Ustashe

The Ustaša – Croatian Revolutionary Movement (Croatian: Ustaša – Hrvatski revolucionarni pokret), commonly known as Ustaše (pronounced [ûstaʃe], Croatian: Ustaše), was a Croatian fascist, racist, ultranationalist and terrorist organization,[3] active, as one organization, between 1929 and 1945. Its members murdered hundreds of thousands of Serbs, Jews,[4] and Roma as well as political dissidents in Yugoslavia during World War II.[5][6][7]

They are variously known in English as the Ustaše, Ustashe, Ustashi, Ustahis, or Ustashas; with the associated adjective sometimes being Ustashe or Ustasha, apart from Ustaše. This variance stems from the fact that Ustaše is the plural form of Ustaša in the Serbo-Croatian language.

The ideology of the movement was a blend of fascism, Roman Catholicism and Croatian nationalism.[5] The Ustaše supported the creation of a Greater Croatia that would span the Drina River and extend to the border of Belgrade.[8] The movement emphasized the need for a racially "pure" Croatia and promoted genocide against Serbs, Jews and Romani people, and persecution of anti-fascist or dissident Croats and Bosniaks. The Ustaše viewed the Bosniaks as "Muslim Croats," and as a result, Bosniaks were not persecuted on the basis of race.[9]

Fiercely Roman Catholic, the Ustaše espoused Roman Catholicism and Islam as the religions of the Croats and Bosniaks and condemned Orthodox Christianity, which was the main religion of the Serbs. Roman Catholicism was identified with Croatian nationalism,[10] while Islam, which had a large following in Bosnia and Herzegovina, was praised by the Ustaše as the religion that "keeps true the blood of Croats."[11]

When it was founded in 1930,[12] it was a nationalist organization that sought to create an independent Croatian state. When the Ustaše came to power in the NDH, a quasi-protectorate established by Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany during World War II, its military wings became the Army of the Independent State of Croatia and the Ustaše militia (Croatian: Ustaška vojnica).[5] However the Ustaše never received massive support.[13]

The movement functioned as a terrorist organization before World War II[5] but in April 1941, they were appointed to rule a part of Axis-occupied Yugoslavia as the Independent State of Croatia (NDH), which has been described as both an Italian-German quasi-protectorate,[14] and as a puppet state[15][16][17] of Nazi Germany.[16][18][19]

Ustaša – Croatian Revolutionary Movement

Ustaša – Hrvatski revolucionarni pokret
PoglavnikAnte Pavelić
FounderAnte Pavelić
Founded7 January 1929 (de jure), 1930 (de facto)
Banned8 May 1945
Preceded byParty of Rights
Succeeded by
Headquarters
NewspaperHrvatski Domobran
Youth wingUstaše Youth (UM)
Paramilitary wingUstaše Militia
Membership (1941)100,000[1]
Ideology
Political positionFar-right
ColoursRed, white, blue, black
SloganZa Poglavnika i dom spremni (For Poglavnik and homeland ready)
Party flag
Flag of Independent State of Croatia

Name

The word ustaša (plural: ustaše) is derived from the intransitive verb ustati (Croatian for rise up). "Pučki-ustaša" (German: Landsturm) was a military rank in the Imperial Croatian Home Guard (1868–1918). The same term was the name of Croatian third-class infantry regiments (German: Landsturm regiments) during World War One 1914–1918.[20] Another variation of the word ustati is ustanik (plural: ustanici) which means an insurgent, or a rebel. The name ustaša did not have fascist connotations during the early years of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia as the term "ustat" was itself used in Herzegovina to denote the insurgents from the Herzegovinian rebellion of 1875. The full original name of the organization appeared in April 1931 as the Ustaša – Hrvatska revolucionarna organizacija or UHRO (Ustaša – Croatian Revolutionary Organization); in 1933 it was renamed the Ustaša – Hrvatski revolucionarni pokret (Ustaša – Croatian Revolutionary Movement), a name it kept until World War II.[5] In English, Ustasha, Ustashe, Ustashas and Ustashi are used for the movement or its members.

Ideology

Ideological roots

Mussolini and Pavelic 1941
Poglavnik Ante Pavelić and Italy's Duce Benito Mussolini on 18 May 1941 in Rome. The Ustaše were heavily influenced by Italian Fascism and politically supported by Fascist Italy.
Adolf Hitler meets Ante Pavelić.1941
Germany's Führer Adolf Hitler with Pavelić at the Berghof outside Berchtesgaden, Germany. The Ustaše increasingly came under the influence of Nazism after the founding of the NDH in 1941.

One of the major ideological influences on the Croatian nationalism of the Ustaše was 19th century Croatian activist Ante Starčević,[9] an advocate of Croatian unity and independence, who was both anti-Habsburg and anti-Serbian in outlook.[9]

He envisioned the creation of a Greater Croatia that would include territories inhabited by Bosniaks, Serbs, and Slovenes, considering Bosniaks and Serbs to be Croats who had been converted to Islam and Orthodox Christianity, while considering the Slovenes to be "mountain Croats".[9] Starčević argued that the large Serb presence in territories claimed by a Greater Croatia was the result of recent settlement, encouraged by Habsburg rulers, and the influx of groups like Vlachs who took up Orthodox Christianity and identified themselves as Serbs. Starčević admired Bosniaks because in his view they were Croats who had adopted Islam in order to preserve the economic and political autonomy of Bosnia and Croatia under the rule of the Ottoman Empire.[9]

The Ustaše used Starčević's theories to promote the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina to Croatia and recognized Croatia as having two major ethnocultural components: Catholics and Muslims.[9] The Ustaše sought to represent Starčević as being connected to their views.[21]

The Ustaše promoted the theories of Dr Milan Šufflay, who is believed to have claimed that Croatia had been "one of the strongest ramparts of Western civilization for many centuries", which he claimed had been lost through its union with Serbia when the nation of Yugoslavia was formed in 1918.[22] Šufflay was killed in Zagreb in 1931 by government supporters.[23][24][25]

The Ustaše accepted the 1935 thesis by a Franciscan friar, Father Krunoslav Draganović, who claimed that many Catholics in southern Herzegovina had been converted to Orthodox Christianity in the 16th and 17th centuries, in order to justify a policy of forcible conversion of Orthodox Christians in the area to Catholicism.[26]

The Ustaše were heavily influenced by Nazism and fascism. Pavelić's position of Poglavnik was based on the similar positions of Duce held by Benito Mussolini and Führer held by Adolf Hitler.[9] The Ustaše, like fascists, promoted a corporatist economy.[27] Pavelić and the Ustaše were allowed sanctuary in Italy by Mussolini after being exiled from Yugoslavia. Pavelić had been in negotiations with Fascist Italy since 1927 that included advocating a territory-for-sovereignty swap in which he would tolerate Italy annexing its claimed territory in Dalmatia in exchange for Italy supporting the sovereignty of an independent Croatia.[9]

Mussolini's support of the Ustaše was based on pragmatic considerations, such as maximizing Italian influence in the Balkans. After 1937, with the weakening of French influence in Europe following Germany's remilitarization of the Rhineland and with the rise of a quasi-fascist government in Yugoslavia under Milan Stojadinović, Mussolini abandoned support for the Ustaše from 1937–39 and sought to improve relations with Yugoslavia, fearing that continued hostility towards Yugoslavia would result in Yugoslavia entering Germany's sphere of influence.[28]

Partizani cetnici
Anti-Serbian and anti-communist Ustashe poster

The collapse of the quasi-fascist Stojadinović regime resulted in Italy restoring its support for the Ustaše, whose aim was to create an independent Croatia in personal union with Italy.[28] However, distrust of the Ustaše grew. Mussolini's son-in-law and Italian foreign minister Count Galeazzo Ciano noted in his diary that "The Duce is indignant with Pavelić, because he claims that the Croats are descendants of the Goths. This will have the effect of bringing them into the German orbit".[29]

Nazi Germany initially didn't support an independent Croatia, nor did it support the Ustaše, with Hitler stressing the importance of a "strong and united Yugoslavia".[28] Nazi officials, including Hermann Göring, wanted Yugoslavia stable and officially neutral during the war so Germany could continue to securely gain Yugoslavia's raw material exports.[28] The Nazis grew aggravated with the Ustaše, among them Reichsfuhrer SS Heinrich Himmler, who was dissatisfied with the lack of full compliance by the NDH to the Nazis' agenda of extermination of the Jews, as the Ustaše permitted Jews who converted to Catholicism to be recognized as "honorary Croats", thus putatively exempt from persecution.[9]

Political programme and main agendas

In 1932, an editorial in the first issue of the Ustaše newspaper, signed by the Ustaše leader Ante Pavelić, proclaimed that violence and terror would be the main means for the Ustaše to attain their goals:

The KNIFE, REVOLVER, MACHINE GUN and TIME BOMB; these are the idols, these are bells that will announce the dawning and THE RESURRECTION OF THE INDEPENDENT STATE OF CROATIA.[30]

In 1933, the Ustaše presented "The Seventeen Principles" that formed the official ideology of the movement. The Principles stated the uniqueness of the Croatian nation, promoted collective rights over individual rights and declared that people who were not Croat by "blood" would be excluded from political life.[9]

Those considered "undesirables" were subjected to mass murder.[31] These principles called for the creation of a new economic system that would be neither capitalist nor communist[9] and which emphasized the importance of the Roman Catholic Church and the patriarchial family as means to maintain social order and morality.[9] (The name given by modern historian to this particular aspect of Ustaše ideology varies; "national Catholicism",[32] "political Catholicism" and "Catholic Croatism"[33] have been proposed among others.) In power, the Ustaše banned contraception and tightened laws against blasphemy.[34]

Deniker's Races de l'Europe (1899)
Joseph Deniker's map of European races (1899) identified "Dinarics" as the dominant group in parts of Central Europe, northern Italy and the northwest Balkans.

The Ustaše accepted that Croats are part of the Dinaric race,[35] but rejected the idea that Croats are primarily Slavic, claiming they are primarily descended from Germanic roots with the Goths.[36] The Ustaše believed that a government must naturally be strong and authoritarian. The movement opposed parliamentary democracy for being "corrupt" and Marxism and Bolshevism for interfering in family life and the economy and for their materialism. The Ustaše considered competing political parties and elected parliaments to be harmful to its own interests.[27]

The Ustaše recognized both Roman Catholicism and Islam as national religions of the Croatian people but initially rejected Orthodox Christianity as being incompatible with their objectives.[22] Although the Ustaše emphasized religious themes, it stressed that duty to the nation took precedence over religious custom.[37]

In power, the Ustaše banned the use of the term "Serbian Orthodox faith", requiring "Greek-Eastern faith" in its place.[31] The Ustaše forcefully converted many Orthodox to Catholicism, murdered and expelled 85% of Orthodox priests,[38] and plundered and burnt many Orthodox Christian churches.[38] The Ustaše also persecuted Old Catholics who did not recognize papal infallibility.[31] On 2 July 1942 the Croatian Orthodox Church was founded, as a further means to destroy the Serbian Orthodox Church, but this new Church gained very few followers.[39]

While initial focus was against Serbs, as the Ustase grew closer to the Nazis they adopted antisemitism.[40] In 1936, in "The Croat Question", Ante Pavelić placed Jews third among "the Enemies of the Croats" (after Serbs and Freemasons, but before Communists): writing:

″Today, practically all finance and nearly all commerce in Croatia is in Jewish hands. This became possible only through the support of the state, which thereby seeks, on one hand, to strengthen the pro-Serbian Jews, and on the other, to weaken Croat national strength. The Jews celebrated the establishment of the so-called Yugoslav state with great joy, because a national Croatia could never be as useful to them as a multi-national Yugoslavia; for in national chaos lies the power of the Jews... In fact, as the Jews had foreseen, Yugoslavia became, in consequence of the corruption of official life in Serbia, a true Eldorado of Jewry."[41]

Once in power, the Ustaše immediately introduced a series of Nazi-style Racial Laws, sent most Jews to Ustaše and Nazi concentration camps – including the notorious, Ustaše-run, Jasenovac – where all told nearly, 32.000, or 80% of the Jews in the Independent State of Croatia, were exterminated.[42]

The Ustaše attached conditions to the Croatian citizenship of Muslims, such as asserting that a Muslim who supported Yugoslavia would not be considered a Croat nor a citizen but would instead be considered a "Muslim Serb" who could be denied property and imprisoned. The Ustaše claimed that such "Muslim Serbs" had to earn Croat status. The Ustaše persecuted Jews who practiced Judaism but authorized Jewish converts to Catholicism to be recognized as Croatian citizens and be given honorary Aryan citizenship that allowed them to be reinstated at the jobs from which they had previously been separated.[37] After they stripped Jews of their citizenship rights, the Ustaše allowed some to apply for Aryan rights via bribes and/or through connections to prominent Ustaše. The whole process was highly arbitrary. Only 2% of Zagreb's Jews were granted Aryan rights, for example. Also, Aryan rights did not guarantee permanent protection from being sent to concentration camps or other persecution.[43]

Economically, the Ustaše supported the creation of a corporatist economy.[27][34][44] The movement believed that natural rights existed to private property and ownership over small-scale means of production free from state control. Armed struggle, revenge and terrorism were glorified by the Ustaše.[27]

The Ustaše introduced widespread measures, to which many Croats themselves fell victim. Jozo Tomasevich in his book War and Revolution in Yugoslavia: 1941-1945, states that "never before in history had Croats been exposed to such legalized administrative, police and judicial brutality and abuse as during the Ustaša regime." Decrees enacted by the regime formed the basis that allowed it to get rid of all unwanted employees in state and local government and in state enterprises, the "unwanted" being all Jews, Serbs and Yugoslav-oriented Croats who were all thrown out except for some deemed specifically needed by the government. This would leave a multitude of jobs to be filled by Ustašas and pro-Ustaša adherents, and would lead to government jobs being filled by people with no professional qualifications.[45]

Velika Hrvatska (Hrvatski Domobran)
Map of a Greater Croatia in a 26 October 1939 article of the Ustaše Hrvatski Domobran newspaper associated with the Ustaše organization of the same name, Hrvatski Domobran, which sought recruitment of Croatian diaspora emigrants in Argentina and elsewhere. The article rejected the Cvetković–Maček Agreement and the borders it provided to Croatia as insufficient.

History

Before World War II

In October 1928, after the assassination of leading Croatian politician Stjepan Radić, Croatian Peasant Party President in the Yugoslav Assembly by radical Montenegrin politician Puniša Račić, a youth group named the Croat Youth Movement was founded by Branimir Jelić at the University of Zagreb. A year later Ante Pavelić was invited by the 21-year-old Jelić into the organization as a junior member. A related movement, the Domobranski Pokret—which had been the name of the legal Croatian army in Austria-Hungary—began publication of Hrvatski Domobran, a newspaper dedicated to Croatian national matters. The Ustaše sent Hrvatski Domobran to the United States to garner support for them from Croatian-Americans.[46] The organization around the Domobran tried to engage with and radicalize moderate Croats, using Radić's assassination to stir up emotions within the divided country. By 1929 two divergent Croatian political streams had formed: those who supported Pavelić's view that only violence could secure Croatia's national interests, and the Croatian Peasant Party, led then by Vladko Maček, successor to Stjepan Radić, which had much greater support among Croats.[27]

Various members of the Croatian Party of Rights contributed to the writing of the Domobran, until around Christmas 1928 when the newspaper was banned by authorities of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. In January 1929 the king banned all national parties,[47] and the radical wing of the Party of Rights was exiled, including Pavelić, Jelić and Gustav Perčec. This group was later joined by several other Croatian exiles. On 20 April 1929 Pavelić and others co-signed a declaration in Sofia, Bulgaria, with members of the Macedonian National Committee, asserting that they would pursue "their legal activities for the establishment of human and national rights, political freedom and complete independence for both Croatia and Macedonia". The Court for the Preservation of the State in Belgrade sentenced Pavelić and Perčec to death on 17 July 1929.

The exiles started organizing support for their cause among the Croatian diaspora in Europe, as well as North and South America. In January 1932 they named their revolutionary organization "Ustaša". The Ustaše carried out terrorist acts, to cause as much damage as possible to Yugoslavia. From their training camps in fascist Italy and Hungary, they planted time bombs on international trains bound for Yugoslavia, causing deaths and material damage.[48] In November 1932 ten Ustaše, led by Andrija Artuković and supported by four local sympathizers, attacked a gendarme outpost at Brušani in the Lika/Velebit area, in an apparent attempt to intimidate the Yugoslav authorities. The incident has sometimes been termed the "Velebit uprising".

Assassination of King Alexander I

Universal Newsreel's film about the assassination of Alexander I.

The Ustaše's most famous terrorist act was carried out on 9 October 1934, when working with the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (IMRO), they assassinated King Alexander I of Yugoslavia. The perpetrator, a Bulgarian revolutionary, Vlado Chernozemski, was killed by French police.[49] Three Ustaše members who had been waiting at different locations for the king – Mijo Kralj, Zvonimir Popišil and Milan Rajić – were captured and sentenced to life imprisonment by a French court.[48]

Ante Pavelić, along with Eugen Kvaternik and Ivan Perčević, were subsequently sentenced to death in absentia by a French court, as the real organizers of the deed. The Ustaše believed that the assassination of King Alexander had effectively "broken the backbone of Yugoslavia" and that it was their "most important achievement."[49]

Soon after the assassination, all organizations related to the Ustaše as well as the Hrvatski Domobran, which continued as a civil organization, were banned throughout Europe. Under pressure from France, the Italian police arrested Pavelić and several Ustaše emigrants in October 1934. Pavelić was imprisoned in Turin and released in March 1936. After he met with Eugen Dido Kvaternik, he stated that assassination was "the only language Serbs understand". While in prison, Pavelić was informed of the 1935 election in Yugoslavia, when the coalition led by Croat Vladko Maček won. He stated that his victory was aided by the activity of Ustaše.[50] By the mid-1930s, graffiti with the initials ŽAP meaning "Long live Ante Pavelić" (Croatian: Živio Ante Pavelić) had begun to appear on the streets of Zagreb.[51] During the 1930s, a split developed between the "home" Ustaše members who stayed behind in Croatia and Bosnia to struggle against Yugoslavia and the "emigre" Ustaše who went abroad.[52] The "emigre" Ustaše who had a much lower educational level were viewed as violent, ignorant and fanatical by the "home" Ustaše while the "home" Ustaše were dismissed as "soft" by the "emigres" who saw themselves as a "warrior-elite".[52]      

After March 1937, when Italy and Yugoslavia signed a pact of friendship, Ustaše and their activities were banned, which attracted the attention of young Croats, especially university students, who would become sympathizers or members. In 1936, the Yugoslav government offered amnesty to those Ustaše abroad provided they promised to renounce violence; many of the "emigres" accepted the amnesty and returned home to continue the struggle.[53]  In the late 1930s, the Ustaše started to infiltrate the para-military organizations of the Croat Peasant Party, the Croatian Defense Force and the Peasant Civil Party.[54] At the University of Zagreb, an Ustaše-linked student group become the largest single student group by 1939.[54] In February 1939 two returnees from detention, Mile Budak and Ivan Oršanić, became editors of Hrvatski narod, known in English as The Croatian Nation, a pro-Ustaše journal. I

World War II

The Axis Powers invaded Yugoslavia on 6 April 1941. Vladko Maček, the leader of the Croatian Peasant Party (HSS), which was the most influential party in Croatia at the time, rejected German offers to lead the new government. On 10 April the most senior home-based Ustaše, Slavko Kvaternik, took control of the police in Zagreb and in a radio broadcast that day proclaimed the formation of the Independent State of Croatia (Nezavisna Država Hrvatska, NDH). The name of the state was an attempt to capitalise on the Croat struggle for independence. Maček issued a statement that day, calling on all Croatians to cooperate with the new authorities.[55]

Black Legion 1942
A unit of Ustaše in Sarajevo

Meanwhile Pavelić and several hundred Ustaše left their camps in Italy for Zagreb, where he declared a new government on 16 April 1941.[9] He accorded himself the title of "Poglavnik"—a Croatian approximation to "Führer". The Independent State of Croatia was declared on Croatian "ethnic and historical territory",[56] what is today Republic of Croatia (without Istria), Bosnia and Herzegovina, Syrmia and the Bay of Kotor. However, a few days after the declaration of independence, the Ustaše were forced[9] to sign the Treaty of Rome where they surrendered part of Dalmatia and Krk, Rab, Korčula, Biograd, Šibenik, Split, Čiovo, Šolta, Mljet and part of Konavle and the Bay of Kotor to Italy. De facto control over this territory varied for the majority of the war, as the Partisans grew more successful, while the Germans and Italians increasingly exercised direct control over areas of interest. The Germans and Italians split the NDH into two zones of influence, one in the southwest controlled by the Italians and the other in the northeast controlled by the Germans. As a result, the NDH has been described as "an Italian-German quasi-protectorate". In September 1943, after Italian capitulation, the NDH annexed the whole territory which was annexed by Italy according to Treaty of Rome.[57]

Ustaše Militia

Chetniks, Ustasa, and Domobrani
Meeting in Bosnia between representatives of the Chetniks and Independent State of Croatia officers (including the Ustaše militia and the Croatian Home Guard)

The Army of the Independent State of Croatia was composed of enlistees who did not participate in Ustaše activities. The Ustaše Militia was organised in 1941 into five (later 15) 700-man battalions, two railway security battalions and the elite Black Legion and Poglavnik Bodyguard Battalion (later Brigade).[58]

On 27 April 1941 a newly formed unit of the Ustaše army killed members of the largely Serbian community of Gudovac, near Bjelovar. Eventually all who opposed and/or threatened the Ustaše were outlawed. The HSS was banned on 11 June 1941, in an attempt by the Ustaše to take their place as the primary representative of the Croatian peasantry. Vladko Maček was sent to the Jasenovac concentration camp, but later released to serve a house arrest sentence due to his popularity among the people. Maček was later again called upon by foreigners to take a stand and oppose the Pavelić government, but refused. In early 1941 Jews and Serbs were ordered to leave certain areas of Zagreb.[59][60]

Pavelić first met with Adolf Hitler on 6 June 1941. Mile Budak, then a minister in Pavelić's government, publicly proclaimed the violent racial policy of the state on 22 July 1941. Vjekoslav "Maks" Luburić, a chief of the secret police, started building concentration camps in the summer of the same year. Ustaše activities in villages across the Dinaric Alps led the Italians and the Germans to express their disquiet. According to writer/historian Srđa Trifković, as early as 10 July 1941 Wehrmacht Gen. Edmund Glaise von Horstenau reported the following to the German High Command, the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht (OKW):

Our troops have to be mute witnesses of such events; it does not reflect well on their otherwise high reputation . . . I am frequently told that German occupation troops would finally have to intervene against Ustaše crimes. This may happen eventually. Right now, with the available forces, I could not ask for such action. Ad hoc intervention in individual cases could make the German Army look responsible for countless crimes which it could not prevent in the past.[61][62]

Historian Jonathan Steiberg describes Ustaše crimes against Serbian and Jewish civilians: "Serbian and Jewish man [sic] woman [sic] and children were literally hacked to death". Reflecting on the photos of Ustaše crimes taken by Italians, Steinberg writes: "There are photographs of Serbian woman [sic] with breasts hacked off by kitchen knives, man [sic] with eyes gouged out, emasculated and mutilated".[63]

A Gestapo report to Reichsführer SS Heinrich Himmler, dated 17 February 1942, stated:

Increased activity of the bands [of rebels] is chiefly due to atrocities carried out by Ustaše units in Croatia against the Orthodox population. The Ustaše committed their deeds in a bestial manner not only against males of conscript age, but especially against helpless old people, women and children. The number of the Orthodox that the Croats have massacred and sadistically tortured to death is about three hundred thousand.[64]

In September 1942 an Ustaše Defensive Brigade was formed, and during 1943 the Ustaše battalions were re-organised into eight four-battalion brigades (1st to 8th).[58] In 1943 the Germans suffered major losses on the Eastern Front and the Italians signed an armistice with the Allies, leaving behind significant caches of arms which the Partisans would use.

Ustasha dressed in women's clothes
An Ustaše disguised as a woman, captured by Partisans of the 6th Krajina Brigade

By 1944 Pavelić was almost totally reliant on Ustaše units, now 100,000 strong, formed in Brigades 1 to 20, Recruit Training Brigades 21 to 24, three divisions, two railway brigades, one defensive brigade and the new Mobile Brigade. In November 1944 the army was effectively put under Ustaše control when the Armed Forces of the Independent State of Croatia were combined with the units of the Ustaše to form 18 divisions, comprising 13 infantry, two mountain and two assault divisions and one replacement division, each with its own organic artillery and other support units. There were several armored units.[58]

Fighting continued for a short while after the formal surrender of German Army Group E on 9 May 1945, as Pavelić ordered the NDH forces to attempt to escape to Austria, together with a large number of civilians. The Battle of Poljana, between a mixed German and Ustaše column and a Partisan force, was the last battle of World War II on European soil. Most of those fleeing, including both Ustaše and civilians, were handed over to the Partisans at Bleiburg and elsewhere on the Austrian border. Pavelić hid in Austria and Rome, with the help of Catholic clergy, later fleeing to Argentina.[65]

After the war

After World War II, many of the Ustaše went underground or fled to countries such as Canada, Australia, Germany and some countries in South America, notably Argentina, with the assistance of Roman Catholic churches and their own grassroots supporters.[66][66][67]

For several years some Ustaše tried to organize a resistance group called the Crusaders, but their efforts were largely foiled by the Yugoslav authorities.[5] With the defeat of the Independent State of Croatia, the active movement went dormant. Infighting fragmented the surviving Ustaše. Pavelić formed the Croatian Liberation Movement, which drew in several of the former state's leaders. Vjekoslav Vrančić founded a reformed Croatian Liberation Movement and was its leader. Maks Luburić formed the Croatian National Resistance. Branimir Jelić founded the Croatian National Committee. Also see the Croatian Revolutionary Brotherhood.

Blagoje Jovović, a Montenegrin, shot Pavelić near Buenos Aires on 9 April 1957; Pavelić later died of his injuries.[68]

Serb family killed in their home, 1941
An entire Serb family lies slaughtered in their home following a raid by the Ustaše militia, 1941.

Ethnic and religious persecution

The Ustaše intended to create an ethnically "pure" Croatia, and they viewed those Serbs then living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina as the biggest obstacle to this goal. Ustaše ministers Mile Budak, Mirko Puk and Milovan Žanić declared in May 1941 that the goal of the new Ustaše policy was an ethnically pure Croatia. The strategy to achieve their goal was:[69][70]

  1. One-third of the Serbs were to be killed
  2. One-third of the Serbs were to be expelled
  3. One-third of the Serbs were to be forcibly converted to Catholicism

The NDH government cooperated with Nazi Germany in the Holocaust and exercised their own version of the genocide against Serbs, Jews and Roma (aka "gypsies") inside its borders. State policy towards Serbs had first been declared in the words of Milovan Žanić, a minister of the NDH Legislative council, on 2 May 1941:

Ustaše sawing off the head of a Serb civilian
Ustaše soldiers sawing off the head of Branko Jungić, an ethnic Serb, near Bosanska Gradiška.

This country can only be a Croatian country, and there is no method we would hesitate to use in order to make it truly Croatian and cleanse it of Serbs, who have for centuries endangered us and who will endanger us again if they are given the opportunity.[71]

The Ustaše enacted race laws patterned after those of the Third Reich, which persecuted Jews, Romani and Serbs, who were collectively declared to be enemies of the Croatian people.[9] Serbs, Jews, Roma and Croatian and Bosniak dissidents, including Communists, were interned in concentration camps, the largest of which was Jasenovac. By the end of the war the Ustaše, under Pavelić's leadership, had exterminated an estimated 30,000 Jews, 29,000 Gypsies, and between 300,000 and 600,000 Serbs.[72]

The history textbooks in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia cited 700,000 as the total number of victims at Jasenovac. This was promulgated from a 1946 calculation of the demographic loss of population (the difference between the actual number of people after the war and the number that would have been, had the pre-war growth trend continued). After that, it was used by Edvard Kardelj and Moša Pijade in the Yugoslav war reparations claim sent to Germany. The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum says:

Due to differing views and lack of documentation, estimates for the number of Serbian victims in Croatia range widely, from 25,000 to more than one million. The most reliable figures place the number of Serbs killed by the Ustaše between 330,000 and 390,000.[73]

Glina church massacre
Serb civilians forced to convert to Catholicism by the Ustaše in Glina

The Jasenovac Memorial Area maintains a list of 83,145 names of Jasenovac victims that was gathered by government officials in Belgrade in 1964, as well as names and biographical data for the victims identified in recent inquiries.[74] As the gathering process was imperfect, they estimated that the list represented between 60%–75% of the total victims, putting the number of killed in that complex at between roughly 80,000–100,000. The previous head of the Memorial Area Simo Brdar estimated at least 365,000 dead at Jasenovac. The analyses of statisticians Vladimir Žerjavić and Bogoljub Kočović were similar to those of the Memorial Area. In all of Yugoslavia, the estimated number of Serb deaths was 487,000 according to Kočović, and 530,000 according to Žerjavić, out of a total of 1,014,000 or 1,027,000 deaths (respectively). Žerjavić further stated there were 197,000 Serb civilians killed in NDH (78,000 as prisoners in Jasenovac and elsewhere) as well as 125,000 Serb combatants.

The Belgrade Museum of Holocaust compiled a list of over 77,000 names of Jasenovac victims. It was previously headed by Milan Bulajić, who supported the claim of a total of 700,000 victims. The current administration of the Museum has further expanded the list to include a bit over 80,000 names. During World War II various German military commanders and civilian authorities gave different figures for the number of Serbs, Jews and others killed inside the territory of the Independent State of Croatia. Historian Prof. Jozo Tomasevich has posited that some of these figures may have been a "deliberate exaggeration" fostered to create further hostility between Serbs and Croats so that they would not unite in resisting the Axis.[75] These figures included 400,000 Serbs (Alexander Löhr);[76] 500,000 Serbs (Lothar Rendulic);[77] 250,000 to March 1943 (Edmund Glaise von Horstenau);[75] more than "3/4 of a million Serbs" (Hermann Neubacher) in 1943;[78] 600,000–700,000 in concentration camps until March 1944 (Ernst Fick);[75] 700,000 (Massenbach).[79]

Of some 39,000 Jews who had lived in territory which became the Independent State of Croatia, at least 30,000 died.[72][73]

Concentration camps

Ustaše militia execute prisoners near the Jasenovac concentration camp
Ustaše militia execute prisoners near the Jasenovac concentration camp
Srbosjek (knife) used in Croatia - 1941–1945
A knife nicknamed "Srbosjek" or "Serbcutter", strapped to the hand, which was used by the Ustaše militia for the speedy killing of inmates in Jasenovac.

The first group of camps was formed in the spring of 1941. These included:

These camps were closed by October 1942. The Jasenovac complex was built between August 1941 and February 1942. The first two camps, Krapje and Bročica, were closed in November 1941. The three newer camps continued to function until the end of the war:

There were also other camps in:

Numbers of prisoners:

  • between 300,000–350,000 up to 700,000 in Jasenovac (disputed)
  • around 35,000 in Gospić
  • around 8,500 in Pag
  • around 3,000 in Đakovo
  • 1,018 in Jastrebarsko
  • around 1,000 in Lepoglava

Connections with the Catholic Church

The Ustaše policies against Eastern Orthodoxy are incorrectly associated with "Uniatism" in some Eastern Orthodox circles. This term has not been used by the Roman Catholic Church except for Vatican condemnation of the idea in 1990.[81] The Ustaše represented an extreme example of "Uniatism" which was based on nationalism rather than on religion. They supported violent aggression or force to convert Serbo-Croatian speaking Orthodox believers to Roman Catholicism. The Ustaše held the position that Eastern Orthodoxy, as a symbol of Serbian nationalism, was their greatest foe and never recognized the existence of a Serb people on the territories of Croatia or Bosnia – they recognized only "Croats of the Eastern faith". They called Bosniaks "Croats of the Islamic faith", but tolerated Muslims and in fact received some support from Bosniak Muslims during World War II in the form of the Handschar division.

NDH - salute
Marko Došen (far left, giving Nazi salute) and Archbishop Alojzije Stepinac (far right)

On April 28, 1941, the head of the Catholic Church in Croatia, Archbishop Alojzije Stepinac, issued a public letter in support for the new Ustaše state, and asked the clergy to pray for its Leader, Ante Pavelić.[82] This despite the fact that the Ustaše had already proclaimed a series of anti-Serb and anti-Jewish measures,[83] and he knew they were preparing Nazi-style Racial Laws, which Pavelić signed only 2 days after.[84] While Stepinac later objected to certain Ustaše policies, and helped some Jews and Serbs, he continued to publicly support he Ustaše state until its very end, served as the state's War Vicar, and in 1944 received a medal from Pavelić[85] (for more on Stepinac's wartime activities, see Alojzije Stepinac – World War II)

The vast majority of the Catholic clergy in Croatia supported the Ustaše. Some priests, mostly Franciscans, particularly in, but not limited to, Herzegovina and Bosnia, took part in the atrocities themselves. Priests like Ivan Guberina served as Pavelić's bodyguards, while Dionizije Juričev, responsible for the forced conversion of Serbs in the Ustaše government, wrote that it was no longer a crime to kill seven-year-olds if they stood in the way of the Ustaše movement.[86] In his diocesan newspaper, the Archbishop of Sarajevo, Ivan Šarić, published that the "liberation of the world from the Jews is a movement for the renewal of humanity".[87] In Bosnia the Ustaše largely ruled through the Catholic clergy, with the priest Božidar Bralo serving as a chief Ustaše delegate for Bosnia.[88]

Miroslav Filipović was a Franciscan friar (from the Petrićevac monastery) who allegedly joined the Ustaše as chaplain and, on 7 February 1942, joined in the massacre of roughly 2730 Serbs of the nearby villages, including some 500 children. He was allegedly subsequently dismissed from his order and defrocked, although he wore his clerical garb when he was hanged for war crimes. He became Chief Guard of Jasenovac concentration camp where he was nicknamed "Fra Sotona" (Father Satan) by fellow Croats. Mladen Lorković, the Croat minister of foreign affairs, formulated it like this: "In Croatia, we can find few real Serbs. The majority of Pravoslavs are as a matter of fact Croats who were forced by foreign invaders to accept the infidel faith. Now it's our duty to bring them back into the Roman Catholic fold."[89]

For the duration of the war, the Vatican kept up full diplomatic relations with the Ustaše state (granting Pavelić an audience), with its papal nuncio in Zagreb, the Croatian capital city. The nuncio was briefed on the efforts of religious conversions to Roman Catholicism. After World War II ended, the Ustaše who had managed to escape from Yugoslav territory (including Pavelić) were smuggled to South America.[65] This was largely done through rat lines operated by Catholic priests who had previously secured positions at the Vatican. Some of the more infamous members of the Illyrian College of San Girolamo in Rome involved in this were Franciscan friars Krunoslav Draganović and Dominik Mandić, and a third friar surnamed Petranović (first name unknown).[90]

The Ustaše regime had deposited large amounts of gold plundered from Serbs and Jews during World War II into Swiss bank accounts. Out of a total of 350 million Swiss francs, an estimated 150 million was seized by British troops;[90] however, the remaining 200 million (ca. $47 million) reached the Vatican. In October 1946 the American intelligence agency SSU alleged that these funds were still held in the Vatican Bank. This issue was the theme of a class-action suit against the Vatican Bank and others (see Alperin v. Vatican Bank).[90]

Cardinal Alojzije Stepinac, Archbishop of Zagreb during World War II, was accused of supporting the Ustaše and of exonerating those in the clergy who collaborated with them and were hence complicit in forced conversions. Stepinac stated on 28 March 1941, noting early attempts to unite Croatians and Serbs:

"All in all, Croats and Serbs are of two worlds, northpole and southpole, never will they be able to get together unless by a miracle of God. The schism (between the Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodoxy) is the greatest curse in Europe, almost greater than Protestantism. Here there is no moral, no principles, no truth, no justice, no honesty."[91]

In 1998 Stepinac was beatified by Pope John Paul II. On 22 June 2003 John Paul II visited Banja Luka. During the visit he held a Mass at the aforementioned Petrićevac monastery. This caused public uproar due to the connection of the monastery with Filipović. At the same location the Pope proclaimed the beatification of a Roman Catholic layman Ivan Merz (1896–1928), who was the founder of the "Association of Croatian Eagles" in 1923, which some view as a precursor to the Ustaše. Roman Catholic apologists defend the Pope's actions by stating the convent at Petrićevac was one of the places that went up in flames, causing the death of 80-year-old Friar Alojzije Atlija. Further, it was claimed by the apologists that the war had produced "a total exodus of the Catholic population from this region"; that the few who remained were "predominantly elderly"; and that the church in Bosnia then allegedly risked "total extinction" due to the war.

Structure

At the top of the command was the Poglavnik (meaning "head") Ante Pavelić. Pavelić was appointed the office as Head of State of Croatia after Adolf Hitler had accepted Benito Mussolini's proposal of Pavelić, on 10 April 1941. The Croatian Home Guard was the armed forces of Croatia, it subsequently merged into the Croatian Armed Forces.[1]

Symbols

EscudoUstacha
The symbol used on the flag of Independent State of Croatia

The symbol of the Ustaše was a capital blue letter "U" with an exploding grenade emblem within it.[92][93]

The flag of the Independent State of Croatia was a red-white-blue horizontal tricolor with the shield of the Coat of Arms or Croatia in the middle and the U in the upper left. Its currency was the NDH kuna.

The Ustaše greeting was "Za dom – spremni!":

Salute: Za dom! For home(land)!
Reply: Spremni! (We are) ready!

This was used instead of the Nazi greeting Heil Hitler by the Ustaše. Today it is nominally associated with Ustaše sympathisers by Serbs or non-Ustaše conservatives associated with the Croatian Party of Rights. However, some Croats see it as a patriotic salute, emphasising defending one's home and country. On the internet, it is sometimes abbreviated as ZDS.

Legacy

Thompson Maksimir 17.6.2007 2
Young boy wearing a shirt with a Black Legion, Ustaše Militia sign at a Thompson concert

Use by Serbian nationalists

Since the end of World War II, Serbian historians have used the Ustaše to promote that Serbs resisted the Axis, while Croats and Bosniaks widely supported them. However, the Ustaše never received massive support.[13] In the 1980s, Serbian historians produced many works about the forced conversion during World War Two of Serbs to Catholicism in Ustaše Croatia.[94] These debates between historians openly became nationalistic and also entered the wider media.[95] Historians in Belgrade during the 1980s who had close government connections often went on television during the evenings to discuss invented or real details about the Ustaše genocide against Serbs during World War Two.[96] Serb clergy and nationalists blamed all Croats for crimes committed by the Ustaše, and for planning a genocide against Serb people. These propagandistic activities were aimed at justifying planned crimes and ethno-demographic engineering in Croatia.[97][96]

Modern usage of the term "Ustaše"

After World War II, the Ustaše movement was split into several organizations and there is presently no political or paramilitary movement that claims its legacy as their "successor". The term "ustaše" is today used as a derogatory term for Croatian ultranationalism. The term "Ustaše" is sometimes used among Serbs to describe Serbophobia or more generally to defame political opponents. When Slobodan Milošević's rule was approaching its end, some protesters called him an "Ustaša".[98]

In popular culture

The Ustaše plays an important role in Harry Turtledove's short alternate history story, Ready for the Fatherland. It plays a brief background role in In the Presence of Mine Enemies, an unrelated work by the same author. In both these works, the regime founded by Pavelić lasted several decades beyond the 1940s.

Croatian singer Thompson used WWII Ustashe salute Za dom spremni at the beginning of his wartime song Bojna Čavoglave[99] and in the song Golubovi bijeli.[100] The chant is often heard among fans in his concerts.[101]

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b Goldstein, Ivo (2001). Croatia: A History. Hurst & Co. p. 133. ISBN 978-0-7735-2017-2.
  2. ^ "Ustasa (Croatian political movement)". Britannica.com. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
  3. ^ Tomasevich 2001, p. 32.
  4. ^ Tomasevich 2001, pp. 351–352.
  5. ^ a b c d e f Ladislaus Hory und Martin Broszat. Der kroatische Ustascha-Staat, Deutsche Verlag-Anstalt, Stuttgart, 2. Auflage 1965, pp. 13–38, 75–80. ‹See Tfd›(in German)
  6. ^ "Croatian holocaust still stirs controversy". BBC News. 29 November 2001. Retrieved 29 September 2010.
  7. ^ "Balkan 'Auschwitz' haunts Croatia". BBC News. 25 April 2005. Retrieved 29 September 2010. No one really knows how many died here. Serbs talk of 700,000. Most estimates put the figure nearer 100,000.
  8. ^ Meier, Viktor. Yugoslavia: a history of its demise (English), London, UK: Routledge, 1999, p. 125. ISBN 9780415185950
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Fischer, Bernd J., ed. (2007). Balkan Strongmen: Dictators and Authoritarian Rulers of South-Eastern Europe. Purdue University Press. pp. 207–208, 210, 226. ISBN 978-1-55753-455-2.
  10. ^ Kent, Peter C. The lonely Cold War of Pope Pius XII: the Roman Catholic Church and the division of Europe, 1943–1950, McGill-Queen's Press (MQUP), 2002 p. 46; ISBN 978-0-7735-2326-5
    "Fiercely nationalistic, the Ustaše were also fervently Catholic, identifying, in the Yugoslav political context, Catholicism with Croatian nationalism..."
  11. ^ Butić-Jelić, Fikreta. Ustaše i Nezavisna Država Hrvatska 1941–1945. Liber, 1977
  12. ^ Tomasevich 2001, p. 30.
  13. ^ a b Philip J. Cohen (1996). Serbia's Secret War: Propaganda and the Deceit of History. Texas A&M University Press. p. 85.
  14. ^ Tomasevich 2001, pp. 233–241.
  15. ^ "Independent State of Croatia". Britannica.com. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
  16. ^ a b Yugoslavia, Holocaust Encyclopedia, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum website; accessed 25 April 2014.
  17. ^ History of Croatia:World War II Archived 1 November 2009 at WebCite
  18. ^ Watch, Helsinki (1993). War Crimes in Bosnia-Hercegovina. Human Rights Watch. ISBN 978-1-56432-083-4. Retrieved 23 April 2008.
  19. ^ Raič, David (2002). Statehood and the law of self-determination. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. ISBN 978-90-411-1890-5. Retrieved 23 April 2008.
  20. ^ See: hr:Pučki-ustaše
  21. ^ Ramet 2006, p. 117.
  22. ^ a b Ramet 2006, p. 118.
  23. ^ "Einstein accuses Yugoslavian rulers in savant's murder", New York Times, 6 May 1931. mirror
  24. ^ "Raditch left tale of Yugoslav plot". New York Times. 23 August 1931. p. N2. Retrieved 6 December 2008.mirror
  25. ^ Cohen, Philip J. and David Riesman. Serbia's Secret War: Propaganda and the Deceit of History. Texas A&M University Press, 1996, pp. 10–11. ISBN 9780890967607
  26. ^ Ramet 2006, p. 126.
  27. ^ a b c d e Đilas, Aleksa. The contested country: Yugoslav unity and communist revolution, 1919–1953, Harvard University Press, 1991, pp. 114–115, 129. ISBN 9780674166981
  28. ^ a b c d Van Creveld, Martin L. Hitler's Strategy 1940–1941: The Balkan Clue. 2nd edition. London/New York: Cambridge University Press, 1974. pp. 6–8 ISBN 9780521201438
  29. ^ Galeazzo Ciano, Count; Malcolm Muggeridge (translator). Ciano's diary, 1939–1943. W. Heinemann, 1950, p. 392.
  30. ^ Goldstein & Goldstein 2016, p. 92.
  31. ^ a b c Ramet 2006, p. 119.
  32. ^ Stanley G. Payne (1996). A History of Fascism, 1914–1945. University of Wisconsin Press. p. 406. ISBN 978-0-299-14873-7.
  33. ^ Lampe, John R. Ideologies and National Identities: The Case of Twentieth-Century Southeastern Europe. Central European University Press. 2004. p. 102. ISBN 978-963-9241-82-4.
  34. ^ a b Atkin, Nicholas and Frank Tallet. Priests, prelates and people: a history of European Catholicism since 1750. New York, New York: I.B. Tauris & Co. Ltd., 2003. p. 248. ISBN 9781860646652
  35. ^ Caccamo, Francesco and Trinchese, Stefano. Rotte adriatiche. Tra Italia, Balcani e Mediterraneo. FrancoAngeli, 2011. p. 158. ISBN 9788856833027
  36. ^ Rich, Norman. Hitler's War Aims: the Establishment of the New Order (1974), pp. 276–77. W.W. Norton & Co: New York. ISBN 9780393332902
  37. ^ a b Greble, Emily. Sarajevo, 1941–1945: Muslims, Christians, and Jews in Hitler's Europe. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 2011. p. 125. ISBN 9780801449215
  38. ^ a b Tomasevich 2001, p. 529.
  39. ^ Tomasevich 2001, p. 546.
  40. ^ Goldstein & Goldstein 2016, p. 93.
  41. ^ Ante Pavelic: The Croat Question |http://chnm.gmu.edu/history/faculty/kelly/blogs/h312/wp-content/sources/pavelic.pdf
  42. ^ "Holocaust Era in Croatia 1941-1945: Jasenovac" United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
  43. ^ Goldstein & Goldstein 2016, pp. 127–35.
  44. ^ Griffin, Roger. The Nature of Fascism. Digital Printing edition. New York, New York: Routledge, 2003, p. 120. ISBN 9781136145889
  45. ^ Tomasevich, Jozo (2001). War and Revolution in Yugoslavia 1941-1945. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. pp. 381–82. ISBN 978-0-8047-3615-2.
  46. ^ Kivisto, Peter. The Ethnic enigma: the salience of ethnicity for European-origin groups. Cranbury, NJ/London, UK/Mississauga, Canada: Associated University Press, 1989. p. 107 ISBN 9780944190036
  47. ^ Jović, Dejan. Yugoslavia: a state that withered away, p. 51
  48. ^ a b Tomasevich 2001, pp. 33.
  49. ^ a b Tomasevich 2001, pp. 33–34.
  50. ^ Matković 2002, p. 17.
  51. ^ Goldstein 2006, p. 229.
  52. ^ a b Yeomens 2011, p. 190.
  53. ^ Yeomens 2011, p. 190-191.
  54. ^ a b Yeomens 2011, p. 191.
  55. ^ Maček, Vladko. In the Struggle for Freedom (New York: Robert Speller & Sons, 1957), p. 230.
  56. ^ Tomasevich 2001, p. 466 "… ethnic and historical territory".
  57. ^ Tomasevich 2001, pp. 233–302.
  58. ^ a b c Thomas, N./Mikulan, K. Axis Forces in Yugoslavia 1941–45. London: Osprey, 1995; ISBN 978-1-85532-473-2.
  59. ^ "PHOTOGRAPHY". Jewish Historical Museum of Yugoslavia. 1941. Retrieved 3 December 2007.
  60. ^ Some were sent to concentration camps and subsequently killed. For a description of these deportations and the treatment in the camps C.f. Djuro Schwartz, "In the Jasenovac camps of death" (ג'ורו שווארץ, במחנות המוות של יאסנובאץ", קובץ מחקרים כ"ה, יד-ושם)
  61. ^ Trifković, Srđa (21 April 2000). "The Real Genocide in Yugoslavia: Independent Croatia of 1941 Revisited". Chronicles.
  62. ^ Trifković, Srđa (21 April 2000). "The Real Genocide in Yugoslavia: Independent Croatia of 1941 Revisited". The Centre for Peace in the Balkans.
  63. ^ Phayer, Michael (2000). The Catholic Church and the Holocaust, 1930–1965. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. p. 33.
  64. ^ Goñi, Uki. The real Odessa: smuggling the Nazis to Perón's Argentina; Granta, 2002, p. 202. ISBN 9781862075818
  65. ^ a b "Tied up in the Rat Lines", Haaretz, 17 January 2006.
  66. ^ a b "US Army File: Krunoslav Draganović". jasenovac-info.com. Archived from the original on 8 October 2007. Retrieved 23 March 2015.
  67. ^ "CIC Memorandum". jasenovac-info.com. 12 September 1983. Archived from the original on 8 October 2007. Retrieved 4 October 2007.
  68. ^ "Two Bullets for Pavelić" (PDF). 2003. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 April 2009.
  69. ^ Jones, Adam & Nicholas A. Robins. (2009), Genocides by the oppressed: subaltern genocide in theory and practice, p. 106, Indiana University Press; ISBN 978-0-253-22077-6
  70. ^ Jacobs, Steven L. Confronting genocide: Judaism, Christianity, Islam, pp. 158–59, Lexington Books, 2009
  71. ^ "Deciphering the Balkan Enigma: Using History to Inform Policy" (PDF). Retrieved 3 June 2011.
  72. ^ a b Ball, Howard (2010). Genocide: A Reference Handbook. ABC-CLIO. p. 124. ISBN 978-1-59884-488-7.
  73. ^ a b "Jasenovac". Us-israel.org. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
  74. ^ Jasenovac Memorial Site official web site; accessed 25 August 2016.
  75. ^ a b c Tomasevich 2001, p. 722.
  76. ^ Summers, Craig & Eric Markusen. Collective violence: harmful behavior in groups and governments; Rowman & Littlefield, 1999, p. 55 ISBN 9780847688135
  77. ^ Rummel, Rudolph J. Democide: Nazi Genocide and Mass Murder; Transaction Publishers, 1992, p. 75. ISBN 9781412821476;
    "While German troops were still in several places in Croatia, the Croatians began a beastly persecution of the Orthodox [Serbs]. At this time at least a half-million people were killed. An unbelievable governing mentality was responsible, as I learned in August 1943 when I received the answer to a question of mine from a government functionary in the circle of the chief of state."
  78. ^ Neubacher, page 31
  79. ^ Lituchy, Barry M. (2006). Jasenovac and the Holocaust in Yugoslavia. New York: Jasenovac Research Institute. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-9753432-0-3.
  80. ^ Group portrait of naked, emaciated children in the Jastrebarsko concentration camp for children. [Photograph #46562]
  81. ^ "Uniatism, Method of Union of the Past, and the Present Search For Full Communion". Vatican Publishing House. 17–24 June 1993. Retrieved 4 October 2007. With regard to the method which has been called "uniatism", it was stated at Freising (June 1990) that "we reject it as a method for the search for unity because it is opposed to the common tradition of our Churches".
  82. ^ Tomasevich 2001, p. 555.
  83. ^ Tomasevich 2001, pp. 381–384.
  84. ^ Goldstein & Goldstein 2016, p. 490.
  85. ^ Što je nama Stepinac? | http://www.autograf.hr/sto-je-nama-stepinac/
  86. ^ Phayer, 2000. p.34
  87. ^ Phayer, 2000. p.35
  88. ^ Tomasevich 2001, pp. 490, 496.
  89. ^ Berenbaum, Michael (editor), A Mosaic of Victims. Non-Jews Persecuted and Murdered by the Nazis, NYU Press, pp. 74–79 (1 March 1992); ISBN 0814711758/ISBN 978-0814711750
  90. ^ a b c Gorin, Julia (23 February 2010). "Mass grave of history: Vatican's WWII identity crisis". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 17 January 2018.
  91. ^ Stanojević, Branimir. Alojzije Stepinac, zločinac ili svetac: dokumenti o izdaji i zločinu, Nova knjiga, 1986, p. 51
  92. ^ Littlejohn, David (1994). Foreign Legions of the Third Reich. 3. R. James Bender Publishing. pp. 216–17. ISBN 978-0-912138-29-9.
  93. ^ Tomasevich 2001, p. 327.
  94. ^ Aleksov 2007, p. 106.
  95. ^ Brunnbauer, Ulf (2011). "Historical Writing in the Balkans". In Woolf, Daniel; Schneider, Axel (eds.). The Oxford History of Historical Writing: Volume 5: Historical Writing Since 1945. Oxford University Press. p. 364. ISBN 9780199225996.
  96. ^ a b Stojanović 2011, p. 221.
  97. ^ Michael A. Sells (10 December 1998). The Bridge Betrayed: Religion and Genocide in Bosnia. University of California Press. pp. 61–62.
  98. ^ Regional Express, prosvjedi-operacija-nije-uspjela-pacijent-je-umro "Prosvjedi- Operacija nije uspjela, pacijent je umro", regionalexpress.hr; accessed 25 August 2016.‹See Tfd›(in Croatian)
  99. ^ Bojna Čavoglave (video)
  100. ^ Golubovi bijeli lyrics
  101. ^ "EINES DER GESICHTER DES KROATISCHEN NATIONALISMUS", Belltower News, 13/06/2008

Bibliography

Yeomens, Rory (2011). ""For Us, Beloved Commander, You Will Never Die!", Morning Jure Francetic, Ustasha Death Squad Leader". In the Shadow of Hitler: Personalities of the Right in Central and Eastern Europe. London: I.B Tauris.

External links

1971 Yugoslav Embassy shooting

The 1971 Yugoslav Embassy shooting (Swedish: Beskjutningen av Jugoslaviens ambassad 1971) was a terrorist attack carried out by Croatian separatists affiliated with the Ustashe movement. It occurred on April 7, 1971, at the embassy of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in Stockholm, Sweden. Among the victims was Vladimir Rolović, the ambassador, who was shot by the attackers, and died a week later.

Anti-Serbian sentiment

Anti-Serbian sentiment or Anti-Serb sentiment (Serbian: антисрпска осећања / antisrpska osećanja) and also Anti-Serbism (антисрбизам / antisrbizam) or Anti-Serbdom (антисрпство / antisrpstvo) or Serbophobia (србофобија / srbofobija) is a generally-negative view of Serbs as an ethnic group. Historically it has been a basis for the persecution of ethnic Serbs.

A distinctive form of Anti-Serbism is Anti-Serbianism which can be defined as a generally-negative view of Serbia as a nation state for Serbs, while another form of Anti-Serbism is a generally-negative view of Republika Srpska, the Serb entity in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

The best-known historical proponent of anti-Serb sentiment was the 19th- and 20th-century Croatian Party of Rights. The most extreme elements of this party became the Ustaše in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, a Croatian fascist organization that came to power during World War II and instituted racial laws that specifically targeted Serbs, Jews, Roma and dissidents. The World War II persecution of Serbs included the mass ethnic cleansing of Serbs and other minorities that lived in the Independent State of Croatia (1941–1945).

Battle of Odžak

Battle of Odžak was the last World War II battle in Europe. The battle began on 19 April 1945 and lasted until 25 May 1945, 17 days after the end of the war in Europe. The combatants were Ustashe commanded by Petar Rajkovačić and the Yugoslav Partisans commanded by Miloš Zekić. The battle took place in the Bosnian town of Odžak. The battle was a victory for the Partisans.

The Battle of Odžak was suppressed in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. The only news about the battle came out on 1 June 1975 in a Serbian newspaper NIN.

Catholic clergy involvement with the Ustaše

Catholic clergy involvement with the Ustaše covers the role of the Croatian Catholic Church in the Independent State of Croatia (NDH), a Nazi puppet state created on the territory of Axis-occupied Yugoslavia in 1941.

Concentration camps in the Independent State of Croatia

During World War II, there existed numerous concentration camps in the Independent State of Croatia. Most were operated by the Croatian Ustaša authorities, and some by Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy.The first concentration camps established by Ustaše chronologically preceded large German concentration camps like Auschwitz and Treblinka.

Daniel Kabiljo

Daniel Kabiljo (6 March 1894, Sarajevo – 1944, Jasenovac concentration camp) was a Yugoslav Jewish Sephardi artist. His lithographs of Sephardi life were published in 1924 but the originals are lost.

His art was featured in propaganda film made by the Ustashe which also featured sculptor Slavko Brill. The group of artists also included Daniel Ozmo one of the younger generation of Sarajevo’s Sephardic artists.

Independent State of Croatia

The Independent State of Croatia (Croatian: Nezavisna Država Hrvatska, NDH; German: Unabhängiger Staat Kroatien; Italian: Stato Indipendente di Croazia) was a World War II fascist puppet state of Germany and Italy. It was established in parts of occupied Yugoslavia on 10 April 1941, after the invasion by the Axis powers. Its territory consisted of most of modern-day Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as some parts of modern-day Serbia and Slovenia, but also excluded many Croat-populated areas in Dalmatia (until late 1943), Istria, and Međimurje regions (which today are part of Croatia).

During its entire existence, the NDH was governed as a one-party state by the fascist Ustaša organization. The Ustaše was led by the Poglavnik, Ante Pavelić. The regime targeted Serbs, Jews and Roma as part of a large-scale campaign of genocide, as well as anti-fascist or dissident Croats and Muslims.Between 1941–45, 22 concentration camps existed inside the territory controlled by the Independent State of Croatia, two of which (Jastrebarsko and Sisak) housed only children and the largest of which was Jasenovac.The state was officially a monarchy after the signing of the Laws of the Crown of Zvonimir on 15 May 1941. Appointed by Victor Emmanuel III of Italy, Prince Aimone, Duke of Aosta initially refused to assume the crown in opposition to the Italian annexation of the Croat-majority populated region of Dalmatia, annexed as part of the Italian irredentist agenda of creating a Mare Nostrum ("Our Sea"). He later briefly accepted the throne due to pressure from Victor Emmanuel III and was titled Tomislav II of Croatia, but never moved from Italy to reside in Croatia.From the signing of the Treaties of Rome on 18 May 1941 until the Italian capitulation on 8 September 1943, the state was a territorial condominium of Germany and Italy. In its judgement in the Hostages Trial, the Nuremberg Military Tribunal concluded that NDH was not a sovereign state. According to the Tribunal, "Croatia was at all times here involved an occupied country".In 1942, Germany suggested Italy take military control of all of Croatia out of a desire to redirect German troops from Croatia to the Eastern Front. Italy however rejected the offer as it did not believe that it could handle the unstable situation in the Balkans alone. After the ousting of Mussolini and the Kingdom of Italy's armistice with the Allies, the NDH on 10 September 1943 declared that the Treaties of Rome were null and void and annexed the portion of Dalmatia that had been ceded to Italy. The NDH attempted to annex Zara, which had been a recognized territory of Italy since 1919 but long an object of Croatian irredentism, but Germany did not allow it.

Janka-Puszta

Janka-Puszta or Jankovac was a training camp set up for the Ustashe terrorist organisation in 1931. The camp was located in the Zala County of Hungary, close to the border of the then Kingdom of Yugoslavia near the villages of Murakeresztúr and Belezna. The camp was one of a string of training camps established in Hungary and Italy by the Ustashe. It housed several hundred émigré recruits, mostly manual laborers returning from Western Europe and North America. The recruits swore an oath of loyalty to the leader of the Ustashe, Ante Pavelić, took part in militant exercises, and produced anti-Serb propaganda material.

Jasenovac i Gradiška Stara

Jasenovac i Gradiška Stara (Jasenovac and Stara Gradiška) is a Croatian song promoting the Ustaše. The lyrics celebrate the World War II crimes against the Serbs. The lyrics include words in the typical dialect of Herzegovina, where some of the worst atrocities against Serbs during WWII happened.[2]

In 2007, Efraim Zuroff reported in the Jerusalem Post that during a performance by Marko Perković of the Croatian band Thompson at Maksimir Stadium, there were a large number of Ustaše symbols and fascist salutes among the crowd (which included politicians, government officials and celebrities), helping to create an air of discomfort among Croatia's minorities in the region at the time. Zuroff claimed that Perković gained notoriety two years earlier for having performed a modified version of the song, which "expressed nostalgia for those two infamous Croatian concentration camps in which at least 200,000 innocent Serbs, Jews, Gypsies and anti-fascist Croatians were murdered by the Ustashe with nary a Nazi in sight."

Magnum Crimen

The Magnum Crimen is a book about clericalism in Croatia from the end of 19th century until the end of the Second World War. The book, whose full title is Magnum crimen – pola vijeka klerikalizma u Hrvatskoj (The Great Crime – a half-century of clericalism in Croatia), was written by a former Catholic priest and a professor and historian at Belgrade University, Viktor Novak (1889–1977). The book was first published in Zagreb in 1948.Immediately after the book was published, the Roman Curia placed this book on the Index Librorum Prohibitorum and pronounced anathema against the author.

Pale, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Pale (Serbian Cyrillic: Пале) is a municipality of the city of Istočno Sarajevo located in Republika Srpska, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is situated southeast of the capital city of Sarajevo. As of 2013, it has a population of 20,909 inhabitants.

The famous Jahorina ski resort is located some 15 km (9.3 mi) from the municipality.

Persecution of Eastern Orthodox Christians

Persecution of Eastern Orthodox Christians is the persecution faced by church, clergy and adherents of the Eastern Orthodox Church (Orthodox Christianity) because of religious beliefs and practices. Orthodox Christians have been persecuted in various periods when under the rule of non-Orthodox Christian political structures. In modern times, anti-religious political movements and regimes in some countries have held an anti-Orthodox stance.

Persecution of Serbs in the Independent State of Croatia

The Persecution of Serbs in the Independent State of Croatia, also known as the Genocide of the Serbs (Serbian: Геноцид над Србима / Genocid nad Srbima) included the extermination, expulsion and forced religious conversion of hundreds of thousands of ethnic Serbs by the genocidal policies of the Ustashe regime in the Independent State of Croatia (NDH) between 1941 and 1945, during World War II. The Ustashe regime systematically murdered approximately 300,000 to 500,000 Serbs out of whom up to 52,000 died at the Jasenovac concentration camp, according to current estimates.

Petar Brzica

Petar "Pero" Brzica (born ca. 1917) was a Croatian Franciscan friar, Nazi collaborator and war criminal.

Before the war Brzica was a scholarship student at the Franciscan college of Široki Brijeg in Herzegovina and a member of The Great Brotherhood of Crusaders, an organization part of the Croatian Catholic movement. He spent some time studying law in Zagreb where he became the Ustashe Youth member and later a member of the Croatian fascist Ustaša government (1941-45) and one of the guards in the Jasenovac concentration camp.As an Ustashe he held the rank of Lieutenant.

While he is known for having beaten an inmate to death in March 1943, he is notorious for having won a contest in which he used a curve-bladed knife, also called a srbosjek, to kill newly arrived concentration camp prisoners. Brzica boasted of winning the contest by killing the largest number of prisoners - 1,360 people. Some other sources set Brzica's "record" at a lower number, between 670 and 1,100.

Svetozar Đanić

Svetozar Đanić (April 1, 1917 – June 18, 1941) was a footballer who played for the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and Independent State of Croatia national teams. He was also known as Milan.Born during the latter part of World War I in a small Syrmian village, Đanić started playing football with Novi Sad outfit FK Slavija. At the age of 17, he moved to their more established crosstown rivals FK Vojvodina and immediately established himself in the first team.

Two years later, in 1936, together with brother Miran, he moved to Zagreb in pursuit of university studies. Parallel to studies he also played football with HŠK Građanski, spending the 1936/37 season with them.

Đanić's studies then took him to Czechoslovakia for a year where he also played one season for SK Židenice (5 league starts, 3 goals - 1937/38) and one season for SK Viktoria Plzeň (1938/39).

Returning to Zagreb he also continued playing for Građanski, eventually earning a callup to the Kingdom of Yugoslavia national team in 1940. His debut came on November 3, 1940 versus Germany in Zagreb. He would only play in three matches before the Nazi Germany invasion and quick dismemberment of Yugoslavia put an end to Yugoslav football activities. Đanić's last match in Yugoslavia jersey was also Kingdom of Yugoslavia's last ever outing - a match versus Hungary on March 23, 1941 in Belgrade.

Soon after the Royal Yugoslav Army defeat, and the establishment of Croatian Nazi-puppet state (NDH) under collaborationist Ustashe regime, Đanić was forced into the newly established Croatian national football team as one of only a handful of Serbs that were recruited into that team, which played all of its matches with other Nazi client states or Nazi Germany itself. Đanić appeared in four matches for NDH and even scored one goal. His last match appearance took place in Vienna on June 15, 1941 versus Nazi Germany. Upon returning to Zagreb, he was immediately put on trial by Ustashe under the accusation that he collaborated with the communists. After a quick show trial, Đanić was executed three days later on June 18, 1941.

Tavna Monastery

The Tavna Monastery (Serbian: Манастир Тавна) is a Serbian Orthodox monastery located south of the city of Bijeljina in north-eastern Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina. The date of its foundation is unknown.

The chronicles of monasteries Tronoša and Peć say it was built by King Stefan Dragutin's sons Vladislav and Urošica. The present monastery church is built in the same place as the original one.

Tavna was damaged in the first years of Ottoman rule, but was restored by the people. This was not the only time the monastery was damaged. It was damaged many times during the Ottoman period and also during World War II. Between 1941-45 Tavna was bombed by the Nazi-affiliated Croat Ustashe but was reconstructed after the war.

Terrorism in Yugoslavia

This article includes information on terrorist acts and groups in or against the Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1918–45) and Federal Yugoslavia (1945–92). Many of the terrorist acts were carried out outside Yugoslavia against Yugoslav subjects.

The post-war period until circa 1985 was marked by frequent terrorist attacks on Yugoslav institutions organized by extremist emigrant organizations. In that period, 20 Yugoslav ambassadors and officials were killed abroad. 22 instances of terrorist groups entering Yugoslavia were recorded, 87 mine and bomb explosions, and 13 cases of arson (including also abroad, mainly in embassies and diaspora clubs). Also, 62 cases of armed and physical attacks on Yugoslav institutions and citizens in which there were no casualties were recorded. Four plane hijackings by Yugoslav emigrants. Perpetrators were predominantly Croat fascists (Ustashe). According to Yugoslav government data, between 1945 and September 1985 there were 657 anti-Yugoslav terrorist acts abroad carried out by 'enemy' emigre, in which 82 Yugoslavs (and three foreigners) were killed, and 186 Yugoslavs (and two foreigners) were wounded. In Yugoslavia, more than 40 terrorist acts were carried out, and 60 attempted, in which 30 were killed and 73 wounded. Notably, in Australia, where two Croat extremist organizations (HRB and HOP) were active, 33 anti-Yugoslav acts were carried out, while three were carried out in Yugoslavia.

The Holocaust in the Independent State of Croatia

The Holocaust in the Independent State of Croatia refers primarily to the genocide of Jews, but sometimes also include that of Serbs (the "Genocide of the Serbs") and Romani (Porajmos), during World War II within the Independent State of Croatia, a fascist puppet state ruled by the Ustashe regime, that included most of the territory of modern-day Croatia, the whole of modern-day Bosnia and Herzegovina and the eastern part of Syrmia (Serbia). 90% of Croatian Jews were exterminated in Ustashe-run concentration camps like Jasenovac and others, while a considerable number of Jews were rounded up and turned over by the Ustashe for extermination in Nazi Germany.

Ustashe Militia

The Ustaše Militia (Croatian: Ustaška vojnica) was military branch of the Ustaše, established by the fascist regime of Ante Pavelić in the Axis puppet state the Independent State of Croatia (NDH) in Yugoslavia during World War II.

The Ustaše militia went through a series of re-organisations during its existence, during which it expanded to include all armed elements of the NDH government outside of the Croatian Home Guard, navy and air force. It amalgamated with the Home Guard in December 1944 – January 1945 to form the Croatian Armed Forces (Hrvatske oružane snage, HOS), although the amalgamation did not result in a homogeneous organisation, and former Ustaše militia officers dominated its operations and held most HOS command positions.

The Ustaše militia were responsible for some of the most egregious atrocities committed during World War II, including performing a key role in the establishment and operation of about 20 concentration camps in the NDH. It included such notorious units as the Black Legion (Crna Legija) commanded by Jure Francetić and Rafael Boban and the Ustaša Defence Brigades commanded by Vjekoslav Luburić.

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