Urbanization in China

Urbanization in China increased in speed following the initiation of the reform and opening policy. By the end of 2017, 58.52% of the total population lived in urban areas, a dramatic increase from 17.92% in 1978.[1]

By 2010, the OECD, based on Functional Urban Area (FUA), estimates there are currently 15 megacities in China.[2]

New Chinese city (11359603824)
Urban construction work in a Chinese city, 2013


China's increase in urbanization was one of the several functions of the surpluses produced from the agricultural sectors in Chinese (farming and pastoral dependency). This judgment is based on (1) the fact that not until the end of the Qing Period did Chinese begin importing moderate quantities of foodstuffs from the outside world to help feed its population; and (2) the fact that the handicraft sector never challenged agricultural dominance in the economy despite a symbiotic relationship between them.

By the same token, urbanization rarely exceeded ten percent of the total population although large urban centres were established. For example, during the Song, the northern capital Kaifeng (of the Northern Song) and southern capital Hangzhou (of the Southern Song) had 1.4 million and one million inhabitants, respectively.[3] In addition, it was common that urban residents also had one foot in the rural sector due to private landholding property rights.

Modern history

Shenzhen Skyline from Nanshan
Originally a collection of fishing villages, Shenzhen rapidly grew to be one of the largest cities in China.
Dwelling houses in Guangzhou-2
Apartment buildings in Guangzhou.

Urban population grew steadily at around 3%-20% from 1950 to 1965. Urban population experienced a 'great jump' in 1958-1961 during the "Great Leap Forward" in conjunction with the massive industrialization effort. During the Cultural Revolution years of 1965-1975, urban population growth dropped as a result of 'rustication'. From 1962 to 1978, it is estimated that almost 18 million urban youth moved to the countryside.[4]

However, after reforms were launched at the end of 1978, urban population growth began to accelerate. The inflow of foreign direct investment created massive employment opportunities, which fostered urban population growth. In the 1990s, urban population growth started to slow. This reflected a slower increase in employment growth following the restructuring of the state-owned enterprises (SOE).

The majority of China's people live in the eastern segment of the country, the traditional China proper. Most are peasants living, as did their forebears, in the low-lying hills and central plains that stretch from the highlands eastward and southward to the sea. Agriculture predominates in this vast area, generally favored by a temperate or subtropical climate. The meticulously tilled fields are evidence in part of the government's continuing concern over farm output and the food supply.

Although migration to urban areas has been restricted since the late 1950s, as of the end of 1985 about 33 percent of the population was urban. An urban and industrial corridor formed a broad arc stretching from Harbin in the northeast through the Beijing area and south to China's largest city, the industrial metropolitan complex of Shanghai.

The uneven pattern of internal development and settlement, so strongly weighted toward the eastern part of the country, doubtless will change relatively little even with developing interest in exploiting the mineral-rich and agriculturally productive portions of the vast northwest and southwest regions. The adverse terrain and climate of most of those regions have historically discouraged dense population.

In 1987 China had a total of twenty-nine provincial-level administrative units directly under the central government in Beijing. In addition to the twenty-one provinces (sheng), there were five autonomous regions (zizhiqu) for minority nationalities, and three special municipalities (shi)--the three largest cities, Shanghai, Beijing, and Tianjin. (The establishment of Hainan Island as a provincial-level unit separate from Guangdong Province was scheduled in 1988.) A 1979 change in provincial-level administrative boundaries in the northeast region restored Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region to its original size (it had been reduced by a third in 1969) at the expense of Heilongjiang, Jilin, and Liaoning provinces. Urban areas were further subdivided into lower-level administrative units beginning with municipalities and extending down to the neighborhood level.

The pace of urbanization in China from 1949 to 1982 was relatively slow because of both rapid growth of the rural population and tight restrictions on rural-urban migration for most of that period. According to the 1953 and 1982 censuses, the urban population as a percentage of total population increased from 13.3 to 20.6 percent during that period. From 1982 to 1986, however, the urban population increased dramatically to 37 percent of the total population. This large jump resulted from a combination of factors. One was the migration of large numbers of surplus agricultural workers, displaced by the agricultural responsibility system, from rural to urban areas. Another was a 1984 decision to broaden the criteria for classifying an area as a city or town. During 1984, the number of towns meeting the new urban criteria increased more than twofold, and the urban town population doubled. In the mid-1980s, demographers expected the proportion of the population living in cities and towns to be around 50 percent by the start of the 21st century. This urban growth was expected to result primarily from the increase in the number of small- and medium-sized cities and towns rather than from an expansion of existing large cities.

China's statistics regarding urban population sometimes can be misleading because of the various criteria used to calculate urban population. In the 1953 census, urban essentially referred to settlements with populations of more than 2,500, in which more than 50 percent of the labor force were involved in nonagricultural pursuits. The 1964 census raised the cut-off to 3,000 and the requirement for nonagricultural labor to 70 percent. The 1982 census used the 3,000/70 percent minimum but introduced criteria of 2,500 to 3,000 and 85 percent as well. Also, in calculating urban population, the 1982 census made a radical change by including the agricultural population residing within the city boundaries. This explains the dramatic jump in urban population from the 138.7 million reported for year-end 1981 to the 206.6 million counted by the 1982 census. In 1984 the urban guidelines were further loosened, allowing for lower minimum population totals and nonagricultural percentages. The criteria varied among provincial-level units.

Although country urban population—382 million, or 37 percent of the total population in the mid-1980s—was relatively low by comparison with developed nations, the number of people living in urban areas in China was greater than the total population of any country in the world except India. The four Chinese cities with the largest populations in 1985 were Shanghai, with 7 million; Beijing, with 5.9 million; Tianjin, with 5.4 million; and Shenyang, with 4.2 million. The disproportionate distribution of population in large cities occurred as a result of the government's emphasis after 1949 on the development of large cities over smaller urban areas. In 1985 the 22 most populous cities in China had a total population of 47.5 million, or about 12 percent of China's total urban population. The number of cities with populations of at least 100,000 increased from 200 in 1976 to 342 in 1986.

In 1987, China was committed to a three-part strategy to control urban growth: strictly limiting the size of big cities (those of 500,000 or more people); developing medium-sized cities (200,000 to 500,000); and encouraging the growth of small cities (100,000 to 200,000). The government also encouraged the development of small market and commune centers that were not then officially designated as urban places, hoping that they eventually would be transformed into towns and small cities. For more on this understudied dimension of China's urbanisation see the special issue of China Perspectives (September 2013) edited by Ben Hillman and Jon Unger of the Australian National University. The big and medium-sized cities were viewed as centers of heavy and light industry, and small cities and towns were looked on as possible locations for handicraft and workshop activities, using labor provided mainly from rural overflow. The urbanization of small and medium-sized towns has created different challenges for ethnically diverse areas, leading in some cases to an ethnic stratification of labor and greater potential for ethnic conflict.[5]

In 2005, China had 286 cities. Most of China's cities have a population of one million and below. Shanghai is the largest city in China, with a population of 19 million, followed by Beijing with a population of 17.4 million. These are the two mega-cities in China.[6]

From 2010 to 2025, it is estimated by the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development that 300 million Chinese now living in rural areas will move into cities. The fast pace of urbanization will create at least one trillion yuan in annual investment opportunities in building water supply, waste treatment, heating and other public utilities in the cities.[7] The Chinese government is also demolishing rural villages and building new cities and towns to relocate villagers to. It ultimately aims to integrate about 70% of China's population, about 900 million people, into cities by 2025.[8]

World urbanization growth

Urban population growth (%)
Region/country 1985-1990 1990-1995 1995-2000 2000-2005
Asia 3.78 3.09 2.88 2.61
South-East Asia 4.11 3.99 3.84 3.40
East Asia 4.08 3.08 2.82 2.52
China 5.04 3.77 3.52 3.08
Europe 0.78 0.37 0.14 0.13
North America 1.24 0.57 1.51 1.37
Oceania 1.52 1.52 1.46 1.40
World 2.70 2.33 2.18 2.04

According to Professor Lu Dadao, president of the Geographical Society of China (GSC), China's urbanization took 22 years to increase to 39.1% from 17.9%. It took Britain 120 years, the US 80 years, and Japan more than 30 years to accomplish this.[9]

As shown in the table (right), China's urban population growth is higher than that of Asia as well as the world.

China's urbanization rate in 2005 was higher than that of Asia and roughly on par with the levels in East and South-East Asia. However, the country still has a long way to go in catching up with the western developed countries.

Urbanization data by province

Urban percentage of the total population by province[10]
Province Name 1953 1964 1982 1990 2000 2005 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
China*[11] 13.3% 18.3% 20.9% 26.4% 36.2% 42.99% 49.7% 51.27% 52.57% 53.73% 54.77% 56.10%[12] 57.35% 58.52%
Beijing[13] 74.3% 56.0% 64.7% 73.4% 77.5% 83.62% 85.96% 86.20% 86.20% 86.30% 86.35% 86.50% 86.50% 86.50%
Shanghai 89.09% 89.30% 89.30% 89.30% 89.60% 89.60% 87.60% 87.90% 87.70%
Tianjin 75.11% 79.55% 80.50% 81.55% 82.01% 82.27% 82.64% 82.93% 82.93%
Hebei 37.69% 44.50% 45.60% 46.80% 48.12% 49.33% 51.33% 53.32% 55.01%
Shanxi 42.11% 48.05% 49.68% 51.26% 52.56% 53.79% 55.03% 56.21% 56.79%
Inner Mongolia 47.20% 55.50% 56.62% 57.74% 58.71% 59.51% 60.30% 61.19% 62.02%
Liaoning 58.70% 62.10% 64.05% 65.65% 66.45% 67.05% 67.35% 67.37% 67.49%
Jilin 52.52% 53.35% 53.40% 53.70% 54.20% 54.81% 55.31% 55.97% 56.65%
Heilongjiang 53.10% 55.66% 56.50% 56.90% 57.40% 58.01% 58.80% 59.20% 59.40%
Jiangsu 50.50% 60.58% 61.90% 63.00% 64.11% 65.21% 66.52% 67.72% 68.76%
Zhejiang 56.02% 61.62% 62.30% 63.20% 64.00% 64.87% 65.80% 67.00% 68.00%
Anhui 35.50% 43.01% 44.80% 46.50% 47.86% 49.15% 50.50% 51.99% 53.49%
Fujian[14] 13.3% 21.2% 21.4% 42.0% 49.40% 57.10% 58.10% 59.60% 60.77% 61.80% 62.60% 63.60% 64.80%
Jiangxi 37.00% 44.06% 45.70% 47.51% 48.87% 50.22% 51.62% 53.10% 54.60%
Shandong 45.00% 49.70% 50.95% 52.43% 53.75% 55.01% 57.01% 59.02% 60.58%
Henan 30.65% 38.50% 40.57% 42.43% 43.80% 45.20% 46.85% 48.50% 50.16%
Hubei 43.20% 49.70% 51.83% 53.50% 54.51% 55.67% 56.85% 58.10% 59.30%
Hunan 37.00% 43.30% 45.10% 46.65% 47.96% 49.28% 50.89% 52.75% 54.62%
Guangdong 60.68% 66.18% 66.50% 67.40% 67.76% 68.00% 68.71% 69.20% 69.85%
Guangxi 33.62% 40.00% 41.80% 43.53% 44.81% 46.01% 47.06% 48.08% 49.21%
Hainan 45.20% 49.80% 50.50% 51.60% 52.74% 53.76% 55.12% 56.78% 58.04%
Chongqing 45.20% 53.02% 55.02% 56.98% 58.34% 59.60% 60.94% 62.60% 64.08%
Sichuan 33.00% 40.18% 41.83% 43.53% 44.90% 46.30% 47.69% 49.21% 50.79%
Guizhou 26.87% 33.81% 34.96% 36.41% 37.83% 40.01% 42.01% 44.15% 46.02%
Yunnan 29.50% 34.70% 36.80% 39.31% 40.48% 41.73% 43.33% 45.03% 46.69%
Tibet 20.85% 22.67% 22.71% 22.75% 23.71% 25.75% 27.74% 29.56% 30.89%
Shaanxi 37.23% 45.76% 47.30% 50.02% 51.31% 52.57% 53.92% 55.34% 56.79%
Gansu 30.02% 36.12% 37.15% 38.75% 40.13% 41.68% 43.19% 44.69% 46.39%
Qinghai 39.25% 44.72% 46.22% 47.44% 48.51% 49.78% 50.30% 51.63% 53.07%
Ningxia 42.28% 47.90% 49.82% 50.67% 52.01% 53.61% 55.23% 56.29% 57.98%
Xinjiang 37.15% 43.01% 43.54% 43.98% 44.47% 46.07% 47.23% 48.35% 49.38%

See also



Urban development


  1. ^ Xiao, Yiping; Song, Yan; Wu, Xiaodong (August 20, 2018). "How Far Has China's Urbanization Gone?" (PDF). MDPI.
  2. ^ OECD Urban Policy Reviews: China 2015. OECD Urban Policy Reviews. OECD. 18 Apr 2015. p. 37. doi:10.1787/9789264230040-en. ISBN 9789264230033.
  3. ^ Jones, E. L., Lionel Frost and Colin White. Coming Full Circle: An Economic History of the Pacific Rim. Melbourne and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993. (ch. 9)
  4. ^ Riskin, Carl; United Nations Development Programme (2000), China human development report 1999: transition and the state, Oxford University Press, p. 37, ISBN 978-0-19-592586-9
  5. ^ Hillman, Ben (2013), The Causes and Consequences of Rapid Urbanisation in an Ethnically Diverse Region (PDF), China Perspectives, Issue 3, September 2013, pp. 25–32
  6. ^ Xiaobing Li and Xiansheng Tian (eds.), Urbanization and Party Survival: People vs. Party, Rowman & Littlefield and Lexington Books, 2017.
  7. ^ Post a Classifieds. "Articles about News in China –". Echinacities.com. Retrieved 2014-02-16.
  8. ^ Ian Johnson (15 June 2013). "China's Great Uprooting: Moving 250 Million Into Cities". The New York Times.
  9. ^ Xu, Yiqin. "Human Capital Accumulation by Low-Skilled Workers with Borrowing Constraints - A Welfare Analysis Based on the Lucas Urban-Rural Migration Model" (PDF). p. 14. Retrieved 2016-02-14.
  10. ^ "China Statistical Yearbook-2017". Stats.gov.cn. Retrieved 2018-12-29.
  11. ^ "Basic Statistics on National Population Census in 1953, 1964, 1982, 1990, 2000 and 2010". Stats.gov.cn. Retrieved 18 January 2018.
  12. ^ "我国城镇化率已达56.1% 城镇化质量还不够高 | 每经网". Nbd.com.cn. Retrieved 2016-02-13.
  13. ^ "Basic Statistics on Population Census in 1953, 1964, 1982, 1990 and 2000". eBeijing.gov.cn. Retrieved 2014-02-16.
  14. ^ [1] Archived 2014-02-16 at Archive.today

Further reading

External links


Bibliography of Guangzhou

The following is a list of works about the city of Guangzhou, China.

Erlitou culture

The Erlitou culture was an early Bronze Age urban society and archaeological culture that existed in the Yellow River valley from approximately 1900 to 1500 BC. (A 2007 study of radiocarbon dating has proposed a narrower date range of 1750 to 1530 BC.) The culture was named after the site discovered at Erlitou in Yanshi, Henan. The culture was widely spread throughout Henan and Shanxi and later appeared in Shaanxi and Hubei. Chinese archaeologists generally identify the Erlitou culture as the site of the Xia dynasty, but there is no firm evidence, such as writing, to substantiate such a linkage.


In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes (such as water flow or wind) that removes soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, and then transports it to another location (not to be confused with weathering which involves no movement). This natural process is caused by the dynamic activity of erosive agents, that is, water, ice (glaciers), snow, air (wind), plants, animals, and humans. In accordance with these agents, erosion is sometimes divided into water erosion, glacial erosion, snow erosion, wind (aeolic) erosion, zoogenic erosion, and anthropogenic erosion. The particulate breakdown of rock or soil into clastic sediment is referred to as physical or mechanical erosion; this contrasts with chemical erosion, where soil or rock material is removed from an area by its dissolving into a solvent (typically water), followed by the flow away of that solution. Eroded sediment or solutes may be transported just a few millimetres, or for thousands of kilometres.

Natural rates of erosion are controlled by the action of geological weathering geomorphic drivers, such as rainfall; bedrock wear in rivers; coastal erosion by the sea and waves; glacial plucking, abrasion, and scour; areal flooding; wind abrasion; groundwater processes; and mass movement processes in steep landscapes like landslides and debris flows. The rates at which such processes act control how fast a surface is eroded. Typically, physical erosion proceeds fastest on steeply sloping surfaces, and rates may also be sensitive to some climatically-controlled properties including amounts of water supplied (e.g., by rain), storminess, wind speed, wave fetch, or atmospheric temperature (especially for some ice-related processes). Feedbacks are also possible between rates of erosion and the amount of eroded material that is already carried by, for example, a river or glacier. Processes of erosion that produce sediment or solutes from a place contrast with those of deposition, which control the arrival and emplacement of material at a new location.While erosion is a natural process, human activities have increased by 10-40 times the rate at which erosion is occurring globally. At well-known agriculture sites such as the Appalachian Mountains, intensive farming practices have caused erosion up to 100x the speed of the natural rate of erosion in the region. Excessive (or accelerated) erosion causes both "on-site" and "off-site" problems. On-site impacts include decreases in agricultural productivity and (on natural landscapes) ecological collapse, both because of loss of the nutrient-rich upper soil layers. In some cases, the eventual end result is desertification. Off-site effects include sedimentation of waterways and eutrophication of water bodies, as well as sediment-related damage to roads and houses. Water and wind erosion are the two primary causes of land degradation; combined, they are responsible for about 84% of the global extent of degraded land, making excessive erosion one of the most significant environmental problems worldwide.Intensive agriculture, deforestation, roads, anthropogenic climate change and urban sprawl are amongst the most significant human activities in regard to their effect on stimulating erosion. However, there are many prevention and remediation practices that can curtail or limit erosion of vulnerable soils.

Fuzhou people

The people of Fuzhou (Chinese: 福州人; Foochow Romanized: Hók-ciŭ-nè̤ng), also known as Fuzhounese, Foochowese, Hokchew, Hokchia, Hokchiu, Fuzhou Shiyi people (福州十邑人), Eastern Min or Mindong usually refers to people who originate from Fuzhou region and the Mindong region, adjacent Gutian County, Pingnan County, in Fujian province and in the adjacent Matsu Islands. Fuzhounese are Han Chinese people and are a part of Min-speaking group, who speaks Eastern Min or specifically Fuzhou dialect. There is also a significant overseas Foochowese population, particularly distributed in Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, United States (Fuzhou Americans), Japan, United Kingdom, etc.Despite their small population size, Fuzhounese people have produced a large number of achievements in both academic and science fields, there has been 17 Fuzhounese Zhuangyuans (scholar who is ranked first in the imperial examinations), and famous mathematicians and scientists such as Zhang Yuzhe (the father of modern Chinese astronomy), Guo Kexin (the main pioneer of electron microscopy of China), Chih-Tang Sah, Hsien Wu, Guo Kexin and Min Zhuo are Fuzhounese.


Grandparents are the parents of a person's father or mother – paternal or maternal. Every sexually-reproducing living organism who is not a genetic chimera has a maximum of four genetic grandparents, eight genetic great-grandparents, sixteen genetic great-great-grandparents, thirty-two genetic great-great-great-grandparents, etc. In the history of modern humanity, around 30,000 years ago, the number of modern humans who lived to be a grandparent increased. It is not known for certain what spurred this increase in longevity but largely results in the improved medical technology and living standard, but it is generally believed that a key consequence of three generations being alive together was the preservation of information which could otherwise have been lost; an example of this important information might have been where to find water in times of drought.In cases where parents are unwilling or unable to provide adequate care for their children (e.g., death of the parents, financial obstacles, marriage problems), grandparents often take on the role of primary caregivers. Even when this is not the case, and particularly in traditional cultures, grandparents often have a direct and clear role in relation to the raising, care and nurture of children. Grandparents are second-degree relatives and share 25% genetic overlap.

A step-grandparent can be the step-parent of the parent or the step-parent's parent or the step-parent's step-parent (though technically this might be called a step-step-grandparent). The various words for grandparents at times may also be used to refer to any elderly person, especially the terms gramps, granny, grandfather, grandmother, nan, maw-maw, paw-paw and others which families make up themselves.

History of Xi'an

Xi'an was among the most important cities of China before AD 1000. It remains a major regional centre. Xi'an was known as Chang'an in ancient times.

Karen Seto

Karen Ching-Yee Seto is a geographer, land change scientist and Frederick C. Hixon Professor of Geography and Urbanisation Science at Yale University. She is the co-lead for the chapter on urban mitigation in Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 6th Assessment Report and serves as the editor-in-chief of the scientific journal Global Environmental Change. She was elected a member of both the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) and American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) in 2017.

Lincoln Institute of Land Policy

The Lincoln Institute of Land Policy is a think tank based in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The Lincoln Institute of Land Policy seeks to improve quality of life through the effective use, taxation, and stewardship of land. A nonprofit private operating foundation whose origins date to 1946, the Lincoln Institute researches and recommends creative approaches to land as a solution to economic, social, and environmental challenges. Through education, training, publications, and events, the organization integrates theory and practice to inform public policy decisions worldwide. With locations in Cambridge, Washington, Phoenix, and Beijing, the Lincoln Institute is organized in seven major areas: Planning and Urban Form, Valuation and Taxation, International and Institute-Wide Initiatives, Latin America and the Caribbean, People's Republic of China, the Babbitt Center for Land and Water Policy, and the Center for Community Investment.

The organization is currently headed by George W. McCarthy, previously director of Metropolitan Opportunity at the Ford Foundation. In July 2014 he succeeded Gregory K. Ingram, an urban economist and former director of evaluation for the World Bank.

Mass migration

Mass migration refers to the migration of large groups of people from one geographical area to another. Mass migration is distinguished from individual or small scale migration; and also from seasonal migration, which may occur on a regular basis.

A specific mass migration that is seen as especially influential to the course of history may be referred to as a 'great migration'. For example, great migrations include the Indo-European invasion of Europe and South Asia during the Bronze Age, Barbarian Invasions during the Roman Empire, the Great Migration from England of the 1630s, the California Gold Rush from 1848–1850, the Great Migration of African Americans from the rural American south to the industrial north during 1920–1950, and The Great Oromo Migrations of Oromo tribes during the 15th and 16th centuries in the Horn of Africa. UNHCR estimates 20 million Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims were displaced during the partition of India, the largest mass migration in human history. The largest documented voluntary emigration in history was the Italian diaspora from Italy between 1861 and 1970, with 13 million people leaving the country.Historians often identify an 'age of mass migration' occurring from c. 1850 to 1914 (sometimes 1940), in which long distance migration occurred at an unprecedented and exceptionally high rate.

There were three factors that led to the 'age of mass migration'. First, cost of migration decreased dramatically. Second, benefits of migration rise (returns on migration was higher in the United States than in other countries). Third, open border regimes. 'Age of mass migration' usually refers to the voluntary transatlantic migration of European peasants and labourers to the Americas. Immigration from Europe accounted for about 40% of total United States population growth in the late 19th century. However, it has been argued that the term should include other mass migrations that occurred in the same period, since similar large numbers of people migrated long distances within the continent of Asia, most notably during the Pakistan Movement and subsequent partition of India in 1947. During open border regimes, immigrants attracted by falling costs of migration and higher wages in the U.S. Migrant selection varied over time and across sending country, depending on relative wage premium in U.S. for high/low skilled and cost of migration. In the late 20th century, migrants converge upon native-born in labor market but never fully catch up.Mass migration may also be forced migration, such as the Atlantic slave trade. Religious persecution mass migrations, such as the biblical Exodus and migration through the upper Himalayan route from the east by Purohits of Aryan and non-Aryan descent. Similarly, mass migrations may take place in the form of deportation. For example, Japanese internment in the United States and imprisonment in Nazi concentration camps during World War II, deportations to Gulag camps in the Soviet Union, and coolie-labour in Southeast Asia and the Caribbean.

On the 15th of August 1947, the partition of British India caused the movement of 18 million people. This caused both religious and civil tensions between Hindus and Muslims. This resulted in the highest casualty rate for one migration according to the Guinness Book of World Records 2014. One million people were killed and 12 million became homeless.

Meishi Street

Meishi Street, directed by Ou Ning, is a 2006 independent Chinese documentary that portrays a group of Beijing residents protesting the planned destruction of their street prior to the 2008 Beijing Olympics. The filmmakers gave video cameras to the subjects, and they capture exclusive footage of the eviction process.

National Central City

National Central City (simplified Chinese: 国家中心城市; traditional Chinese: 國家中心城市; pinyin: Guójiā Zhōngxīn Chéngshì) was a concept proposed by the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of the People's Republic of China in 2005 as a first step in reforming urbanization in China. The National Central Cities are described as a group of cities in charge of leading, developing, and performing tasks in political, economic, and cultural aspects.

In February 2010, the ministry issued the "National Urban System Plan" and designated five major cities, Beijing and Tianjin in the Bohai Economic Rim, Shanghai in the Yangtze River Delta Economic Zone, Guangzhou in the Pearl River Delta Economic Zone, and Chongqing in the West Triangle Economic Zone as the National Central Cities. In May 2016, Chengdu was announced to be the sixth National Central City by the government. Later, in December the same year, Wuhan and Zhengzhou are also added to the list of National Central Cities.

The National Central Cities sphere of influence have great impact around the surrounding cities on modernizing and integrating services in fields such as infrastructure, finance, public education, social welfare, sanitation, business licensing and urban planning.

Sexuality in China

Sexuality in China has undergone revolutionary changes and this "sexual revolution" still continues today. Chinese sexual attitudes, behaviors, ideology, and relations have changed dramatically in the past decade of reform and opening up of the country. Many of these changes have found expression in the public forum through a variety of behaviors and ideas. These include, but are not limited to the following cultural shifts: a separation of sex and marriage, such as pre- and extramarital sex; a separation of sex from love and child-bearing such as Internet sex and one-night stands; an increase in observable sexual diversity such as homo- and bisexual behavior and fetishism; an increase in socially acceptable displays and behaviors of female sexual desire; a boom in the sex industry; and a more open discussion of sex topics, including sex studies at colleges, media reports, formal publications, on-line information, extensive public health education, and public displays of affection.As can be seen by these developments, China no longer exerts strict control over personal sexual behavior. Sex is increasingly considered something personal and can now be differentiated from a traditional system that featured legalized marital sex and legal controls over childbirth. The reduction in controls on sexual behavior has initiated a freer atmosphere for sexual expression. More and more people now regard sexual rights as basic human rights, so that everyone has the right and freedom to pursue his or her own sexual bliss.Change in the field of sexuality reveals not only a change of sexual attitudes and behaviors but also a series of related social changes via the process of social transformation. From the sociological perspective, there have been several main factors that have created the current turning point in the contemporary Chinese social context.

Social welfare in China

Social welfare in China has undergone various changes throughout history. The Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security is responsible for the social welfare system.

Welfare in China is linked to the hukou system. Those holding non-agricultural hukou status have access to a number of programs provided by the government, such as healthcare, employment, retirement pensions, housing, and education. Meanwhile, rural residents are generally expected to provide for themselves.In pre-1980s reform China, the socialist state fulfilled the needs of society from cradle to grave. Child care, education, job placement, housing, subsistence, health care, and elder care were largely the responsibility of the work unit as administered through state-owned enterprises and agricultural communes and collectives. As those systems disappeared or were reformed, the "iron rice bowl" approach to welfare changed. Article 14 of the constitution stipulates that the state "builds and improves a welfare system that corresponds with the level of economic development.

In 2004 China experienced the greatest decrease in its poorest population since 1999. People with a per capita income of less than 668 renminbi (RMB; US$80.71) decreased 2.9 million or 10 percent; those with a per capita income of no more than 924 RMB (US$111.64) decreased by 6.4 million or 11.4 percent, according to statistics from the State Council’s Poverty Reduction Office.

Welfare reforms since the late 1990s have included unemployment insurance, medical insurance, workers’ compensation insurance, maternity benefits, communal pension funds, individual pension accounts, universal health care, and a carbon tax.A law approved February 2013 will mandate a nationwide minimum wage at 40% average urban salaries to be phased in fully by 2015.China introduced the one-child policy decades ago, and this has helped reduce the strain on the government resources and economy. At present, the rules are modified and people can have more than one child, provided they pay a fee. This fee goes into funding necessary infrastructure or anything else the government deems fit.

Furthermore, for many of the minority groups, there are some benefits available. The one-child policy in China also does not apply to these minority groups.

Timeline of Shanghai

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Shanghai.

Urban Planning Society of China

The Urban Planning Society of China (UPSC) (中国城市规划学会), voluntarily incorporated by urban planners across the People's Republic of China in 1956, is the only legally registered academic organization at state level.

Urban ecology

Urban ecology is the scientific study of the relation of living organisms with each other and their surroundings in the context of an urban environment. The urban environment refers to environments dominated by high-density residential and commercial buildings, paved surfaces, and other urban-related factors that create a unique landscape dissimilar to most previously studied environments in the field of ecology.Urban ecology is a recent field of study compared to ecology as a whole. The methods and studies of urban ecology are similar to and comprise a subset of ecology. The study of urban ecology carries increasing importance because more than 50% of the world's population today lives in urban areas. At the same time, it is estimated that within the next forty years, two-thirds of the world's population will be living in expanding urban centers. The ecological processes in the urban environment are comparable to those outside the urban context. However, the types of urban habitats and the species that inhabit them are poorly documented. Often, explanations for phenomena examined in the urban setting as well as predicting changes because of urbanization are the center for scientific research.


Urbanization (or urbanisation) refers to the population shift from rural areas to urban areas, the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas, and the ways in which each society adapts to this change. It is predominantly the process by which towns and cities are formed and become larger as more people begin living and working in central areas. Although the two concepts are sometimes used interchangeably, urbanization should be distinguished from urban growth: urbanization is "the proportion of the total national population living in areas classed as urban", while urban growth refers to "the absolute number of people living in areas classed as urban". The United Nations projected that half of the world's population would live in urban areas at the end of 2008. It is predicted that by 2050 about 64% of the developing world and 86% of the developed world will be urbanized. That is equivalent to approximately 3 billion urbanites by 2050, much of which will occur in Africa and Asia. Notably, the United Nations has also recently projected that nearly all global population growth from 2017 to 2030 will be by cities, about 1.1 billion new urbanites over the next 13 years.Urbanization is relevant to a range of disciplines, including urban planning, geography, sociology, architecture, economics, and public health. The phenomenon has been closely linked to modernization, industrialization, and the sociological process of rationalization. Urbanization can be seen as a specific condition at a set time (e.g. the proportion of total population or area in cities or towns), or as an increase in that condition over time. So urbanization can be quantified either in terms of, say, the level of urban development relative to the overall population, or as the rate at which the urban proportion of the population is increasing. Urbanization creates enormous social, economic and environmental changes, which provide an opportunity for sustainability with the "potential to use resources more efficiently, to create more sustainable land use and to protect the biodiversity of natural ecosystems."Urbanization is not merely a modern phenomenon, but a rapid and historic transformation of human social roots on a global scale, whereby predominantly rural culture is being rapidly replaced by predominantly urban culture. The first major change in settlement patterns was the accumulation of hunter-gatherers into villages many thousand years ago. Village culture is characterized by common bloodlines, intimate relationships, and communal behavior, whereas urban culture is characterized by distant bloodlines, unfamiliar relations, and competitive behavior. This unprecedented movement of people is forecast to continue and intensify during the next few decades, mushrooming cities to sizes unthinkable only a century ago. As a result, the world urban population growth curve has up till recently followed a quadratic-hyperbolic pattern.Today, in Asia the urban agglomerations of Osaka, Karachi, Jakarta, Mumbai, Shanghai, Manila, Seoul and Beijing are each already home to over 20 million people, while Delhi is forecast to approach or exceed 40 million people in the year 2035. Cities such as Tehran, Istanbul, Mexico City, São Paulo, London, New York City, Lagos and Cairo are, or soon will be, home to over 10 million people each.

Urbanization in Australia

Australia is one of the most urbanised nations, with 90 per cent of the population living in just 0.22 per cent of the country’s land area and 85 per cent living within 50 kilometres of the coast. As at the 2016 Census, more than two-thirds of Australians lived in a capital city, with 40 per cent of the population being in the two largest cities of Sydney and Melbourne.


Zhejiang (Chinese: 浙江村; pinyin: Zhèjiāngcūn "Zhejiang Village") was a community of migrant workers around the Nanyuan-Dahongmen area, within Fengtai District, Beijing. These workers originated from Zhejiang, with most of them from Wenzhou.

Urbanisation in Asia
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