For movies which are fully or partly computer generated, a VFX creative director works closely with the director. On smaller VFX-intensive productions such as music videos or some television commercials, a VFX creative director may also assume the responsibilities of the director. They are charged with making creative and aesthetic choices for visual effects. Although the role is generally more creative in nature, most VFX creative directors have a technical background and may exert a strong practical hand in production.
The responsibilities of a VFX creative director are very much like those of an art director, production designer, or chief creative officer, though with a particular focus on the computer-generated imagery of their projects. They are primarily responsible for directing and supervising the creative and technical execution of visual effects sequences, from concept to completion, including:
VFX creative directors may therefore have input on various aspects of production, including:
As with much of the film industry, merit is awarded on the quality of work produced and not on academic qualifications. Bachelor's or master's degrees in film and television, digital media, design, or animation may be beneficial. There are a suite of skills and conditions that predispose an individual to successful operation as a VFX creative director:
Art director is the title for a variety of similar job functions in theater, advertising, marketing, publishing, fashion, film and television, the Internet, and video games.It is the charge of a sole art director to supervise and unify the vision. In particular, the art director is in charge of the overall visual appearance and how it communicates visually, stimulates moods, contrasts features, and psychologically appeals to a target audience. The art director makes decisions about visual elements used, what artistic style to use, and when to use motion.
One of the most difficult problems that art directors face is to translate desired moods, messages, concepts, and underdeveloped ideas into imagery. During the brainstorming process, art directors, co-workers, and clients are engaged in imagining what the finished piece or scene might look like. At times, an art director is ultimately responsible for solidifying the vision of the collective imagination while resolving conflicting agenda and inconsistencies between the various individual inputs.Chloë Leland
Chloë Leland is an award-winning writer, director, executive producer and VFX specialist. She is also daughter of British film director and writer David Leland. She became first notable for playing Emily Lloyd's younger sister in David Leland's directional debut Wish You Were Here in 1987. She later worked for Working Title as a researcher on several productions and as a location scout on the movie Land Girls (1998). Since that time she has written, produced, directed and shot documentaries and drama for television, including some of the highest-rated series for the Discovery Channel and Animal Planet. She worked as camera operator on multi-award-winning feature Concert for George and wrote, produced and directed Walking with Monsters, for which she won at the 58th Primetime Emmy Awards in the category Outstanding Animated Program (For Programming One Hour or More) and a VES as well as being nominated for a BAFTA and RTS. Her next series, Fight For Life, received extremely high ratings for BBC1, as well as winning BAFTA, RTS and VES awards. In 2010 she was once again Emmy-nominated for the critically acclaimed America – Story of Us (the record-breaking, top rating US series), on which she worked as series VFX creative director. She has held high-level positions with some of the UK's top production companies, such as Head of Development for Impossible Pictures and Creative Director for Jane Root's Nutopia. An expert in turning tricky factual content into compelling stories, Leland has worked as development executive for the BBC Specialist Factual and other top independent companies, originating and developing reams of commissioned series and specials. She has written for factual and fully scripted television and authored children's books. She is currently writing several fiction and non-fiction books and is Creative Director at Academy award-winning Grain Productions.Ensemble cast
In a dramatic production, an ensemble cast is one which comprises multiple principal actors and performers who are typically assigned roughly equal amounts of screen time.Executive producer
Executive producer (EP) is one of the top positions in the making of a commercial entertainment product. Depending on the medium, the executive producer may be concerned with management accounting or associated with legal issues (like copyrights or royalties). In films, the executive producer generally contributes to the film's budget and their involvement depends on the project with some simply securing funds and others getting involved in the filmmaking process.Graphics coordinator
A graphics coordinator, GC, or font assist is an individual who works, usually on a television show, as a producer of on-air still and motion graphics. The graphics coordinator decides what content should be displayed on-air - such as on a fullpage (a full-screen graphic) or a lower third (a bar graphic appearing in the lower third of the screen). The GC should not be confused with the Operator, who usually operates a character generator (CG) and is part of a television crew, or a broadcast designer who physically creates the graphics.A CG (3D computer graphics) coordinator or supervisor plays an important role in film and television productions. His or her role is to supervise, manage, and administer the computer-generated imagery (CGI) digital production computer animation workflow for the film or television show. He or she is also there at client meetings and conference calls.The CG supervisor generally is in charge or has senior input regarding artist management and resource planning, and also plays a senior role in digital productions. While it is a creative role, most supervisors possess a strong technical background and are capable of making informed decisions about the most efficient and effective techniques to employ in order to solve the problem at hand. Often, a supervisor will work in tandem with a visual effects producer, VFX creative director and visual effects supervisor.
Specific responsibilities vary somewhat, depending on the nature of the production; however, most supervisors:
Handle a CG project from conception through to completion;
Manage and direct the technical, artistic, and production staff;
Possess a knowledge of various computer graphic techniques, with emphasis on technical aspects, pipelines, and general film knowledge;
Constantly improve workflow and artist training, with an eye on efficiency;
Collaborate on the bidding and negotiation processes.There is no union for CG supervisors; however, the Visual Effects Society is a prominent trade organization representing the interests of visual effects professionals.Key grip
In US and Canadian filmmaking, the key grip supervises all grip (lighting and rigging) crews and reports to the director of photography.Lists of screenwriters
The following are lists of screenwriters:
List of Albanian screenwriters
List of Nigerian screenwritersMerzin Tavaria
Merzin Tavaria (born 15 December 1973) is the Chief Creative Director and Co-founder of Prime Focus. He has been associated with the company since its inception and works in collaboration with the UK, US, Canada and India studios of Prime Focus.Merzin has worked for about two decades in the media and entertainment industry and is respected for his contribution towards the use of color grading and visual effects in India.
He is also a jury member at various film and advertising festivals, and has been a speaker on many industry related events.Music editor (filmmaking)
The music editor is a type of sound editor in film or other multimedia productions (e.g. video or games) responsible for compiling, editing, and syncing music during the production of a soundtrack.
Among the music editor's roles is creating a "temp track", which is a "mock-up" of the film's soundtrack using pre-existing elements to use for editing, audience previews, and other purposes while the film's commissioned score is being composed.One of the few courses dedicated solely to Temp Music was offered at Chapman University's Dodge CollegePre-production
Pre-production is the process of planning some of the elements involved in a film, play, or other performance. There are three parts in a production: pre-production, production, and post-production. Pre-production ends when the planning ends and the content starts being produced.Production designer
In film and television, a production designer (PD) is the person responsible for the overall visual look of the production. Production designers have a key creative role in the creation of motion pictures and television. Working directly with the director, cinematographer, and producer, they must select the settings and style to visually tell the story. The term production designer was coined by William Cameron Menzies while he was working on the film Gone with the Wind. Previously (and often subsequently) the people with the same responsibilities were called art directors. It is sometimes also described as scenic design or set design.Set dresser
A set dresser in drama (theater, film etc.) prepares the set with props and furniture to give it correct appearance and make sure each item is in correct position for each performance.Stunt coordinator
A stunt coordinator, usually an experienced stunt performer, is hired by a TV, film or theatre director or production company for stunt casting that is to arrange the casting (stunt players and stunt doubles) and performance of stunts for a film, television programme or a live audience.
Where the film requires a stunt, and involves the use of stunt performers, the Stunt Coordinator will arrange the casting and performance of the stunt, working closely with the Director.
In many cases, the stunt coordinator budgets, designs and choreographs the stunt sequence to suit the script and the director's vision.
There are two Primetime Emmy Awards for Outstanding Stunt Coordination—one for Outstanding Stunt Coordination for a Drama Series, Miniseries or Movie and another for Outstanding Stunt Coordination for a Comedy Series or Variety Program.Supporting actor
A supporting actor is an actor who performs a role in a play or film below that of the leading actor(s), and above that of a bit part. In recognition of important nature of this work, the theater and film industries give separate awards to the best supporting actors and actresses.
These range from minor roles to principal players and are often pivotal or vital to the story as in a best friend, love interest, sidekick (such as Robin in the Batman series), or antagonist (such as the villain). They are sometimes but not necessarily character roles. In earlier times, these could often be ethnic stereotypes. A supporting actor should usually not upstage the starring or main actor or actress. The title of the role is usually specific to the performance; that is, a person may be a supporting actor in one film and the lead in another.
In television, the term day player is used to refer to most performers with supporting speaking roles hired on a daily basis without long-term contracts.Swing gang
In film-making, a swing gang is one or more persons who make last-minute changes on a film set. This may include construction of new portions of a set the director requests or simply striking large furniture at a set decorator's request. The swing gang is part of the set dressing department. Sets that are not part of the "permanent" sets are called swing set. They come and go as the scripts dictate. Thus the crew that handles the set dressing elements are called the swing gang. These sets may need to be struck during the late evening or the "swing shift".Trotsky Marudu
Trotsky Marudu is an Indian contemporary artist known for line drawing, animation, storyboard and computer graphics. Marudu has also worked as Art director and VFX creative director for many films and is a pioneer in using computer for painting. He holds a diploma and a post-diploma in painting from the Madras College of Arts and Crafts and his collection of paintings have been exhibited in many countries like Australia, the UK, the US, France, Finland and many parts of India.Marudu's paintings is a blend of traditional and modern art, mostly figurative and later creeped into semi abstract figurative works. He also shifted his focus slowly into illustration, animation, digital art, photography and his passion towards comic books merged all arts into a single body. He opined that, "The gap between modern painting, illustrations and photography has been bridged, with the computer serving as an all-encompassing platform. Future artists will work like this as multimedia has become a language by itself,".Marudu has also published many books, and 'Kaalathin Thiraicheelai', a collective collection of Tamil intellectuals view on Marudu-the person, was also published as a book.Under-five
An under-five, also known as an under-5 or a U/5, is a SAG-AFTRA contract term for an American television or film actor whose character has fewer than five lines of dialogue.Visual effects
Visual effects (abbreviated VFX) is the process by which imagery is created or manipulated outside the context of a live action shot in film making.
Visual effects involve the integration of live-action footage (special effects) and generated imagery (digital effects and/or optical effects) to create environments which look realistic, but would be dangerous, expensive, impractical, time consuming or impossible to capture on film. Visual effects using computer-generated imagery (CGI) have recently become accessible to the independent filmmaker with the introduction of affordable and easy-to-use animation and compositing software.Visual effects supervisor
In the context of film and television production, a visual effects supervisor is responsible for achieving the creative aims of the director or producers through the use of visual effects.While it is a creative role, most supervisors possess a strong technical background and are capable of making informed decisions about the most efficient and effective technique to employ to solve the problem at hand. Often a supervisor will work in tandem with a visual effects producer and computer graphics supervisor.
Supervisors can be employed directly by a film production company or work for a visual effects company. Often there are several VFX supervisors on a project, although there is typically a senior VFX supervisor directing their efforts.
Specific responsibilities vary somewhat depending on the nature of the production, however most supervisors:
Handle a VFX project from conception through to completion
Manage and direct the technical, artistic, and production personnel
Possess a knowledge of various visual effects techniques with emphasis on camera set-ups and film knowledge with an eye for composition and camera work.
Accurately predict timing and associated costs of project
Collaborate on the bidding and negotiation processesThe Visual Effects Society is a prominent trade organization representing the interests of visual effects professionals.