Uzhhorod

Uzhhorod (Ukrainian: У́жгород, translit. Užhorod, [ˈuʒɦɔrɔd]), Rusyn: Уґоград, translit. Ugohrad, also Rusyn: Ужгород, translit. Užhorod) previously and historically known as Ungvár (in Hungarian; German: Ungwar) is a city located in western Ukraine, at the border with Slovakia and near the border with Hungary. It is the administrative center of Zakarpattia Oblast (region), as well as the administrative center of the surrounding Uzhhorod Raion (district) within the oblast. The city itself is also designated as city of oblast significance, a status equivalent to that of a raion, and does not belong to Uzhhorod Raion. Population: 115,163 (2016 est.)[2].

Uzhhorod

Ужгород
A panoramic view of Uzhhorod and the Greek Catholic Cathedral in the centre of the image
A panoramic view of Uzhhorod and the Greek Catholic Cathedral in the centre of the image
Flag of Uzhhorod
Flag
Coat of arms of Uzhhorod
Coat of arms
Map of Zakarpattia Oblast with Uzhhorod.
Map of Zakarpattia Oblast with Uzhhorod.
Uzhhorod is located in Zakarpattia Oblast
Uzhhorod
Uzhhorod
Location of Uzhhorod
Uzhhorod is located in Ukraine
Uzhhorod
Uzhhorod
Uzhhorod (Ukraine)
Coordinates: 48°37′26″N 22°17′42″E / 48.62389°N 22.29500°ECoordinates: 48°37′26″N 22°17′42″E / 48.62389°N 22.29500°E
Country Ukraine
Oblast Zakarpattia Oblast
RaionUzhhorod Municipality
Founded9th century
Government
 • MayorBohdan Andriyiv (Revival)[1]
Area
 • Total65 km2 (25 sq mi)
Elevation
169 m (554 ft)
Population
(2016)
 • Total115,163
 • Density3,662/km2 (9,480/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+3 (EEST)
Postal code
88000
Area codes+380,312
Sister citiesBékéscsaba, Nyíregyháza, Moscow, Orel, Pula, Corvallis, Darmstadt, Košice
ClimateCfb
Театральна 10 (1)
Uzhhorod's former synagogue, now the Philharmonic Orchestra.

Name

The city gets its name from the Uzh River, which divides the city into two parts (the old and new sections), while horod (город) is Rusyn for city, coming from Old Slavonic grad (градъ). However, this name is a recent construct, and has been used only since the beginning of the 20th century. Before then, the city was known as Ungvár, also spelled Ongvár, Hungvár, and Unguyvar, a name derived from Ung, the Hungarian name for the Uzh (as well as the surrounding county) and vár, meaning castle, fort.

It is also known by several alternative names: Czech: Užhorod; Slovak: Užhorod; German: Ungwar, Ungarisch Burg; Polish: Użhorod; Romanian: Ujgorod.

History

Early history

Вранішніми вуличками
Old city and Roman Catholic church, Greek Catholic Cathedral, Uzhhorod

The best known of the first city founders are early Slavs. One of their tribes – White Croats – settled the area of the modern Uzhhorod in the second half of the first millennium AD.[4] During the 9th century a fortified castle changed into a fortified early feudal town-settlement, which became the center of a new Slavic principality, at the head of which was a mythical prince Laborec, who was vassal of Great Moravia.[4] Great Moravia, according to historians and experts did not extend as far east as Uzhgorod, in fact, it was west of what is now the City of Bratislava, Slovakia.

In 895 AD, Hungarian tribes, headed by their leader Árpád, stormed the Hungvar fortress. The forces were not equal and Laborec was defeated and beheaded on the banks of the river that still carries his name. Again, this is mythical. There was not much of a settlement when the Magyar tribes arrived, having left Kiev (then known as Kevevara) and encountering no resistance.

After the arrival of the Hungarians, the small town began to extend its borders. In 1241–1242 the Mongols of Batu Khan burnt the settlement. In the early 14th century, Uzhhorod showed strong resistance to the new Hungarian rulers of the Anjou dynasty. Although the majority of inhabitants were Hungarians, they wanted more freedom. From 1318 for 360 years, the Drugeths (Italian counts) owned the town. During that period Philip Drugeth built Uzhhorod Castle. The name Ungvar in Hungarian meaning Castle of Ung. Together with the castle, the city began to grow. From 1430, Uzhhorod became a free royal town.

During the 16–17th centuries there were many handicraft corporations in Uzhhorod. In this period the city was engaged in the religious fight between primarily Protestant Transylvania and Catholic Austria. In 1646 the Ungvar Union was proclaimed and the Greek-Catholic church was established in Subcarpathia, in a ceremony held in the Ungvar castle by the Vatican Aegis. In 1707 Ungvar was the residence of Ferenc II Rákóczi, leader of the national liberation war of Hungarians against Vienna.

The beginning of the 19th century was characterized by economic changes, including the first factories in the city. The greatest influence on Ungvar among the political events of the 19th century was made by the Hungarian Revolution of 1848-1849, during which the native Hungarian nobility sought both get free of the Austrian Empire and to have authority over their own people. 27 March 1848 was officially celebrated in the city as the overthrow of the monarchy in Hungary. It is now celebrated in Hungary on the 15th of March.

In 1872 the first railway line opened, linking the city to the important railway junction of Chop then known as Csap.

Twentieth century

According to the 1910 census, the city had 16,919 inhabitants, of which 13,590 (80.3%) were Magyars, 1,219 (7.2%) Slovaks, 1,151 (6.8%) Germans, 641 (3.8%) Rusyns and 1.6% Czechs.[5] Since Jews were not counted as ethnicity (as defined by language), rather only religious group, this Austrian-Hungarian census does not specifically mention the Jewish population, which was significant, and consisted of about 31% in 1910.[6] In the same time, the municipal area of the city had a population composed of 10,541 (39.05%) Hungarians, 9,908 (36.71%) Slovaks, and 5,520 (20.45%) Rusyns.[7]

The First World War slowed down the tempo of city development. On 10 September 1919, Subcarpathia was officially allocated to the Republic of Czechoslovakia. Uzhhorod became the administrative center of the territory. During these years Uzhhorod developed into an architecturally modern city. After the Treaty of Trianon 1920, Uzhhorod became part of the eastern half of the new Czecho-Slovak state.

Горянська церква Св.Миколи 140503 2333
11th-century Rotunda in Horiany

After the First Vienna Award in 1938, Uzhhorod was given back to Hungary from which it was forcibly separated after WWI. The inhabitants did not wish to become a part of Czechoslovakia but their wishes were not honored. The city reverted to its original name of Ungvar, the name that the city had for almost 1000 years.

In 1941 the Jewish population reached 9,576. On 19 March 1944, Germans troops entered the city. They established a Judenrat (Jewish council) and set up 2 ghettos, at the Moskovitz brickyard and at the Gluck lumberyard. During May 1944, all Jews were deported to Auschwitz in 5 different transports and subsequently murdered. Only a few hundred Jews survived.[8]

On 27 October 1944, the city was captured by the troops of the 4th Ukrainian Front of the Red Army. Thousands of ethnic Hungarians were killed, expelled, or else taken to work in Soviet forced labor camps. The Hungarian majority population was decimated in order to strengthen the Soviet and Ukrainian right to the city.

This period brought significant changes. On the outskirts of Uzhhorod new enterprises were constructed and the old enterprises were renewed. On 29 June 1945, Subcarpathian Ukraine was annexed by the Soviet Union and became a westernmost part of the Ukrainian SSR. That year the Uzhhorod State University (now Uzhhorod National University) was also opened. Since January 1946 Uzhhorod was the center of newly formed Zakarpatska oblast.[1]

Since 1991 Uzhhorod has become one of 24 regional capitals within Ukraine. Of these, Uzhhorod is the smallest and westernmost.

In 2002, after some controversy, a bust of Tomáš Masaryk, Czechoslovakia's first president, was unveiled in a main square of the city. A similar bust was unveiled in 1928 on the 10th anniversary of Czechoslovak independence, but was removed by the Hungarians when they took over the region in 1939.

Climate

Сакура в Ужгороді
Cherry blossoms in Uzhhorod

Uzhhorod has a humid continental climate (Köppen: Dfb) with cool to cold winters and warm summers. The coldest month is January with an average temperature of −1.7 °C (28.9 °F) while the warmest month is July with an average temperature of 20.9 °C (69.6 °F).[9] The coldest temperature ever recorded is −28.2 °C (−18.8 °F) and the warmest temperature was 38.6 °C (101.5 °F). Average annual precipitation is 748 millimetres (29.4 in), which is evenly distributed throughout the year though the summer months have higher precipitation.[9] On average, Uzhhorod receives 1950 hours of sunshine per year.[10]

Шелестівська Михай-лівська церква 2
Wooden Greek-Catholic church in the Museum of Folk Architecture.

Demographics

According to the Ukrainian 2001 census, the population of Uzhhorod included:[11]

Transportation

Uzhhorod is served by Uzhhorod railway station and has railway connection with Chop (further to Hungary and Slovakia) and Lviv (further to Kiev).

Uzhhorod is served by Uzhhorod International Airport.

Sport

The city was home to the SC Rusj Uzhorod football club from 1925. Contemporary side FC Hoverla Uzhhorod made their debut in the Ukrainian Premier League in 2001.

International relations

Twin towns – Sister cities

Uzhhorod is currently twinned with:

Notable residents

See also

References

  1. ^ Vidrodzhennia Party's Andriyiv wins Uzhgorod mayoral election, Interfax-Ukraine (16 November 2015)
  2. ^ "Чисельність наявного населення України (Actual population of Ukraine)" (PDF) (in Ukrainian). State Statistics Service of Ukraine. Retrieved 19 July 2016.
  3. ^ 'The Great Experiment: The Story of Ancient Empires, Modern States, and the Quest for a Global Nation' by Strobe Talbott, 2008 (page 243)
  4. ^ a b Magocsi, Paul R. (30 July 2005). Our people: Carpatho-Rusyns and their descendants in North America. Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers. p. 5.
  5. ^ Atlas and Gazetteer of Historic Hungary 1914, Talma Kiadó Archived 14 January 2017 at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ KATZ, Marshall J. "Uzhhorod (Ungvár), Ukraine KehilaLink". kehilalinks.jewishgen.org. Retrieved 2017-05-08.
  7. ^ "Ung County". Genealogy Online. Retrieved 17 March 2007.
  8. ^ "Uzhorod". Kehilalinks. Retrieved 22 March 2017.
  9. ^ a b c "Pogoda.ru.net". Weather and Climate for Uzhhorod (in Russian). Retrieved 8 February 2017.
  10. ^ a b "Uzgorod (Uzhhorod) Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 8 February 2017.
  11. ^ "Zakarpattia Region". Ukrainian 2001 census. Archived from the original on 11 September 2007. Retrieved 17 March 2007.
  12. ^ "Städtepartnerschaften und Internationales". Büro für Städtepartnerschaften und internationale Beziehungen (in German). Retrieved 26 July 2013.
  13. ^ "Twin cities of the City of Kosice". Magistrát mesta Košice, Tr. Retrieved 27 July 2013.
  14. ^ "Krosno Official Website – Partner Cities" (in Polish). Urząd Miasta Krosna. Retrieved 23 October 2008.
  15. ^ "Jarosław Official Website – Partner Cities" (in Polish). Urząd Miasta Jarosław. Ul. Rynek 1, 37–500 Jarosław. Retrieved 23 October 2008.
  16. ^ "Protocol de colaborare Ujgorod-Satu Mare" (in Romanian). www.satu-mare.ro. Retrieved 27 June 2009.

External links

Aleksei Kostylev

Aleksei Nikolayevich Kostylev (Russian: Алексей Николаевич Костылев; 1914 in Moscow – 1989 in Moscow) was a Soviet Russian football player and coach.

During World War II he played for the Soviet FC Spartak Kishenev at the newly Soviet occupied territories of Bessarabia (Moldavian SSR), and after Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union became a POW at Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp.

After the war continued to coach at Southern Russia and Ukraine.

European route E573

E 573 is a B-class European route connecting Püspökladány in Hungary to Uzhhorod in Ukraine. The route is approximately 193 km long. Its national number in Hungary is 4. Formerly, it began in Nyíregyháza as its southern part was called E77.

FC Hoverla Uzhhorod

Football Club Hoverla Uzhhorod (Ukrainian: Футбольний Клуб «Говерла» Ужгород [ɦoˈvɛrlɐ ˈuʒɦorod]) was a Ukrainian professional football club based in Uzhhorod. Following the end of the 2015–16 season it was expelled from the Ukrainian Premier League because of debts to (current and former) players. It then ceased to exist.

Highway M08 (Ukraine)

Highway M08 is the shortest Ukraine international highway. It serves as a loop route bypassing the city of Uzhhorod on the northern (mountainous) side. It is part of European route E50 and European route E58.It starts at a split of European routes E50 and E573 (village of Baranyntsi, Uzhhorod Raion) and ends at the Uzhhorod border checkpoint, which is located at vulytsia Sobranetska in Uzhhorod. Across the Slovak border, it continues as Slovakian Road I/50.

Juraj Demeč

Juraj Demeč (born 29 January 1945 in Uzhhorod) is a Czechoslovak former track and field athlete who competed in the 100 metres. He represented Czechoslovakia at the 1972 Summer Olympics.He was a three-time participant at the European Athletics Championships (1966, 1971, 1974) and was part of the gold medal-winning team in the 4 × 100 metres relay at the 1971 European Athletics Championships, running alongside Ladislav Kříž, Jiří Kynos, and Luděk Bohman. He was also a relay silver medallist at the 1966 European Indoor Games, an event that would become the European Athletics Indoor Championships.

List of foreign Ukrainian Premier League players

This is a list of foreign football players in Ukrainian Vyscha Liha/Premier-Liha. The players written with bold text have at least one cap for their national team.

There is a total of 695 foreign players in Vyscha Liha/Premier-Liha of 60 different nationalities of which 370 have been capped at least once for their national team. Also there are a total of 27 foreign players of 21 different nationalities who didn't play in Vyscha Liha/Premier-Liha.

Oleksandr Holokolosov (football manager)

Oleksandr Holokolosov (Олександр Миколайович Голоколосов, Russian Romanization: Alexander Golokolosov) is an Odessa-native Soviet footballer and a Ukrainian football manager.

Holokolosov coached FC Sheriff Tiraspol until March 2002.He also coached FC Vostok since July 2007.

Theodore Romzha

Theodore George Romzha (Ukrainian: Теодор Юрій Ромжа, Hungarian: Tódor György Romzsa, 14 April 1911 – 31 October 1947) was bishop of the Ruthenian Catholic Eparchy of Mukacheve from 1944 to 1947. Assassinated by NKVD, he was beatified as a martyr by Pope John Paul II on 27 June 2001.

Transcarpathian State University

Transcarpathian State University (also known as ZakDU or TcSU, Ukrainian: Закарпатський державний університет (ЗакДУ)), in the city of Uzhhorod, is one of the major universities in Zakarpatska Oblast. It was founded as Uzhhorod State Institute of Information Sciences, Economics and Law (UzhDIIEP).

Ukrainian First League

The Persha Liha (Ukrainian: Перша ліга) or Ukrainian First League is a football league in Ukraine and the second tier of national football competitions. Members of the league also participate in the Ukrainian Cup. Unlike the Ukrainian Premier League, Persha Liha does not conduct a parallel tournament for junior teams of its clubs.

Union of Uzhhorod

The Union of Uzhhorod, also referred to as Union of Ungvár, was the 1646 decision of 63 Ruthenian Orthodox priests from the south slopes of the Carpathian Mountains, then within the Kingdom of Hungary, to join the Catholic Church on terms similar to the Union of Brest from 1596 in the lands of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. The modern result of this union is the Ruthenian Greek Catholic Church.

Urengoy–Pomary–Uzhhorod pipeline

The Urengoy–Pomary–Uzhhorod pipeline (also known as the West-Siberian Pipeline, or Trans-Siberian Pipeline) is one of Russia's main natural gas export pipelines, partially owned and operated by Ukraine.

Uzhhorod International Airport

Uzhhorod International Airport, (Ukrainian: Міжнародний аеропорт «Ужгород»; Slovak: Medzinárodné letisko "Užhorod") (IATA: UDJ, ICAO: UKLU) is an international airport located in the city of Uzhhorod, in the western Ukrainian province of Zakarpattia. The airport is situated in the westernmost part of the city, in the Chervenytsia district at 145, Sobranetska Street.

It is a small airport, serving Uzhhorod and the whole oblast. The airport is unique in its operation: the runway begins 90 meters from the Ukrainian-Slovak international border, so planes must use Slovak airspace for take-offs and landings under special treaty.From summer 2016 until March 2019 the airport did not handle regular flights.

Uzhhorod National University

Uzhhorod National University (also known as UzhNU, full name - State University `Uzhhorod National University`, Ukrainian: Державний вищий навчальний заклад "Ужгородський національний університет" (ДВНЗ "УжНУ")), in the city of Uzhhorod, is one of the major government run universities in Ukraine, and earlier in the Soviet Union.

Uzhhorod Raion

Uzhhorod Raion (Ukrainian: Ужгородський район) is one of the raions (districts) of Zakarpattia Oblast in western Ukraine. Its administrative center is located in the city of Uzhhorod which does not belong to the raion and is designated as a separate city municipality. Over 30% of population in the raion speak the Hungarian language according to the latest census. Population: 70,678 (2016 est.).

Vasyl Turyanchyk

Vasyl Yuriyovych Turyanchyk (Ukrainian: Василь Юрійович Турянчик; born 17 April 1935) is a former Soviet defender and coach.

Vyacheslav Hroznyi

Vyacheslav Viktorovych Hrozny (Ukrainian: В'ячеслав Вікторович Грозний; born 12 July 1956) is a Soviet and Ukrainian football player and manager.

Yozhef Betsa

Yozhef Yozhefovich (or Iosif Iosifovich) Betsa (Hungarian: József Beca, Ukrainian: Йожеф Йожефович Беца, Russian: Иосиф Иосифович Беца; 6 November 1929 – 24 February 2011) was a Ukrainian and Soviet football player and coach. Betsa was an ethnic Magyar. In December 2006 he was denied the invitation to accept a medal from the President of the Union of the Russian football veterans, Alexander Bagratovich Mirzoyan with the explanation that he has to reside in the Russian Federation. He was born and died in Mukacheve.

Yozhef Sabo

Yozhef Yozhefovich Sabo (Ukrainian: Йожеф Йожефович Сабо; Hungarian: Szabó József; born 29 February 1940) is a former Soviet football player, Soviet and Ukrainian football manager. He is of Hungarian background. He is baptized as a Greek-Catholic.

Climate data for Uzhhorod
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 13.3
(55.9)
17.2
(63.0)
25.4
(77.7)
29.7
(85.5)
33.4
(92.1)
35.0
(95.0)
38.6
(101.5)
38.4
(101.1)
35.9
(96.6)
26.1
(79.0)
21.6
(70.9)
15.6
(60.1)
38.6
(101.5)
Average high °C (°F) 1.3
(34.3)
3.7
(38.7)
9.8
(49.6)
16.7
(62.1)
22.0
(71.6)
24.6
(76.3)
26.9
(80.4)
26.6
(79.9)
21.2
(70.2)
15.4
(59.7)
8.2
(46.8)
2.7
(36.9)
14.9
(58.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) −1.7
(28.9)
−0.1
(31.8)
5.0
(41.0)
11.0
(51.8)
16.1
(61.0)
18.8
(65.8)
20.9
(69.6)
20.3
(68.5)
15.5
(59.9)
10.3
(50.5)
4.7
(40.5)
−0.2
(31.6)
10.1
(50.2)
Average low °C (°F) −4.8
(23.4)
−3.7
(25.3)
0.6
(33.1)
5.5
(41.9)
10.4
(50.7)
13.1
(55.6)
15.0
(59.0)
14.5
(58.1)
10.3
(50.5)
5.7
(42.3)
1.4
(34.5)
−3.0
(26.6)
5.4
(41.7)
Record low °C (°F) −28.2
(−18.8)
−26.3
(−15.3)
−17.5
(0.5)
−6.2
(20.8)
−4.4
(24.1)
1.5
(34.7)
5.4
(41.7)
4.4
(39.9)
−2.2
(28.0)
−9.3
(15.3)
−21.8
(−7.2)
−24.7
(−12.5)
−28.2
(−18.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 53
(2.1)
50
(2.0)
43
(1.7)
49
(1.9)
74
(2.9)
76
(3.0)
80
(3.1)
74
(2.9)
72
(2.8)
56
(2.2)
57
(2.2)
68
(2.7)
752
(29.6)
Average rainy days 11 10 13 15 16 16 15 13 13 13 14 13 162
Average snowy days 14 12 5 1 0.03 0 0 0 0 0.3 5 12 49
Average relative humidity (%) 82 76 67 62 65 68 67 69 73 76 80 83 72
Mean monthly sunshine hours 59 87 142 190 246 249 274 253 192 151 63 46 1,952
Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net[9]
Source #2: NOAA (sun, 1961–1990)[10]
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