Vaijapur is a city and a municipal council in Aurangabad district in the Indian state of Maharashtra. It is bordered by the Nashik districts to the west, Kannad tehsil to the north, Gangapur tehsil to the east, and Ahmednagar districts to the south. Vaijapur is the headquarters of Vaijapur tehsil and also known as the Gateway of Marathwada.
Location in Maharashtra, India
|Elevation||514 m (1,686 ft)|
|Time zone||UTC+5:30 (IST)|
|Vehicle registration||MH 20|
|Sex ratio||924 ♂/♀|
In 1719 Nizam-ul-Mulk who had been appointer the governor of Malva by the Mughal Emperor rose against the Sayyid Brothers and marched to the Deccan. He was followed by a large force under Dilawar ‘Ali Khan, and another army advanced against him from Aurangabad, commanded by the acting viceroy, ‘Alam ‘Ali Khan. Nizam-ul-Mulk first encountered the former, and Dilawar ‘Ali Khan was defeated and killed in engagement at Ratanpur, sixteen kos from Burhanpur. ‘Alam Ali Khan was at Fardapur when news arrived of Husain ‘Ali Khan, who was advancing to his assistance from Agra. He preferred, however, to hazard a battle, and was defeated and killed Burhanpur on 1 August 1720. Nizam-ul-Mulk proceeded to Aurangabad, where he was joined by Mubariz Khan, the subadar of Hyderabad, and other officers.22 Nizam-ul-mulk now established himself firmly in the Deccan. Next year saw the downfall of the Sayyad brothers and elevation of Nizam-ul-mulk as prime minister of Moghal Empire.He took charge of his new post in 1722.1 But tired of court intrigues retired to the Deccan in 1724 when he crushed Mbariz Khan, the governor of Hyderabad in the battle of Sakharkherda which he later renamed Fatteh Kharda fought in October 1724.2 From this date the Nizam became virtually independent of Moghal power. In the next two years the Nizam consolidated his hold in the eastern parts of the province. His real enemies, however, were the Marathas who under the dynamic leadership of Peshva Bajirav were fast growing into an all-India power. In 1727 Nizam-ul-mulk opened his campaign against the Marathas. Bajirav,also made his preparations. He laid waste the district of Jalna in the cold season of 1727, and ‘Iwaz Khan with Asaf Jah’s advanced guard partially engaged him. The Marathas retired to Mahur, and then turned rapidly towards Aurangabad and made for Burhanpur followed by ‘Iwaz Khan and ‘Asaf Jah. After crossing the Ajanta ghat, Bajirav started off for Gujarat; while ‘Asaf Jah relieved Burhanpur, and returned to Aurangabad with the intention of advancing on Pune. ‘Asaf Jah went as far as Ahmadnagar, when Bajirav also returned in 1728, and crossing the Kasar Bari ghat, laid waste the talukas of Vaijapur and Gangapur. ‘Asaf Jah’s Maratha allies rendered him but little assistance, and he was much harassed by the enemy. There was also great scarcity of water. The Maratha forces surrounded him at Palkhed where a battle was fought in March 1728 and forced him to sign a treaty by which the Nizam agreed to acknowledge Shahu as the head of the Marathas, and as entitled to collect chauth and sardeshmuki in the Deccan. This treaty is a landmark in the history of the Nizams as the Marathas now obtained a full right to post their officers for the collection of chauth and sardeshmukhi in the territory of the Nizam.
Vaijapur is located at  Vaijapur, situated on the Narangi river. Vaijapur is located 514m (1,666 ft) above sea level on the western margin of the Deccan plateau..
Regarding the origin of Vaijapur which was also known as Baizapur, it is related that a certain Kunbi struck upon a lingaI while ploughing his field. He installed this linga in a temple to Vaijanath and hence the village came to be known as Vaijapur. Yet another story tells that a certain princess Vaija was converted by a Muhammedan saint and that after her death she was laid to rest in the tomb of that saint. To commemorate this event the village was termed as Vaijapur or Baizapur. The town gives glimpses of its former prosperity in the handsome stone buildings which were erected by the savakars or capitalists of the place. The basement of the structures and the lower half of the walls are constructed of huge stone slabs, cemented and bolted together. Large kiln-burn bricks have been employed in building the upper portions of the walls, and the roofs are terraced. The town had a population of 16,660 in 1971. It also has a medium-size project on Nārangi-Sārangi river junction, for water supply to the Vaijapur city.
Vaijapur was constituted a municipality in 1944 and according to the 1961 census its jurisdiction extended over an area of 13.6 square miles. The municipal affairs are managed by a committee of 21 members presided over by the president who is elected by the members from among themselves. Necessary administrative staff has bean appointed to lock after the various municipal departments. In 1973–74 municipal income and expenditure amounted to Rs. 8,04,000 and Rs. 6,81,000 respectively
The climate of the district is characterized by a hot summer and a general dryness throughout the year except during the southwest monsoon season, which is from June to September while October and November constitute the post-monsoon season. The winter season commences towards the end of November when temperatures begin to fall rapidly. December is the coldest month with the mean maximum temperature of 28.9 °C, while the mean minimum temperature is 10.3 °C. From the beginning of March, the daily temperature increases continuously. May is the hottest month with the mean maximum temperature of 39.8 °C and the mean minimum temperature of 24.6 °C. With the onset of the southwest monsoon by about the second week of June, the temperature falls appreciably. Except during the southwest monsoon season, when the relative humidity is high, the air is generally dry over the district. The summer months are the driest when the relative humidity is generally between 20 and 25% in the afternoon. Winds are generally light to moderate with increase in speed during the latter half of the hot season and in the monsoon season. The winds flow predominantly from directions between west and north during the hot season. They are mostly from directions between southwest and northwest during the southwest monsoon season. They blow mostly from the directions between northeast and southeast during the rest of the year becoming southwesterly to north westerly in January and February.
As of 2001 India census, Vaijapur had a population of 37,002. Males constitute 52% of the population and females 48%. Vaijapur has an average literacy rate of 70%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 77%, and female literacy is 62%. In Vaijapur, 14% of the population is under 6 years of age. Vaijapur consists of 164 villages and has 7 revenue circle. The main occupation in the tehsil area is agriculture. Marathi is the official and most widely spoken language, while Hindi, Ahirani, Marwari and English are understood and spoken widely.
Deccan trap of the Late Cretaceous-Palaeogene comprising lava flows of basaltic composition, occupy the whole area of the tehsil. Quaternary alluvium occupies the Godavari valley and well exposed south of Vaijapur and comprises gravel beds, sands, silts, and clay.
The most important soils of the district are the black clayey soils on plains interspersed with occasional stretches of shallow soils on ridges. In the north, the soils are shallow and poor and in the south they are deep and fertile and particularly so in the Godavari valley. They are all derived from Deccan trap. The soils can be classified as light, medium and heavy according to the depth, texture and location.
The dam is of composite type with a total length of 2583 ft having a maximum height of 48 ft at gorge portion. It is situated on Dheku nala, a tributary of Shivna river near village Bhatana in Vaijapar tahsil. Its construction was started in October 1956 and completed in June 1961, the total cost being Rs. 3136 lakhs. To pass a flood discharge of 68,700 cusecs a waste weir has been constructed having a total length of 850 ft. There is one head regulator with a discharging capacity of 39 cusecs. The reservoir has one canal of a length of 15 miles on the left flank irrigating about 6700 acres from 16 village in Vaijapur tahsil. The crops irrigated under this project include jowar. bajri, mug, groundnut, maize, paddy, onion, chilli. cotton, sugarcane and wheat.
This dam is an earthen embankment 2592 feet long with a maximum height of 48 ft above the nala bed. Its construction was started in 1965 and was completed in 1967 at a total cost of Its. 21,30,849. The project is situated on Bor nala. a tributary of Shivna river near village Kolhi in Vaijapur tahsil. To pass the food discharge of 24.600 cuseca, a waste weir has been constructed having a total length of 525 ft. It has a left flank canal with a total length of 6 miles which would irrigate an area, of 1165 acres of the four villages in Vaijapur tahsil.
The dam is an earthen embankment type. It is situated on Manyad river near village Parala in Vaijapar tahsil. Its construction was started in 2002 and completed in 2003, the total cost being Rs.6.00 crore. Manyad storage tank having capacity of 6.11 thousand cubic meter out of which 5.38 thousand cubic meter is live storage. The Manyad water irrigate 880 hector land of surrounded area of Manyad valley. All water is reserve for only irrigation purpose however same nearby village having drinking water supply scheme from this storage tank include Loni Kh, Chikatgaon, Nimgaon, Tunki, Talwada. The crops irrigated under this pinclude jowar. bajri, mug, groundnut, maize, paddy, onion, chilli. cotton, sugarcane and wheat.
The village has a primary z.p. school, Marathwada Shikshan Prasarak Mandal's New High School and also a Post Office. This Village in blessed and situated between the world-famous Sai Baba's Shirdi & Lord Shani's shani Shingnapur, Both the towns are situated within 40–60 km. And Yogiraj Gangagiriji Maharaj Samadhi Stahn Sarala Bet situated within 7 km from Nagamthan.
The Vaijanath Mahadev temple is an antique shrine. It has a pyramidal roof rising in nine tiers with a small dome and spire at the top. The masonry is in stone and mortar and the only decorations are a series of arched recesses inplaster on the walls. A fair attended by over 3,000 persons is held on Mahashivratri in honour of Vaijanath. Entirely built of timber is the temple of Hanuman. It is reported to be nearly 100 years old.
Temple to Bhavani or Durgadevi has a Balbodh inscription recording its erection some 200 yews ago. The idol of the goddess is installed on a high pedestal inside the vestibule and is flanked by representations of Tuljapur and Mahur goddesses. In front of the temple is a tall lamp pillar about 50 feel in height. Repairs were carried out to the temple eight to ten years ago. A fair attended by two to three thousand persons is held on Chaitra suddha 5. The temple has about 30 acres of Inam Lands.
The town has the dargah of Sayyad Rukn-ud-din Muslim saint. It is situated near the western gate of Vaijapur and is nine yards in length. It is covered with an horizontal arched roof and the dome is plain crowned by a high spire. The whole is surrounded by a wall. Within the enclosure are a sarai and navab khana. It is said that the tomb existed in the time of Malik Ambar, and that Aurangzeb reconstructed it of brick and chunam. A rich chanam was spread over tit, tomb by one of the Peshva, while the Raja of Indom covered it with a ghilaf or shawl made of Ahmadabad mashru. It is still preserved. Both the Muslims and the Hindus hold the saint in high reverence and the annual urus is attended by nearly 25,000 persons coming from far and near. An old masjid close by has three pointed arches and the corners contain little kiosks instead of minarets. In front is a sloping verandah. Vaija Rani, a devout princess after whom the town is believed to have been named, frequented the tomb and at her death she was buried within the precincts of the dargah. A cenotaph to the princess is to the north of the town.It is a small building, having scolloped arches and brass-bound pillars. Among the mosques, the Jumma masjid is the largest. Its porch is neatly carved with floral sculpture. There is a Persian inscription over the entrance but unfortunately it contains no date. Vaijapur has also a large idgah built in 1787 by Sayyad Jafar Khan. There are some minor Hindu shrines too.
The name of the village 'Aghur' is derived from the name of Shri Aghureshwar Mahadev.
Vaijapur is connected by roads with various major cities of Maharashtra and other states. Nagpur–Aurangabad–Mumbai express highway passes through the tehsil. Vaijapur has road connectivity to Nashik, Pune, Ahmednagar, Malegaon, Jalgaon, Mumbai, Shirdi and is also being developed.
In the early twentieth century cotton was the largest export of Hyderabad State; the cotton industry held an important place in the eyes of Nizam's Hyderabad Government. The Hyderabad-Godavari Valley Railway was established by the Nizam of Hyderabad as a part of The Nizam's Guaranteed State Railway a company under the guarantee of the Hyderabad State. Vaijapur is part of Nizam state. Now the Manmad-Kachiguda Railway Station Broad gauge railway line which emanates from the Mumbai-Bhusawal-Howrah trunk route at Manmad is an important artery of traffic in Vaijapur tehsil of Aurangabad district. Rotegaon (station code:RGO) is a nearest station located on the Secunderabad-Manmad section of the Nanded Division of South Central Railway zone of the Indian Railways. Vaijapur has rail connectivity with Mumbai, Hyderabad. It is also connected to Manmad, Nanded, Parli, Nagpur, Nizamabad, Nasik, Pune,Baroda, Narsapur. But there is still a demand for direct rail connectivity to other major cities of India. The Aurangabad Jan Shatabdi Express is the fastest train connecting it with Mumbai is yet to be having stop to here.