series (now FIA Formula 3 Championship) pre-season test venue until the 2017 season. The series also hosted a one-off event at the track in 2013. The GP2 Series (now FIA Formula 2 Championship) also held rounds at the track in 2006 and 2007.
The track is named after Spanish, two-time world champion Grand Prix motorcycle racer Ricardo Tormo, who died in 1998.Copa del Rey
The Campeonato de España–Copa de Su Majestad el Rey, commonly known as Copa del Rey or simply La Copa, is an annual knockout football competition in Spanish football, organized by the Royal Spanish Football Federation.
The competition was founded in 1903, thus making it the oldest Spanish football competition. Copa del Rey winners qualify for the following season's UEFA Europa League. If they have already qualified for Europe through their league position, then the Europa League spot is given to the highest-place team in the league who has not yet qualified.
Barcelona is the most successful club in the competition as well as the current cup holders, winning their fourth consecutive and 30th overall title against Sevilla in the 2018 final held at the Wanda Metropolitano.David Silva
David Josué Jiménez Silva (Spanish pronunciation: [daˈβið ˈsilβa]; born 8 January 1986) is a Spanish professional footballer who plays for English club Manchester City. Silva plays mainly as a central or an attacking midfielder but can also play as a winger or second striker. He is predominantly a left-footed player and his passing ability and possession-retaining qualities have earned him the nicknames "Merlin" and "El Mago" from his teammates and fans and he is considered by many to be one of the best midfielders in Europe.Silva spent six years of his professional career with Valencia CF, appearing in more than 150 games and winning one Copa del Rey in 2008, before moving in the summer of 2010 to Manchester City. Since joining City, Silva has appeared in over 300 matches and is in his eighth season at the club. He has won the FA Cup, four League Cups and three Premier League titles. He is regarded as one of Manchester City's greatest ever players alongside Billy Meredith, Bert Trautmann, Colin Bell and Sergio Agüero.Silva also represented Spain, from his debut for the senior team in 2006 until his international retirement in 2018. He started his international career at the age of 20. He is one of 13 Spanish players to have amassed 100 caps, he scored 35 goals in his international career, making him the 4th highest goalscorer in Spain's history, and also provided 28 assists, making him 2nd highest assist provider in Spain's history. He was an integral member of the squads that won three consecutive international tournaments – UEFA Euro 2008, 2010 FIFA World Cup, and UEFA Euro 2012.David Villa
David Villa Sánchez (Spanish pronunciation: [daˈβið ˈbiʎa santʃeθ]; born 3 December 1981) is a Spanish professional footballer who plays as a striker for Japanese club Vissel Kobe and the Spain national team. Villa is regarded by pundits as one of the best forwards of his generation, and one of the best Spanish strikers of all-time.Nicknamed El Guaje (The Kid in Asturian) due to cultivating a reputation of playing football with children much older than him, Villa sustained a serious injury as a child, but managed to start his professional career with Sporting de Gijón in 2001. He moved to Real Zaragoza after two seasons, where he made his La Liga debut, winning the Copa del Rey and Supercopa de España. He joined Valencia in 2005 for a transfer fee of €12 million, and captured another Copa del Rey title. At age 28, Villa registered 28 league goals, and garnered a move to Barcelona for €40 million in 2010, where he won his first La Liga and UEFA Champions League titles, and scored in the 2011 final. He left the club in 2013 after concluding a €5.1 million transfer to Atlético Madrid, where he won another La Liga title. After a singular season in the Spanish capital, Villa departed to join upstart MLS franchise New York City, where he is the club's record goalscorer and appearance maker. In 2018, Villa announced his departure from New York to relocate to Japan, in order to join Vissel Kobe.Villa made his international debut for Spain in 2005. He has since participated in four major tournaments, becoming an integral member of the Spain teams that won UEFA Euro 2008 and the 2010 FIFA World Cup. He scored three goals at the 2006 World Cup, was the top scorer at Euro 2008 and earned the Silver Boot at the 2010 World Cup. His displays for Spain and Valencia saw him named in the FIFA FIFPro World XI for 2010. He is the first Spanish player to ever reach 50 international goals and retired from internationals after the 2014 World Cup with 59 in 97 matches, making him Spain's all-time top goalscorer as well as the country's top scorer in the World Cup, with nine goals. He came out of retirement from international football in August 2017.Gary Neville
Gary Alexander Neville (born 18 February 1975) is an English football coach, retired football player and co-owner of Salford City. Since retiring from football in 2011, Neville went into punditry and was a commentator for Sky Sports until he took over the head coach position at Valencia in 2015. After being sacked by the club in 2016, he returned to his position as a pundit for Sky Sports later that year. He was also assistant manager for the England national team from 2012 to 2016.Neville spent his entire playing career at Old Trafford, making him a one-club man. At the time of his retirement in 2011, he was Manchester United's second longest serving player in the squad, behind long-time teammate Ryan Giggs, and had served as club captain for five years. He is one of the most decorated English and European footballers of all time, having won a total of 20 trophies, including eight Premier League titles and two Champions League titles.Neville made his international debut in 1995 and was first-choice right-back for England for more than ten years, representing the nation at three European Championships and two World Cups. He is England's most-capped right-back with 85 caps.
Neville is the older brother of twin siblings, former Manchester United and Everton player Phil Neville and sister Tracey Neville, a retired netball international.Half marathon
A half marathon is a road running event of 21.0975 km (13 mi 192½ yd)—half the distance of a marathon. It is common for a half marathon event to be held concurrently with a marathon or a 5K race, using almost the same course with a late start, an early finish or shortcuts. If finisher medals are awarded, the medal or ribbon may differ from those for the full marathon. The half marathon is also known as a 21K, 21.1K or 13.1 miles, although these values are rounded and not formally correct.
A half marathon world record is officially recognised by the International Association of Athletics Federations. The official IAAF world record for men is 58:18, set by Abraham Kiptum of Kenya on October 28, 2018 in Valencia, Spain and for women is 1:04:51, set by Joyciline Jepkosgei of Kenya on October 22, 2017, in Valencia, Spain.
Participation in half marathons has grown steadily since 2003, partly because it is a challenging distance, but does not require the same level of training that a marathon does. In 2008, Running USA reported that the half marathon is the fastest-growing type of race.Levante UD
Levante Unión Deportiva, S.A.D. (Spanish: [leˈβante uˈnjon depoɾˈtiβa], Valencian: Llevant Unió Esportiva [ʎeˈvant uniˈo espoɾˈtiva]) is a Spanish football club based in Valencia, in the namesake autonomous community.
Founded on 9 September 1909, it plays in La Liga, holding home games at Ciutat de Valencia Stadium.Mestalla Stadium
Mestalla Stadium (Spanish: Estadio de Mestalla [esˈtaðjo ðe mesˈtaʎa], Valencian: Estadi de Mestalla [esˈtaði ðe mesˈtaʎa]) is a football stadium in Valencia, Spain. The stadium is the home of Valencia Club de Fútbol and has a capacity of 49,500 seats. The North Stand of the stadium is known for its very steep section.Peanut
The peanut, also known as the groundnut, goober, or monkey nut (UK), and taxonomically classified as Arachis hypogaea, is a legume crop grown mainly for its edible seeds. It is widely grown in the tropics and subtropics, being important to both small and large commercial producers. It is classified as both a grain legume and, due to its high oil content, an oil crop. World annual production of shelled peanuts was 44 million tonnes in 2016, led by China with 38% of the world total. Atypically among legume crop plants, peanut pods develop underground (geocarpy) rather than aboveground. With this characteristic in mind, the botanist Linnaeus named the species hypogaea, which means "under the earth."
As a legume, the peanut belongs to the botanical family Fabaceae; this is also known as Leguminosae, and commonly known as the bean, or pea, family. Like most other legumes, peanuts harbor symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria in root nodules. This capacity to fix nitrogen means peanuts require less nitrogen-containing fertilizer and also improve soil fertility, making them valuable in crop rotations.
Peanuts are similar in taste and nutritional profile to tree nuts, such as walnuts and almonds, and as a culinary nut are often served in similar ways in Western cuisines. The botanical definition of a "nut" is a fruit whose ovary wall becomes hard at maturity. Using this criterion, the peanut is not a typical nut. However, for culinary purposes and in common English language usage, peanuts are usually referred to as nuts.Province of Valencia
Valencia (Spanish: [baˈlenθja]) or València (Valencian: [vaˈlensia]) is a province of Spain, in the central part of the Valencian Community. Of the province's 2,547,986 people (2018), one-third live in the capital, Valencia, which is also the capital of the autonomous community and the 3rd biggest city in Spain, with a metropolitan area of 2,522,383 it's also one of the most populated cities of Southern Europe. There are 265 municipalities in the province.Unai Emery
Unai Emery Etxegoien (Spanish pronunciation: [uˈnai eˈmeɾi]; born 3 November 1971) is a Spanish football manager and former player. He is the head coach of Premier League club Arsenal.
After a modest playing career, spent mostly in Spain's Segunda División, Emery transitioned into coaching after retiring in 2004. He began at Lorca Deportiva CF, where he achieved promotion to the Segunda División in his first season, and was awarded the Miguel Muñoz Trophy. He then joined Almería, who he led to promotion to La Liga for the first time in the club's history. This earned him a move to La Liga heavyweights Valencia, where he regularly led the team to top three finishes. After leaving Valencia, he coached Spartak Moscow for six months, before moving to Sevilla in 2013.
At Sevilla, Emery gained plaudits for his style of football, and shrewdness in the transfer market alongside Monchi, the club's director of football. He achieved an unprecedented three consecutive Europa League victories, which earned him a move to French club Paris Saint-Germain in 2016. Although he achieved limited European success at PSG, he won the Coupe de France, Coupe de la Ligue and Trophée des Champions in his first year. He won all four domestic trophies in his second season, including Ligue 1, the Coupe de France, the Coupe de la Ligue and the Trophée des Champions. After the expiry of his contract, he moved to English side Arsenal in 2018.University of Valencia
The University of Valencia (Valencian: Universitat de València [univeɾsiˈtad de vaˈlensia]; also known by the acronym UV) is a university located in the Spanish city of Valencia. It is one of the oldest surviving universities in Spain, and the oldest in the Valencian Community, and is regarded as one of Spain's leading academic institutions. The University was founded in 1499, and currently has around 55,000 students. Most of the courses are given through the medium of Spanish, but the university has promised to increase the number of courses available in Valencian. Moreover, in some degrees part of the teaching is in English.
It is located in the Mediterranean Spanish baseline, in the city of Valencia which is the capital and most populous city of the autonomous community of Valencia and the third largest city in Spain, with a population of 829,705 in 2014. One of its campuses is located in the metropolitan area of Valencia, in the municipalities of Burjassot and Paterna.
There are three campuses:
The Burjassot Campus houses the colleges of Biology, Pharmacy, Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics and the School of Engineering.
On the Avenida de Blasco Ibañez Campus the Schools of Medicine and Dentistry, Philosophy and Educational Sciences, Psychology, Geography and History, Languages, Physical Education, Physiotherapy and Nursing.
The third campus, Tarongers, houses the Schools of Law, Economics and Business, Social Sciences, and recently the School of Elementary Teacher Training, which moved from its previous location near the Blasco Ibañez Campus.The current chancellor is Esteban Morcillo Sánchez.Valencia, Carabobo
Valencia (Spanish pronunciation: [baˈlen[θ]ia]) is the capital city of Carabobo State, and the third largest city in Venezuela.
The city is an economic hub that contains Venezuela's top industries and manufacturing companies. The population of Valencia and the nearby metropolitan area reached 1,827,165 in 2010, and it is expected to grow dramatically in the years to come. It is also the largest city in the Valencia-Maracay metropolitan region, which with a population of about 4.5 million is the country's second largest after that of Caracas. Caracas lies some 172 kilometres (107 miles) away to the east.Valencia, Santa Clarita, California
Valencia is a neighborhood in Santa Clarita located within Los Angeles County, California. It is in the northwestern corner of the Santa Clarita Valley, generally east of Interstate 5. Most of Valencia is part of a planned community; it was one of the four unincorporated communities (along with Saugus, Newhall, and Canyon Country) that merged to create the city of Santa Clarita, California, in 1987.Valencia Basket
Valencia Basket Club S.A.D., commonly known as Valencia Basket (pronounced [baˈlenθja basˈket]), is a professional basketball team based in Valencia, Spain. The team plays in the Liga ACB and the EuroLeague, with home games played at the Fuente de San Luis. The club is sponsored by the Spanish billionaire Juan Roig.Valencia CF
Valencia Club de Fútbol (Spanish: [baˈlenθja ˈkluβ ðe ˈfuðβol], Valencian: València Club de Futbol [vaˈlensia ˈklub de fubˈbɔl]), commonly referred to as Valencia CF or simply Valencia, is a Spanish football club based in Valencia. They play in La Liga. Valencia have won six La Liga titles, seven Copa del Rey titles, two Inter-Cities Fairs Cups (the predecessor to the UEFA Cup), one UEFA Cup, one UEFA Cup Winners' Cup and two UEFA Super Cups. They also reached two UEFA Champions League finals in a row, losing to La Liga rivals Real Madrid in 2000 and German club Bayern Munich on penalties after a 1–1 draw in 2001. Valencia were also members of the G-14 group of leading European football clubs and since its end has been part of the original members of the European Club Association. In total, Valencia have reached seven major European finals, winning four of them.
Valencia were founded in 1919 and have played their home games at the 49,500-seater Mestalla since 1923. They were due to move into the new 75,000-seater Nou Mestalla in the northwest of the city in 2013, but the final move date has been postponed while the stadium remains under construction. Valencia have a fierce rivalry with fellow Valencian club Villarreal, with whom they contest the Derbi de la Comunitat. The rivalry is further fueled by the fact they are the two most successful clubs in the region. Valencia also have a long-standing rivalry with Levante, also located in the city of Valencia, and with two other clubs in the Valencian region, Hércules and Castellón.
Valencia is the third-most supported football club in Spain, behind heavyweights Real Madrid and Barcelona. It is also one of the biggest clubs in the world in terms of number of associates (registered paying supporters), with more than 50,000 season ticket holders and another 20,000+ season ticket holders on the waiting list, who can be accommodated in the new 75,000-seater stadium.
Over the years, the club has achieved a global reputation for their prolific youth academy, or "cantera." Products of their academy include world-class talents such as Raúl Albiol, Andrés Palop, Miguel Ángel Angulo, David Albelda, Gaizka Mendieta and David Silva. Current stars of the game to have graduated in recent years include Isco, Jordi Alba, Juan Bernat, José Gayà and Paco Alcácer.Valencia CF Mestalla
Valencia Club de Fútbol B, also named Mestalla, is the reserve team of Valencia CF, a Spanish football club based in Valencia, in the namesake community. Founded in 1944, and currently plays in Segunda División B – Group 3, holding home games at Ciudad Deportiva de Paterna, with a 4,000-seat capacity.
Unlike in England, reserve teams in Spain play in the same football pyramid as their senior team rather than a separate league. However, reserve teams cannot play in the same division as their senior team. Therefore, the team is ineligible for promotion to La Liga, the division in which the main side plays. Reserve teams are also no longer permitted to enter the Copa del Rey.
The team is officially known as Valencia CF Mestalla on the club's official promotion and website, but Professional Football League rules prohibit B teams from having different names than their parent team.Valencian Community
The Valencian Community is an autonomous community of Spain. It is the fourth most populous autonomous community after Andalusia, Catalonia and Madrid with more than 4.9 million inhabitants. Its homonymous capital Valencia is the third largest city and metropolitan area in Spain. It is located along the Mediterranean coast on the east side of the Iberian peninsula. It borders with Catalonia to the north, Aragon and Castilla–La Mancha to the west, and Murcia to the south. The Valencian Community consists of three provinces which are Castellón, Valencia and Alicante.
According to its Statute of Autonomy, the Valencian people are a nationality. Their origins date back to the Aragonese reconquest of the Moorish Taifa of Valencia, which was taken by James I of Aragon in 1238 during the Reconquista. The newly founded Kingdom of Valencia was granted wide self-government under the Crown of Aragon. Valencia experienced its golden age in the 15th century, as it became the Crown's economic capital. Self-government continued after the unification of the Spanish Kingdom, but was eventually suspended in 1707 by Phillip V of Spain as a result of the Spanish War of Succession. Valencian nationalism resurged towards the end of the 19th century, which led to the modern conception of the Valencian Country. Self-government under the Generalitat Valenciana was finally reestablished in 1982 after Spanish transition to democracy.
Many Valencian people speak Valencian, the region's own co-official language, a southwestern dialect of Catalan standardised by the Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua. Valencian is a diglossic language that was repressed during Franco's dictatorship in favour of Spanish. Since it regained official status in 1982 in the Valencian Estatut d'Autonomia. Valencian has been implemented in public administration and the education system, apparently leading to an exponential increase in knowledge of its formal standard. Valencian is understood by more than half of the population living within the Valencian Community.
|Climate data for Valencia center (4 km [2 mi] from sea, altitude: 11 m.a.s.l., 1981–2010, location)|
|Average high °C (°F)||16.4
|Daily mean °C (°F)||11.9
|Average low °C (°F)||7.1
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||37
|Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm)||4.4||3.9||3.6||4.8||4.3||2.6||1.1||2.4||5.0||5.0||4.3||4.8||46.3|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||171||171||215||234||259||276||315||288||235||202||167||155||2,696|
|Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología|
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