Urshu, Warsuwa[1] or Urshum was a Hurrian-Amorite[2][3] city-state in southern Turkey, probably located on the west bank of the Euphrates,[4] and north of Carchemish.[5]


Urshu was a commercial city governed by a Lord (EN). It was an ally of Ebla and appears in the tablets as Ursa'um.[6] Later it was mentioned in the inscriptions of Gudea (r. c.2144–2124 BC according to the Middle chronology) as the city where wood resins were procured.[7] An old Assyrian letter that dates to the 19th century BC mentions a temple of the god Ashur in Urshu.[8]

In the beginning of the 18th century BC, Urshu allied with Yamhad against Yahdun-Lim of Mari.[9] Relations with Assyria were also strained, and men of Urshu were summoned by Yapah-Adad and his Habiru to attack the lands of Shamshi-Adad I of Assyria.[10] The texts of Mari mentions a conflict between Urshu and Carchemish: the tribes of Upra-peans and Ra-beans attacked Urshu through the land of Carchemish, which caused Urshu to attack a contingent of Carchemishean troops and civilians that advanced along the bank of the Euphrates.[11]

Later, Urshu became an economic rival to Yamhad[12] and entered an alliance with Qatna and Shamshi-Adad I to attack Sumu-Epuh of Yamhad (r. c.1810-1780 BC).[13] The death of Shamshi-Adad and the rise of Yarim-Lim I of Yamhad brought an end to this rivalry, as Yamhad was elevated into a Great Kingdom and imposed its direct authority over northern, western and eastern Syria,[14] bringing Urshu under its sphere of influence without annexing it.[15] The Tablets of Mari mention a few kings of Urshu who date to this era, including Shennam[16] and Atru-Sipti, who visited Mari in the 12th year of its king Zimri-Lim.[11]

Hittite conquest

The Hittite king Hattusili I attacked Urshu in his second year, laying siege to the city for six months. The Hittite king had 80 chariots[18] and conducted his operations from the city of Lawazantiya (located in modern Elbistan district) in the Taurus foothills of eastern Cilicia.[19]

Despite receiving aid from Yamhad and Carchemish, Urshu was burned and destroyed; its lands were plundered and the booty taken to the Hittite capital Hattusa.[20]

The history of Urshu after the conquest is ambiguous. In the 15th century BC it appears in the Tablets of Alalakh as "Uris" or "Uressi",[4] and is mentioned "Urussa" in the treaty between the Hittite Tudhaliya II and Sunassura II of Kizzuwatna as part of the latter's territory.[21] The city again became part of the Hittite empire and was last mentioned in records dated to the final periods of that empire.[21]

See also



  1. ^ I. M. Diakonoff. Early Antiquity. p. 364.
  2. ^ Noel Freedman; Allen C. Myers. Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. p. 619.
  3. ^ Mogens Herman Hansen. A Comparative Study of Thirty City-state Cultures: An Investigation, Volume 21. p. 60.
  4. ^ a b Sidney Smith. Anatolian Studies: Journal of the British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara. Special number in honour and in memory of John Garstang, 5th May, 1876 - 12th September, 1956, Volume 6. p. 42.
  5. ^ I. E. S. Edwards; C. J. Gadd; N. G. L. Hammond; E. Sollberger. The Cambridge Ancient History. p. 241.
  6. ^ Gojko Barjamovic. A Historical Geography of Anatolia in the Old Assyrian Colony Period. p. 200+201.
  7. ^ Iorwerth Eiddon Stephen Edwards; C. J. Gadd; N. G. L. Hammond. The Cambridge Ancient History. p. 559.
  8. ^ Gwendolyn Leick. The Babylonian World. p. 537.
  9. ^ Yuhong Wu. A Political History of Eshnunna, Mari and Assyria During the Early Old Babylonian Period: From the End of Ur III to the Death of Šamši-Adad. p. 131.
  10. ^ Sidney Smith. Anatolian Studies: Journal of the British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara. Special number in honour and in memory of John Garstang, 5th May, 1876 - 12th September, 1956, Volume 6. p. 39.
  11. ^ a b Gojko Barjamovic. A Historical Geography of Anatolia in the Old Assyrian Colony Period. p. 202.
  12. ^ Beatrice Teissier. Egyptian Iconography on Syro-Palestinian Cylinder Seals of the Middle Bronze Age. p. 1.
  13. ^ J. R. Kupper. The Cambridge Ancient History Northern Mesopotamia and Syria. p. 19.
  14. ^ William J. Hamblin. Warfare in the Ancient Near East to 1600 BC. p. 255.
  15. ^ Trevor Bryce. Ancient Syria: A Three Thousand Year History. p. 27.
  16. ^ Horst Klengel. Syria, 3000 to 300 B.C.: a handbook of political history. p. 75.
  17. ^ Seton Lloyd. Hittite Warrior. p. 44.
  18. ^ Robert Drews. The End of the Bronze Age: Changes in Warfare and the Catastrophe Ca. 1200 B.C. p. 106.
  19. ^ I. E. S. Edwards; C. J. Gadd; N. G. L. Hammond; E. Sollberger. The Cambridge Ancient History. p. 245.
  20. ^ Seton Lloyd. Ancient Turkey: A Traveller's History. p. 39.
  21. ^ a b Gojko Barjamovic. A Historical Geography of Anatolia in the Old Assyrian Colony Period. p. 203.

Ariassus or Ariassos (Ancient Greek: Άριασσός) was a town in Pisidia, Asia Minor built on a steep hillside about 50 kilometres inland from Attaleia (modern Antalya).


Caloe was a town in the Roman province of Asia. It is mentioned as Kaloe or Keloue in 3rd-century inscriptions, as Kalose in Hierocles's Synecdemos (660), and as Kalloe, Kaloe, and Kolone in Parthey's Notitiæ episcopatuum, in which it figures from the 6th to the 12fth or 13th century.


Cestrus was a city in the Roman province of Isauria, in Asia Minor. Its placing within Isauria is given by Hierocles, Georgius Cyprius, and Parthey's (Notitiae episcopatuum). While recognizing what the ancient sources said, Lequien supposed that the town, whose site has not been identified, took its name from the River Cestros and was thus in Pamphylia. Following Lequien's hypothesis, the 19th-century annual publication Gerarchia cattolica identified the town with "Ak-Sou", which Sophrone Pétridès called an odd mistake, since this is the name of the River Cestros, not of a city.


Cotenna was a city in the Roman province of Pamphylia I in Asia Minor. It corresponds to modern Gödene, near Konya, Turkey.


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Gods of Egypt (film)

Gods of Egypt is a 2016 fantasy action film directed by Alex Proyas based on the ancient Egyptian deities. It stars Nikolaj Coster-Waldau, Gerard Butler, Brenton Thwaites, Chadwick Boseman, Élodie Yung, Courtney Eaton, Rufus Sewell and Geoffrey Rush. The film portrays a mortal Egyptian hero who partners with the Egyptian god Horus to save the world from Set and rescue his love.Filming took place in Australia under the American film production and distribution company Summit Entertainment. While the film's production budget was $140 million, the parent company Lionsgate's financial exposure was less than $10 million due to tax incentives and pre-sales. The Australian government provided a tax credit for 46% of the film's budget. When Lionsgate began promoting the film in November 2015, it received backlash for its predominantly white cast playing Egyptian deities. In response, Lionsgate and director Proyas apologized for ethnically-inaccurate casting.

Lionsgate released Gods of Egypt in theaters globally, starting on February 25, 2016, in 2D, RealD 3D, and IMAX 3D, and in the United States, Canada, and 68 other markets on February 26. The film was poorly reviewed by critics, who criticized its choice of cast, script, acting and special effects. It grossed a total of $150 million against a $140 million budget, becoming a box office bomb and losing the studio up to $90 million. It received five nominations at the 37th Golden Raspberry Awards.


Hassum (also given as Khashshum, Ḫaššum, Hassu, Hassuwa or Hazuwan) was a Hurrian city-state, located in southern Turkey most probably on the Euphrates river north of Carchemish.


Hisarlik (Turkish: Hisarlık, "Place of Fortresses"), often spelled Hissarlik, is the modern name for an ancient city in modern day located in what is now Turkey (historically Anatolia) near to the modern city of Çanakkale. The unoccupied archaeological site lies approximately 6.5 km from the Aegean Sea and about the same distance from the Dardanelles. The archaeological site of Hisarlik is known in archaeological circles as a tell. A tell is an artificial hill, built up over centuries and millennia of occupation from its original site on a bedrock knob.

It is believed by many scholars to be the site of ancient Troy, also known as Ilion.

Ibal-pi-el II

Ibal pi’el II was a king of the city kingdom of Eshnunna in ancient Sumer. He reigned c. 1779–1765 BC).He was the son of Dadusha and nephew of Naram-Suen of Eshnunna.

He conquered the cities of Diniktum and Rapiqum. With Ḫammu-rāpi of Babylon, and the Amorite king Shamshi-Adad I he besieged the kingdom of Malgium until its ruler bought them off with 15 talents of silver.

He was a contemporary of Zimri-Lim of Mari, and formed powerful alliances with Yarim-Lim I Amud-pi-el of Qatanum, Rim-Sin I of Larsa and most importantly Hammurabi of Babylon, to appose the rise of Shamshi-Adad I in Assyria (on his northern border) who himself had alliances with Charchemish, Hassum and Urshu and Qatna.

Some scholars have suggested the biblical king Amraphel may have been Ibal Pi-El II of Esnunna. While others consider Ameraphel to be Hammurabi.

He was killed by Siwe-palar-huppak of Elam, who captured Eshnunna, and he was succeeded by Silli-Sin.


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Yamhad's population was predominately Amorite, and had a typical Bronze Age Syrian culture. Yamhad was also inhabited by a substantial Hurrian population that settled in the kingdom, adding the influence of their culture. Yamhad controlled a wide trading network, being a gateway between the eastern Iranian plateau and the Aegean region in the west. Yamhad worshiped the traditional Northwest Semitic deities, and the capital Halab was considered a holy city among the other Syrian cities as a center of worship for Hadad, who was regarded as the main deity of northern Syria.

Yarim-Lim I

Yarim-Lim I, also given as Yarimlim, (reigned c. 1780 BC – c. 1764 BC) was the second king of the ancient Amorite kingdom of Yamhad in modern-day Aleppo, Syria.

Yarim-Lim III

Yarim-Lim III (reigned c. Middle 17th century BC - c. 1625 BC - Middle chronology) was the king of Yamhad (Halab) succeeding Hammurabi II.

Üçayaklı ruins

The Üçayaklı ruins are in Mersin Province, Turkey.

Black Sea
Central Anatolia
Eastern Anatolia


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