Uranus

Uranus (from the Latin name "Ūranus" for the Greek god Οὐρανός) is the seventh planet from the Sun. It has the third-largest planetary radius and fourth-largest planetary mass in the Solar System. Uranus is similar in composition to Neptune, and both have bulk chemical compositions which differ from that of the larger gas giants Jupiter and Saturn. For this reason, scientists often classify Uranus and Neptune as "ice giants" to distinguish them from the gas giants. Uranus' atmosphere is similar to Jupiter's and Saturn's in its primary composition of hydrogen and helium, but it contains more "ices" such as water, ammonia, and methane, along with traces of other hydrocarbons.[14] It is the coldest planetary atmosphere in the Solar System, with a minimum temperature of 49 K (−224 °C; −371 °F), and has a complex, layered cloud structure with water thought to make up the lowest clouds and methane the uppermost layer of clouds.[14] The interior of Uranus is mainly composed of ices and rock.[13]

Like the other giant planets, Uranus has a ring system, a magnetosphere, and numerous moons. The Uranian system has a unique configuration because its axis of rotation is tilted sideways, nearly into the plane of its solar orbit. Its north and south poles, therefore, lie where most other planets have their equators.[19] In 1986, images from Voyager 2 showed Uranus as an almost featureless planet in visible light, without the cloud bands or storms associated with the other giant planets.[19] Observations from Earth have shown seasonal change and increased weather activity as Uranus approached its equinox in 2007. Wind speeds can reach 250 metres per second (900 km/h; 560 mph).[20]

Uranus is the only planet whose name is derived directly from a figure from Greek mythology, from the Latinised version of the Greek god of the sky Ouranos.

Uranus Uranus symbol.svg
Uranus2
Pictured as a featureless disc by Voyager 2 in 1986
Discovery
Discovered byWilliam Herschel
Discovery dateMarch 13, 1781
Designations
Pronunciation/ˈjʊərənəs/ (listen) or /jʊəˈreɪnəs/ (listen)[1][2]
AdjectivesUranian
Orbital characteristics[7][a]
Epoch J2000
Aphelion20.11 AU
(3008 Gm)
Perihelion18.33 AU
(2742 Gm)
19.2184 AU
(2,875.04 Gm)
Eccentricity0.046381
369.66 days[5]
6.80 km/s[5]
142.238600°
Inclination0.773° to ecliptic
6.48° to Sun's equator
1.02° to invariable plane[6]
74.006°
96.998857°
Known satellites27
Physical characteristics
Mean radius
25,362±7 km[8][b]
Equatorial radius
25,559±4 km
4.007 Earths[8][b]
Polar radius
24,973±20 km
3.929 Earths[8][b]
Flattening0.0229±0.0008[c]
Circumference159,354.1 km[3]
8.1156×109 km2[3][b]
15.91 Earths
Volume6.833×1013 km3[5][b]
63.086 Earths
Mass(8.6810±0.0013)×1025 kg
14.536 Earths[9]
GM=5,793,939±13 km3/s2
Mean density
1.27 g/cm3[5][d]
8.69 m/s2[5][b]
0.886 g
0.23[10] (estimate)
21.3 km/s[5][b]
−0.71833 d (retrograde)
17 h 14 min 24 s[8]
Equatorial rotation velocity
2.59 km/s
9,320 km/h
97.77° (to orbit)[5]
North pole right ascension
 17h 9m 15s
257.311°[8]
North pole declination
−15.175°[8]
Albedo0.300 (Bond)[11]
0.488 (geom.)[12]
Surface temp. min mean max
bar level[13] 76 K (−197.2 °C)
0.1 bar
(tropopause)[14]
47 K 53 K 57 K
5.38[15] to 6.03[15]
3.3″ to 4.1″[5]
Atmosphere[14][17][18][e]
27.7 km[5]
Composition by volume(Below 1.3 bar)

Gases:

Ices:

History

Like the classical planets, Uranus is visible to the naked eye, but it was never recognised as a planet by ancient observers because of its dimness and slow orbit.[21] Sir William Herschel announced its discovery on 13 March 1781, expanding the known boundaries of the Solar System for the first time in history and making Uranus the first planet discovered with a telescope.

Discovery

William Herschel01
William Herschel, discoverer of Uranus in 1781
HerschelTelescope
Replica of the telescope used by Herschel to discover Uranus

Uranus had been observed on many occasions before its recognition as a planet, but it was generally mistaken for a star. Possibly the earliest known observation was by Hipparchos, who in 128 BC might have recorded it as a star for his star catalogue that was later incorporated into Ptolemy's Almagest.[22] The earliest definite sighting was in 1690, when John Flamsteed observed it at least six times, cataloguing it as 34 Tauri. The French astronomer Pierre Charles Le Monnier observed Uranus at least twelve times between 1750 and 1769,[23] including on four consecutive nights.

Sir William Herschel observed Uranus on 13 March 1781 from the garden of his house at 19 New King Street in Bath, Somerset, England (now the Herschel Museum of Astronomy),[24] and initially reported it (on 26 April 1781) as a comet.[25] Herschel "engaged in a series of observations on the parallax of the fixed stars",[26] using a telescope of his own design.

Herschel recorded in his journal: "In the quartile near ζ Tauri ... either [a] Nebulous star or perhaps a comet."[27] On 17 March he noted: "I looked for the Comet or Nebulous Star and found that it is a Comet, for it has changed its place."[28] When he presented his discovery to the Royal Society, he continued to assert that he had found a comet, but also implicitly compared it to a planet:[26]

The power I had on when I first saw the comet was 227. From experience I know that the diameters of the fixed stars are not proportionally magnified with higher powers, as planets are; therefore I now put the powers at 460 and 932, and found that the diameter of the comet increased in proportion to the power, as it ought to be, on the supposition of its not being a fixed star, while the diameters of the stars to which I compared it were not increased in the same ratio. Moreover, the comet being magnified much beyond what its light would admit of, appeared hazy and ill-defined with these great powers, while the stars preserved that lustre and distinctness which from many thousand observations I knew they would retain. The sequel has shown that my surmises were well-founded, this proving to be the Comet we have lately observed.[26]

Herschel notified the Astronomer Royal Nevil Maskelyne of his discovery and received this flummoxed reply from him on 23 April 1781: "I don't know what to call it. It is as likely to be a regular planet moving in an orbit nearly circular to the sun as a Comet moving in a very eccentric ellipsis. I have not yet seen any coma or tail to it."[29]

Although Herschel continued to describe his new object as a comet, other astronomers had already begun to suspect otherwise. Finnish-Swedish astronomer Anders Johan Lexell, working in Russia, was the first to compute the orbit of the new object.[30] Its nearly circular orbit led him to a conclusion that it was a planet rather than a comet. Berlin astronomer Johann Elert Bode described Herschel's discovery as "a moving star that can be deemed a hitherto unknown planet-like object circulating beyond the orbit of Saturn".[31] Bode concluded that its near-circular orbit was more like a planet than a comet.[32]

The object was soon universally accepted as a new planet. By 1783, Herschel acknowledged this to Royal Society president Joseph Banks: "By the observation of the most eminent Astronomers in Europe it appears that the new star, which I had the honour of pointing out to them in March 1781, is a Primary Planet of our Solar System."[33] In recognition of his achievement, King George III gave Herschel an annual stipend of £200 on condition that he move to Windsor so that the Royal Family could look through his telescopes.[34]

Name

The name of Uranus references the ancient Greek deity of the sky Uranus (Ancient Greek: Οὐρανός), the father of Cronus (Saturn) and grandfather of Zeus (Jupiter), which in Latin became "Ūranus" (Latin pronunciation: [ˈuːranʊs]).[1] It is the only planet whose name is derived directly from a figure of Greek mythology. The adjectival form of Uranus is "Uranian".[35] The pronunciation of the name Uranus preferred among astronomers is /ˈjʊərənəs/,[2] with stress on the first syllable as in Latin Ūranus, in contrast to /jʊəˈreɪnəs/, with stress on the second syllable and a long a, though both are considered acceptable.[f]

Consensus on the name was not reached until almost 70 years after the planet's discovery. During the original discussions following discovery, Maskelyne asked Herschel to "do the astronomical world the faver [sic] to give a name to your planet, which is entirely your own, [and] which we are so much obliged to you for the discovery of".[37] In response to Maskelyne's request, Herschel decided to name the object Georgium Sidus (George's Star), or the "Georgian Planet" in honour of his new patron, King George III.[38] He explained this decision in a letter to Joseph Banks:[33]

In the fabulous ages of ancient times the appellations of Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn were given to the Planets, as being the names of their principal heroes and divinities. In the present more philosophical era it would hardly be allowable to have recourse to the same method and call it Juno, Pallas, Apollo or Minerva, for a name to our new heavenly body. The first consideration of any particular event, or remarkable incident, seems to be its chronology: if in any future age it should be asked, when this last-found Planet was discovered? It would be a very satisfactory answer to say, 'In the reign of King George the Third'.

Herschel's proposed name was not popular outside Britain, and alternatives were soon proposed. Astronomer Jérôme Lalande proposed that it be named Herschel in honour of its discoverer.[39] Swedish astronomer Erik Prosperin proposed the name Neptune, which was supported by other astronomers who liked the idea to commemorate the victories of the British Royal Naval fleet in the course of the American Revolutionary War by calling the new planet even Neptune George III or Neptune Great Britain.[30]

In a March 1782 treatise, Bode proposed Uranus, the Latinised version of the Greek god of the sky, Ouranos.[40] Bode argued that the name should follow the mythology so as not to stand out as different from the other planets, and that Uranus was an appropriate name as the father of the first generation of the Titans.[40] He also noted that elegance of the name in that just as Saturn was the father of Jupiter, the new planet should be named after the father of Saturn.[34][40][41][42] In 1789, Bode's Royal Academy colleague Martin Klaproth named his newly discovered element uranium in support of Bode's choice.[43] Ultimately, Bode's suggestion became the most widely used, and became universal in 1850 when HM Nautical Almanac Office, the final holdout, switched from using Georgium Sidus to Uranus.[41]

Uranus has two astronomical symbols. The first to be proposed, ♅,[g] was suggested by Lalande in 1784. In a letter to Herschel, Lalande described it as "un globe surmonté par la première lettre de votre nom" ("a globe surmounted by the first letter of your surname").[39] A later proposal, ⛢,[h] is a hybrid of the symbols for Mars and the Sun because Uranus was the Sky in Greek mythology, which was thought to be dominated by the combined powers of the Sun and Mars.[44]

Uranus is called by a variety of translations in other languages. In Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese, its name is literally translated as the "sky king star" (天王星).[45][46][47][48] In Thai, its official name is Dao Yurenat (ดาวยูเรนัส), as in English. Its other name in Thai is Dao Maritayu (ดาวมฤตยู, Star of Mṛtyu), after the Sanskrit word for "death", Mrtyu (मृत्यु). In Mongolian, its name is Tengeriin Van (Тэнгэрийн ван), translated as "King of the Sky", reflecting its namesake god's role as the ruler of the heavens. In Hawaiian, its name is Hele‘ekala, a loanword for the discoverer Herschel.[49] In Māori, its name is Whērangi.[50][51]

Orbit and rotation

Uranusandrings
A 1998 false-colour near-infrared image of Uranus showing cloud bands, rings, and moons obtained by the Hubble Space Telescope's NICMOS camera.

Uranus orbits the Sun once every 84 years. Its average distance from the Sun is roughly 20 AU (3 billion km; 2 billion mi). The difference between its minimum and maximum distance from the Sun is 1.8 AU, larger than that of any other planet, though not as large as that of dwarf planet Pluto.[52] The intensity of sunlight varies inversely with the square of distance, and so on Uranus (at about 20 times the distance from the Sun compared to Earth) it is about 1/400 the intensity of light on Earth.[53] Its orbital elements were first calculated in 1783 by Pierre-Simon Laplace.[54] With time, discrepancies began to appear between the predicted and observed orbits, and in 1841, John Couch Adams first proposed that the differences might be due to the gravitational tug of an unseen planet. In 1845, Urbain Le Verrier began his own independent research into Uranus' orbit. On 23 September 1846, Johann Gottfried Galle located a new planet, later named Neptune, at nearly the position predicted by Le Verrier.[55]

The rotational period of the interior of Uranus is 17 hours, 14 minutes. As on all the giant planets, its upper atmosphere experiences strong winds in the direction of rotation. At some latitudes, such as about 60 degrees south, visible features of the atmosphere move much faster, making a full rotation in as little as 14 hours.[56]

Axial tilt

Uranus orientation 1985-2030
Simulated Earth view of Uranus from 1986 to 2030, from southern summer solstice in 1986 to equinox in 2007 and northern summer solstice in 2028.

The Uranian axis of rotation is approximately parallel with the plane of the Solar System, with an axial tilt of 97.77° (as defined by prograde rotation). This gives it seasonal changes completely unlike those of the other planets. Near the solstice, one pole faces the Sun continuously and the other faces away. Only a narrow strip around the equator experiences a rapid day–night cycle, but with the Sun low over the horizon. At the other side of Uranus's orbit the orientation of the poles towards the Sun is reversed. Each pole gets around 42 years of continuous sunlight, followed by 42 years of darkness.[57] Near the time of the equinoxes, the Sun faces the equator of Uranus giving a period of day–night cycles similar to those seen on most of the other planets.

Uranus reached its most recent equinox on 7 December 2007.[58][59]

Northern hemisphere Year Southern hemisphere
Winter solstice 1902, 1986 Summer solstice
Vernal equinox 1923, 2007 Autumnal equinox
Summer solstice 1944, 2028 Winter solstice
Autumnal equinox 1965, 2049 Vernal equinox

One result of this axis orientation is that, averaged over the Uranian year, the polar regions of Uranus receive a greater energy input from the Sun than its equatorial regions. Nevertheless, Uranus is hotter at its equator than at its poles. The underlying mechanism that causes this is unknown. The reason for Uranus' unusual axial tilt is also not known with certainty, but the usual speculation is that during the formation of the Solar System, an Earth-sized protoplanet collided with Uranus, causing the skewed orientation.[60] Uranus's south pole was pointed almost directly at the Sun at the time of Voyager 2's flyby in 1986. The labelling of this pole as "south" uses the definition currently endorsed by the International Astronomical Union, namely that the north pole of a planet or satellite is the pole that points above the invariable plane of the Solar System, regardless of the direction the planet is spinning.[61][62] A different convention is sometimes used, in which a body's north and south poles are defined according to the right-hand rule in relation to the direction of rotation.[63]

Research by Jacob Kegerreis of Durham University suggests that the tilt resulted from a rock larger than the Earth crashing into the planet 3 to 4 billion years ago.[64]

Visibility

The mean apparent magnitude of Uranus is 5.68 with a standard deviation of 0.17, while the extremes are 5.38 and +6.03.[15] This range of brightness is near the limit of naked eye visibility. Much of the variability is dependent upon the planetary latitudes being illuminated from the Sun and viewed from the Earth.[65] Its angular diameter is between 3.4 and 3.7 arcseconds, compared with 16 to 20 arcseconds for Saturn and 32 to 45 arcseconds for Jupiter.[66] At opposition, Uranus is visible to the naked eye in dark skies, and becomes an easy target even in urban conditions with binoculars.[5] In larger amateur telescopes with an objective diameter of between 15 and 23 cm, Uranus appears as a pale cyan disk with distinct limb darkening. With a large telescope of 25 cm or wider, cloud patterns, as well as some of the larger satellites, such as Titania and Oberon, may be visible.[67]

Physical characteristics

Internal structure

Uranus, Earth size comparison 2
Size comparison of Earth and Uranus
Uranus-intern-en
Diagram of the interior of Uranus

Uranus' mass is roughly 14.5 times that of Earth, making it the least massive of the giant planets. Its diameter is slightly larger than Neptune's at roughly four times that of Earth. A resulting density of 1.27 g/cm3 makes Uranus the second least dense planet, after Saturn.[8][9] This value indicates that it is made primarily of various ices, such as water, ammonia, and methane.[13] The total mass of ice in Uranus' interior is not precisely known, because different figures emerge depending on the model chosen; it must be between 9.3 and 13.5 Earth masses.[13][68] Hydrogen and helium constitute only a small part of the total, with between 0.5 and 1.5 Earth masses.[13] The remainder of the non-ice mass (0.5 to 3.7 Earth masses) is accounted for by rocky material.[13]

The standard model of Uranus' structure is that it consists of three layers: a rocky (silicate/iron–nickel) core in the centre, an icy mantle in the middle and an outer gaseous hydrogen/helium envelope.[13][69] The core is relatively small, with a mass of only 0.55 Earth masses and a radius less than 20% of Uranus'; the mantle comprises its bulk, with around 13.4 Earth masses, and the upper atmosphere is relatively insubstantial, weighing about 0.5 Earth masses and extending for the last 20% of Uranus' radius.[13][69] Uranus' core density is around 9 g/cm3, with a pressure in the centre of 8 million bars (800 GPa) and a temperature of about 5000 K.[68][69] The ice mantle is not in fact composed of ice in the conventional sense, but of a hot and dense fluid consisting of water, ammonia and other volatiles.[13][69] This fluid, which has a high electrical conductivity, is sometimes called a water–ammonia ocean.[70]

The extreme pressure and temperature deep within Uranus may break up the methane molecules, with the carbon atoms condensing into crystals of diamond that rain down through the mantle like hailstones.[71][72][73] Very-high-pressure experiments at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory suggest that the base of the mantle may comprise an ocean of liquid diamond, with floating solid 'diamond-bergs'.[74][75]

The bulk compositions of Uranus and Neptune are different from those of Jupiter and Saturn, with ice dominating over gases, hence justifying their separate classification as ice giants. There may be a layer of ionic water where the water molecules break down into a soup of hydrogen and oxygen ions, and deeper down superionic water in which the oxygen crystallises but the hydrogen ions move freely within the oxygen lattice.[76]

Although the model considered above is reasonably standard, it is not unique; other models also satisfy observations. For instance, if substantial amounts of hydrogen and rocky material are mixed in the ice mantle, the total mass of ices in the interior will be lower, and, correspondingly, the total mass of rocks and hydrogen will be higher. Presently available data does not allow a scientific determination which model is correct.[68] The fluid interior structure of Uranus means that it has no solid surface. The gaseous atmosphere gradually transitions into the internal liquid layers.[13] For the sake of convenience, a revolving oblate spheroid set at the point at which atmospheric pressure equals 1 bar (100 kPa) is conditionally designated as a "surface". It has equatorial and polar radii of 25,559 ± 4 km (15,881.6 ± 2.5 mi) and 24,973 ± 20 km (15,518 ± 12 mi), respectively.[8] This surface is used throughout this article as a zero point for altitudes.

Internal heat

Uranus' internal heat appears markedly lower than that of the other giant planets; in astronomical terms, it has a low thermal flux.[20][77] Why Uranus' internal temperature is so low is still not understood. Neptune, which is Uranus' near twin in size and composition, radiates 2.61 times as much energy into space as it receives from the Sun,[20] but Uranus radiates hardly any excess heat at all. The total power radiated by Uranus in the far infrared (i.e. heat) part of the spectrum is 1.06±0.08 times the solar energy absorbed in its atmosphere.[14][78] Uranus' heat flux is only 0.042±0.047 W/m2, which is lower than the internal heat flux of Earth of about 0.075 W/m2.[78] The lowest temperature recorded in Uranus' tropopause is 49 K (−224.2 °C; −371.5 °F), making Uranus the coldest planet in the Solar System.[14][78]

One of the hypotheses for this discrepancy suggests that when Uranus was hit by a supermassive impactor, which caused it to expel most of its primordial heat, it was left with a depleted core temperature.[79] This impact hypothesis is also used in some attempts to explain the planet's axial tilt. Another hypothesis is that some form of barrier exists in Uranus' upper layers that prevents the core's heat from reaching the surface.[13] For example, convection may take place in a set of compositionally different layers, which may inhibit the upward heat transport;[14][78] perhaps double diffusive convection is a limiting factor.[13]

Atmosphere

Adding to Uranus's legacy
Uranus' atmosphere taken during the Outer Planet Atmosphere Legacy (OPAL) program.[80]

Although there is no well-defined solid surface within Uranus' interior, the outermost part of Uranus' gaseous envelope that is accessible to remote sensing is called its atmosphere.[14] Remote-sensing capability extends down to roughly 300 km below the 1 bar (100 kPa) level, with a corresponding pressure around 100 bar (10 MPa) and temperature of 320 K (47 °C; 116 °F).[81] The tenuous thermosphere extends over two planetary radii from the nominal surface, which is defined to lie at a pressure of 1 bar.[82] The Uranian atmosphere can be divided into three layers: the troposphere, between altitudes of −300 and 50 km (−186 and 31 mi) and pressures from 100 to 0.1 bar (10 MPa to 10 kPa); the stratosphere, spanning altitudes between 50 and 4,000 km (31 and 2,485 mi) and pressures of between 0.1 and 10−10 bar (10 kPa to 10 µPa); and the thermosphere extending from 4,000 km to as high as 50,000 km from the surface.[14] There is no mesosphere.

Composition

The composition of Uranus' atmosphere is different from its bulk, consisting mainly of molecular hydrogen and helium.[14] The helium molar fraction, i.e. the number of helium atoms per molecule of gas, is 0.15±0.03[18] in the upper troposphere, which corresponds to a mass fraction 0.26±0.05.[14][78] This value is close to the protosolar helium mass fraction of 0.275±0.01,[83] indicating that helium has not settled in its centre as it has in the gas giants.[14] The third-most-abundant component of Uranus' atmosphere is methane (CH
4
).[14] Methane has prominent absorption bands in the visible and near-infrared (IR), making Uranus aquamarine or cyan in colour.[14] Methane molecules account for 2.3% of the atmosphere by molar fraction below the methane cloud deck at the pressure level of 1.3 bar (130 kPa); this represents about 20 to 30 times the carbon abundance found in the Sun.[14][17][84] The mixing ratio[i] is much lower in the upper atmosphere due to its extremely low temperature, which lowers the saturation level and causes excess methane to freeze out.[85] The abundances of less volatile compounds such as ammonia, water, and hydrogen sulfide in the deep atmosphere are poorly known. They are probably also higher than solar values.[14][86] Along with methane, trace amounts of various hydrocarbons are found in the stratosphere of Uranus, which are thought to be produced from methane by photolysis induced by the solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation.[87] They include ethane (C
2
H
6
), acetylene (C
2
H
2
), methylacetylene (CH
3
C
2
H), and diacetylene (C
2
HC
2
H).[85][88][89] Spectroscopy has also uncovered traces of water vapour, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide in the upper atmosphere, which can only originate from an external source such as infalling dust and comets.[88][89][90]

Troposphere

The troposphere is the lowest and densest part of the atmosphere and is characterised by a decrease in temperature with altitude.[14] The temperature falls from about 320 K (47 °C; 116 °F) at the base of the nominal troposphere at −300 km to 53 K (−220 °C; −364 °F) at 50 km.[81][84] The temperatures in the coldest upper region of the troposphere (the tropopause) actually vary in the range between 49 and 57 K (−224 and −216 °C; −371 and −357 °F) depending on planetary latitude.[14][77] The tropopause region is responsible for the vast majority of Uranus' thermal far infrared emissions, thus determining its effective temperature of 59.1 ± 0.3 K (−214.1 ± 0.3 °C; −353.3 ± 0.5 °F).[77][78]

The troposphere is thought to have a highly complex cloud structure; water clouds are hypothesised to lie in the pressure range of 50 to 100 bar (5 to 10 MPa), ammonium hydrosulfide clouds in the range of 20 to 40 bar (2 to 4 MPa), ammonia or hydrogen sulfide clouds at between 3 and 10 bar (0.3 and 1 MPa) and finally directly detected thin methane clouds at 1 to 2 bar (0.1 to 0.2 MPa).[14][17][81][91] The troposphere is a dynamic part of the atmosphere, exhibiting strong winds, bright clouds and seasonal changes.[20]

Upper atmosphere

Alien aurorae on Uranus
Aurorae on Uranus taken by the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) installed on Hubble.[92]

The middle layer of the Uranian atmosphere is the stratosphere, where temperature generally increases with altitude from 53 K (−220 °C; −364 °F) in the tropopause to between 800 and 850 K (527 and 577 °C; 980 and 1,070 °F) at the base of the thermosphere.[82] The heating of the stratosphere is caused by absorption of solar UV and IR radiation by methane and other hydrocarbons,[93] which form in this part of the atmosphere as a result of methane photolysis.[87] Heat is also conducted from the hot thermosphere.[93] The hydrocarbons occupy a relatively narrow layer at altitudes of between 100 and 300 km corresponding to a pressure range of 10 to 0.1 mbar (10.00 to 0.10 hPa) and temperatures of between 75 and 170 K (−198 and −103 °C; −325 and −154 °F).[85][88] The most abundant hydrocarbons are methane, acetylene and ethane with mixing ratios of around 107 relative to hydrogen. The mixing ratio of carbon monoxide is similar at these altitudes.[85][88][90] Heavier hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide have mixing ratios three orders of magnitude lower.[88] The abundance ratio of water is around 7×109.[89] Ethane and acetylene tend to condense in the colder lower part of stratosphere and tropopause (below 10 mBar level) forming haze layers,[87] which may be partly responsible for the bland appearance of Uranus. The concentration of hydrocarbons in the Uranian stratosphere above the haze is significantly lower than in the stratospheres of the other giant planets.[85][94]

The outermost layer of the Uranian atmosphere is the thermosphere and corona, which has a uniform temperature around 800 to 850 K.[14][94] The heat sources necessary to sustain such a high level are not understood, as neither the solar UV nor the auroral activity can provide the necessary energy to maintain these temperatures. The weak cooling efficiency due to the lack of hydrocarbons in the stratosphere above 0.1 mBar pressure level may contribute too.[82][94] In addition to molecular hydrogen, the thermosphere-corona contains many free hydrogen atoms. Their small mass and high temperatures explain why the corona extends as far as 50,000 km (31,000 mi), or two Uranian radii, from its surface.[82][94] This extended corona is a unique feature of Uranus.[94] Its effects include a drag on small particles orbiting Uranus, causing a general depletion of dust in the Uranian rings.[82] The Uranian thermosphere, together with the upper part of the stratosphere, corresponds to the ionosphere of Uranus.[84] Observations show that the ionosphere occupies altitudes from 2,000 to 10,000 km (1,200 to 6,200 mi).[84] The Uranian ionosphere is denser than that of either Saturn or Neptune, which may arise from the low concentration of hydrocarbons in the stratosphere.[94][95] The ionosphere is mainly sustained by solar UV radiation and its density depends on the solar activity.[96] Auroral activity is insignificant as compared to Jupiter and Saturn.[94][97]

Tropospheric profile Uranus new

Temperature profile of the Uranian troposphere and lower stratosphere. Cloud and haze layers are also indicated.

Uranian wind speeds

Zonal wind speeds on Uranus. Shaded areas show the southern collar and its future northern counterpart. The red curve is a symmetrical fit to the data.

Magnetosphere

Uranian Magnetic field
The magnetic field of Uranus as observed by Voyager 2 in 1986. S and N are magnetic south and north poles.

Before the arrival of Voyager 2, no measurements of the Uranian magnetosphere had been taken, so its nature remained a mystery. Before 1986, scientists had expected the magnetic field of Uranus to be in line with the solar wind, because it would then align with Uranus' poles that lie in the ecliptic.[98]

Voyager's observations revealed that Uranus' magnetic field is peculiar, both because it does not originate from its geometric centre, and because it is tilted at 59° from the axis of rotation.[98][99] In fact the magnetic dipole is shifted from the Uranus' centre towards the south rotational pole by as much as one third of the planetary radius.[98] This unusual geometry results in a highly asymmetric magnetosphere, where the magnetic field strength on the surface in the southern hemisphere can be as low as 0.1 gauss (10 µT), whereas in the northern hemisphere it can be as high as 1.1 gauss (110 µT).[98] The average field at the surface is 0.23 gauss (23 µT).[98] Studies of Voyager 2 data in 2017 suggest that this asymmetry causes Uranus' magnetosphere to connect with the solar wind once a Uranian day, opening the planet to the Sun's particles.[100] In comparison, the magnetic field of Earth is roughly as strong at either pole, and its "magnetic equator" is roughly parallel with its geographical equator.[99] The dipole moment of Uranus is 50 times that of Earth.[98][99] Neptune has a similarly displaced and tilted magnetic field, suggesting that this may be a common feature of ice giants.[99] One hypothesis is that, unlike the magnetic fields of the terrestrial and gas giants, which are generated within their cores, the ice giants' magnetic fields are generated by motion at relatively shallow depths, for instance, in the water–ammonia ocean.[70][101] Another possible explanation for the magnetosphere's alignment is that there are oceans of liquid diamond in Uranus' interior that would deter the magnetic field.[74]

Despite its curious alignment, in other respects the Uranian magnetosphere is like those of other planets: it has a bow shock at about 23 Uranian radii ahead of it, a magnetopause at 18 Uranian radii, a fully developed magnetotail, and radiation belts.[98][99][102] Overall, the structure of Uranus' magnetosphere is different from Jupiter's and more similar to Saturn's.[98][99] Uranus' magnetotail trails behind it into space for millions of kilometres and is twisted by its sideways rotation into a long corkscrew.[98][103]

Uranus' magnetosphere contains charged particles: mainly protons and electrons, with a small amount of H2+ ions.[99][102] No heavier ions have been detected. Many of these particles probably derive from the thermosphere.[102] The ion and electron energies can be as high as 4 and 1.2 megaelectronvolts, respectively.[102] The density of low-energy (below 1 kiloelectronvolt) ions in the inner magnetosphere is about 2 cm−3.[104] The particle population is strongly affected by the Uranian moons, which sweep through the magnetosphere, leaving noticeable gaps.[102] The particle flux is high enough to cause darkening or space weathering of their surfaces on an astronomically rapid timescale of 100,000 years.[102] This may be the cause of the uniformly dark colouration of the Uranian satellites and rings.[105] Uranus has relatively well developed aurorae, which are seen as bright arcs around both magnetic poles.[94] Unlike Jupiter's, Uranus' aurorae seem to be insignificant for the energy balance of the planetary thermosphere.[97]

Climate

Uranuscolour
Uranus' southern hemisphere in approximate natural colour (left) and in shorter wavelengths (right), showing its faint cloud bands and atmospheric "hood" as seen by Voyager 2

At ultraviolet and visible wavelengths, Uranus' atmosphere is bland in comparison to the other giant planets, even to Neptune, which it otherwise closely resembles.[20] When Voyager 2 flew by Uranus in 1986, it observed a total of ten cloud features across the entire planet.[19][106] One proposed explanation for this dearth of features is that Uranus' internal heat appears markedly lower than that of the other giant planets. The lowest temperature recorded in Uranus' tropopause is 49 K (−224 °C; −371 °F), making Uranus the coldest planet in the Solar System.[14][78]

Banded structure, winds and clouds

In 1986, Voyager 2 found that the visible southern hemisphere of Uranus can be subdivided into two regions: a bright polar cap and dark equatorial bands.[19] Their boundary is located at about −45° of latitude. A narrow band straddling the latitudinal range from −45 to −50° is the brightest large feature on its visible surface.[19][107] It is called a southern "collar". The cap and collar are thought to be a dense region of methane clouds located within the pressure range of 1.3 to 2 bar (see above).[108] Besides the large-scale banded structure, Voyager 2 observed ten small bright clouds, most lying several degrees to the north from the collar.[19] In all other respects Uranus looked like a dynamically dead planet in 1986. Voyager 2 arrived during the height of Uranus' southern summer and could not observe the northern hemisphere. At the beginning of the 21st century, when the northern polar region came into view, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and Keck telescope initially observed neither a collar nor a polar cap in the northern hemisphere.[107] So Uranus appeared to be asymmetric: bright near the south pole and uniformly dark in the region north of the southern collar.[107] In 2007, when Uranus passed its equinox, the southern collar almost disappeared, and a faint northern collar emerged near 45° of latitude.[109]

Uranus Dark spot
The first dark spot observed on Uranus. Image obtained by the HST ACS in 2006.

In the 1990s, the number of the observed bright cloud features grew considerably partly because new high-resolution imaging techniques became available.[20] Most were found in the northern hemisphere as it started to become visible.[20] An early explanation—that bright clouds are easier to identify in its dark part, whereas in the southern hemisphere the bright collar masks them – was shown to be incorrect.[110][111] Nevertheless there are differences between the clouds of each hemisphere. The northern clouds are smaller, sharper and brighter.[111] They appear to lie at a higher altitude.[111] The lifetime of clouds spans several orders of magnitude. Some small clouds live for hours; at least one southern cloud may have persisted since the Voyager 2 flyby.[20][106] Recent observation also discovered that cloud features on Uranus have a lot in common with those on Neptune.[20] For example, the dark spots common on Neptune had never been observed on Uranus before 2006, when the first such feature dubbed Uranus Dark Spot was imaged.[112] The speculation is that Uranus is becoming more Neptune-like during its equinoctial season.[113]

The tracking of numerous cloud features allowed determination of zonal winds blowing in the upper troposphere of Uranus.[20] At the equator winds are retrograde, which means that they blow in the reverse direction to the planetary rotation. Their speeds are from −360 to −180 km/h (−220 to −110 mph).[20][107] Wind speeds increase with the distance from the equator, reaching zero values near ±20° latitude, where the troposphere's temperature minimum is located.[20][77] Closer to the poles, the winds shift to a prograde direction, flowing with Uranus' rotation. Wind speeds continue to increase reaching maxima at ±60° latitude before falling to zero at the poles.[20] Wind speeds at −40° latitude range from 540 to 720 km/h (340 to 450 mph). Because the collar obscures all clouds below that parallel, speeds between it and the southern pole are impossible to measure.[20] In contrast, in the northern hemisphere maximum speeds as high as 860 km/h (540 mph) are observed near +50° latitude.[20][107][114]

Seasonal variation

Uranus clouds
Uranus in 2005. Rings, southern collar and a bright cloud in the northern hemisphere are visible (HST ACS image).

For a short period from March to May 2004, large clouds appeared in the Uranian atmosphere, giving it a Neptune-like appearance.[111][115] Observations included record-breaking wind speeds of 820 km/h (510 mph) and a persistent thunderstorm referred to as "Fourth of July fireworks".[106] On 23 August 2006, researchers at the Space Science Institute (Boulder, Colorado) and the University of Wisconsin observed a dark spot on Uranus' surface, giving scientists more insight into Uranus atmospheric activity.[112] Why this sudden upsurge in activity occurred is not fully known, but it appears that Uranus' extreme axial tilt results in extreme seasonal variations in its weather.[59][113] Determining the nature of this seasonal variation is difficult because good data on Uranus atmosphere have existed for less than 84 years, or one full Uranian year. Photometry over the course of half a Uranian year (beginning in the 1950s) has shown regular variation in the brightness in two spectral bands, with maxima occurring at the solstices and minima occurring at the equinoxes.[116] A similar periodic variation, with maxima at the solstices, has been noted in microwave measurements of the deep troposphere begun in the 1960s.[117] Stratospheric temperature measurements beginning in the 1970s also showed maximum values near the 1986 solstice.[93] The majority of this variability is thought to occur owing to changes in the viewing geometry.[110]

There are some indications that physical seasonal changes are happening in Uranus. Although Uranus is known to have a bright south polar region, the north pole is fairly dim, which is incompatible with the model of the seasonal change outlined above.[113] During its previous northern solstice in 1944, Uranus displayed elevated levels of brightness, which suggests that the north pole was not always so dim.[116] This information implies that the visible pole brightens some time before the solstice and darkens after the equinox.[113] Detailed analysis of the visible and microwave data revealed that the periodical changes of brightness are not completely symmetrical around the solstices, which also indicates a change in the meridional albedo patterns.[113] In the 1990s, as Uranus moved away from its solstice, Hubble and ground-based telescopes revealed that the south polar cap darkened noticeably (except the southern collar, which remained bright),[108] whereas the northern hemisphere demonstrated increasing activity,[106] such as cloud formations and stronger winds, bolstering expectations that it should brighten soon.[111] This indeed happened in 2007 when it passed an equinox: a faint northern polar collar arose, and the southern collar became nearly invisible, although the zonal wind profile remained slightly asymmetric, with northern winds being somewhat slower than southern.[109]

The mechanism of these physical changes is still not clear.[113] Near the summer and winter solstices, Uranus' hemispheres lie alternately either in full glare of the Sun's rays or facing deep space. The brightening of the sunlit hemisphere is thought to result from the local thickening of the methane clouds and haze layers located in the troposphere.[108] The bright collar at −45° latitude is also connected with methane clouds.[108] Other changes in the southern polar region can be explained by changes in the lower cloud layers.[108] The variation of the microwave emission from Uranus is probably caused by changes in the deep tropospheric circulation, because thick polar clouds and haze may inhibit convection.[118] Now that the spring and autumn equinoxes are arriving on Uranus, the dynamics are changing and convection can occur again.[106][118]

Formation

Many argue that the differences between the ice giants and the gas giants extend to their formation.[119][120] The Solar System is hypothesised to have formed from a giant rotating ball of gas and dust known as the presolar nebula. Much of the nebula's gas, primarily hydrogen and helium, formed the Sun, and the dust grains collected together to form the first protoplanets. As the planets grew, some of them eventually accreted enough matter for their gravity to hold on to the nebula's leftover gas.[119][120] The more gas they held onto, the larger they became; the larger they became, the more gas they held onto until a critical point was reached, and their size began to increase exponentially. The ice giants, with only a few Earth masses of nebular gas, never reached that critical point.[119][120][121] Recent simulations of planetary migration have suggested that both ice giants formed closer to the Sun than their present positions, and moved outwards after formation (the Nice model).[119]

Moons

Uranian moon montage
Major moons of Uranus in order of increasing distance (left to right), at their proper relative sizes and albedos (collage of Voyager 2 photographs)
ESO - Uranus (by)
The Uranus System (NACO/VLT image)

Uranus has 27 known natural satellites.[121] The names of these satellites are chosen from characters in the works of Shakespeare and Alexander Pope.[69][122] The five main satellites are Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel, Titania, and Oberon.[69] The Uranian satellite system is the least massive among those of the giant planets; the combined mass of the five major satellites would be less than half that of Triton (largest moon of Neptune) alone.[9] The largest of Uranus' satellites, Titania, has a radius of only 788.9 km (490.2 mi), or less than half that of the Moon, but slightly more than Rhea, the second-largest satellite of Saturn, making Titania the eighth-largest moon in the Solar System. Uranus' satellites have relatively low albedos; ranging from 0.20 for Umbriel to 0.35 for Ariel (in green light).[19] They are ice–rock conglomerates composed of roughly 50% ice and 50% rock. The ice may include ammonia and carbon dioxide.[105][123]

Among the Uranian satellites, Ariel appears to have the youngest surface with the fewest impact craters and Umbriel's the oldest.[19][105] Miranda has fault canyons 20 km (12 mi) deep, terraced layers, and a chaotic variation in surface ages and features.[19] Miranda's past geologic activity is thought to have been driven by tidal heating at a time when its orbit was more eccentric than currently, probably as a result of a former 3:1 orbital resonance with Umbriel.[124] Extensional processes associated with upwelling diapirs are the likely origin of Miranda's 'racetrack'-like coronae.[125][126] Ariel is thought to have once been held in a 4:1 resonance with Titania.[127]

Uranus has at least one horseshoe orbiter occupying the Sun–Uranus L3 Lagrangian point—a gravitationally unstable region at 180° in its orbit, 83982 Crantor.[128][129] Crantor moves inside Uranus' co-orbital region on a complex, temporary horseshoe orbit. 2010 EU65 is also a promising Uranus horseshoe librator candidate.[129]

Planetary rings

The Uranian rings are composed of extremely dark particles, which vary in size from micrometres to a fraction of a metre.[19] Thirteen distinct rings are presently known, the brightest being the ε ring. All except two rings of Uranus are extremely narrow – they are usually a few kilometres wide. The rings are probably quite young; the dynamics considerations indicate that they did not form with Uranus. The matter in the rings may once have been part of a moon (or moons) that was shattered by high-speed impacts. From numerous pieces of debris that formed as a result of those impacts, only a few particles survived, in stable zones corresponding to the locations of the present rings.[105][130]

William Herschel described a possible ring around Uranus in 1789. This sighting is generally considered doubtful, because the rings are quite faint, and in the two following centuries none were noted by other observers. Still, Herschel made an accurate description of the epsilon ring's size, its angle relative to Earth, its red colour, and its apparent changes as Uranus travelled around the Sun.[131][132] The ring system was definitively discovered on 10 March 1977 by James L. Elliot, Edward W. Dunham, and Jessica Mink using the Kuiper Airborne Observatory. The discovery was serendipitous; they planned to use the occultation of the star SAO 158687 (also known as HD 128598) by Uranus to study its atmosphere. When their observations were analysed, they found that the star had disappeared briefly from view five times both before and after it disappeared behind Uranus. They concluded that there must be a ring system around Uranus.[133] Later they detected four additional rings.[133] The rings were directly imaged when Voyager 2 passed Uranus in 1986.[19] Voyager 2 also discovered two additional faint rings, bringing the total number to eleven.[19]

In December 2005, the Hubble Space Telescope detected a pair of previously unknown rings. The largest is located twice as far from Uranus as the previously known rings. These new rings are so far from Uranus that they are called the "outer" ring system. Hubble also spotted two small satellites, one of which, Mab, shares its orbit with the outermost newly discovered ring. The new rings bring the total number of Uranian rings to 13.[134] In April 2006, images of the new rings from the Keck Observatory yielded the colours of the outer rings: the outermost is blue and the other one red.[135][136] One hypothesis concerning the outer ring's blue colour is that it is composed of minute particles of water ice from the surface of Mab that are small enough to scatter blue light.[135][137] In contrast, Uranus' inner rings appear grey.[135]

Uranus rings discovery

Animation about the discovering occultation in 1977. (Click on it to start)

Uranian rings scheme

Uranus has a complicated planetary ring system, which was the second such system to be discovered in the Solar System after Saturn's.[130]

Uranuslight

Uranus' aurorae against its equatorial rings, imaged by the Hubble telescope. Unlike the aurorae of Earth and Jupiter, those of Uranus are not in line with its poles, due to its lopsided magnetic field.

Exploration

Uranus Final Image
Crescent Uranus as imaged by Voyager 2 while en route to Neptune

In 1986, NASA's Voyager 2 interplanetary probe encountered Uranus. This flyby remains the only investigation of Uranus carried out from a short distance and no other visits are planned. Launched in 1977, Voyager 2 made its closest approach to Uranus on 24 January 1986, coming within 81,500 km (50,600 mi) of the cloudtops, before continuing its journey to Neptune. The spacecraft studied the structure and chemical composition of Uranus' atmosphere,[84] including its unique weather, caused by its axial tilt of 97.77°. It made the first detailed investigations of its five largest moons and discovered 10 new ones. It examined all nine of the system's known rings and discovered two more.[19][105][138] It also studied the magnetic field, its irregular structure, its tilt and its unique corkscrew magnetotail caused by Uranus' sideways orientation.[98]

Voyager 1 was unable to visit Uranus because investigation of Saturn's moon Titan was considered a priority. This trajectory took Voyager 1 out of the plane of the ecliptic, ending its planetary science mission.[139]:118

The possibility of sending the Cassini spacecraft from Saturn to Uranus was evaluated during a mission extension planning phase in 2009, but was ultimately rejected in favour of destroying it in the Saturnian atmosphere.[140] It would have taken about twenty years to get to the Uranian system after departing Saturn.[140] A Uranus orbiter and probe was recommended by the 2013–2022 Planetary Science Decadal Survey published in 2011; the proposal envisages launch during 2020–2023 and a 13-year cruise to Uranus.[141] A Uranus entry probe could use Pioneer Venus Multiprobe heritage and descend to 1–5 atmospheres.[141] The ESA evaluated a "medium-class" mission called Uranus Pathfinder.[142] A New Frontiers Uranus Orbiter has been evaluated and recommended in the study, The Case for a Uranus Orbiter.[143] Such a mission is aided by the ease with which a relatively big mass can be sent to the system—over 1500 kg with an Atlas 521 and 12-year journey.[144] For more concepts see Proposed Uranus missions.

In culture

In astrology, the planet Uranus (Uranus's astrological symbol.svg) is the ruling planet of Aquarius. Because Uranus is cyan and Uranus is associated with electricity, the colour electric blue, which is close to cyan, is associated with the sign Aquarius[145] (see Uranus in astrology).

The chemical element uranium, discovered in 1789 by the German chemist Martin Heinrich Klaproth, was named after the newly discovered planet Uranus.[146]

"Uranus, the Magician" is a movement in Gustav Holst's orchestral suite The Planets, written between 1914 and 1916.

Operation Uranus was the successful military operation in World War II by the Red Army to take back Stalingrad and marked the turning point in the land war against the Wehrmacht.

The lines "Then felt I like some watcher of the skies/When a new planet swims into his ken", from John Keats's "On First Looking into Chapman's Homer", are a reference to Herschel's discovery of Uranus.[147]

Many references to Uranus in English language popular culture and news involve humour about one pronunciation of its name resembling that of the phrase "your anus".[148]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ These are the mean elements from VSOP87, together with derived quantities.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Refers to the level of 1 bar atmospheric pressure.
  3. ^ Calculated using data from Seidelmann, 2007.[8]
  4. ^ Based on the volume within the level of 1 bar atmospheric pressure.
  5. ^ Calculation of He, H2 and CH4 molar fractions is based on a 2.3% mixing ratio of methane to hydrogen and the 15/85 He/H2 proportions measured at the tropopause.
  6. ^ Because, in the English-speaking world, the latter sounds like "your anus", the former pronunciation also saves embarrassment: as Pamela Gay, an astronomer at Southern Illinois University Edwardsville, noted on her podcast, to avoid "being made fun of by any small schoolchildren ... when in doubt, don't emphasise anything and just say /ˈjʊərənəs/. And then run, quickly."[36]
  7. ^ Cf. Astronomical symbol for Uranus (not supported by all fonts)
  8. ^ Cf. Astronomical symbol for Uranus (not supported by all fonts)
  9. ^ Mixing ratio is defined as the number of molecules of a compound per a molecule of hydrogen.

References

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Further reading

External links

Ariel (moon)

Ariel is the fourth-largest of the 27 known moons of Uranus. Ariel orbits and rotates in the equatorial plane of Uranus, which is almost perpendicular to the orbit of Uranus and so has an extreme seasonal cycle.

It was discovered in October 1851 by William Lassell and named for a character in two different pieces of literature. As of 2017, much of the detailed knowledge of Ariel derives from a single flyby of Uranus performed by the spacecraft Voyager 2 in 1986, which managed to image around 35% of the moon's surface. There are no active plans at present to return to study the moon in more detail, although various concepts such as a Uranus orbiter and probe have been proposed.

After Miranda, Ariel is the second-smallest of Uranus' five major rounded satellites and the second-closest to its planet. Among the smallest of the Solar System's 19 known spherical moons (it ranks 14th among them in diameter), it is believed to be composed of roughly equal parts ice and rocky material. Its mass is approximately equal in magnitude to Earth's hydrosphere.

Like all of Uranus' moons, Ariel probably formed from an accretion disc that surrounded the planet shortly after its formation, and, like other large moons, it is likely differentiated, with an inner core of rock surrounded by a mantle of ice. Ariel has a complex surface consisting of extensive cratered terrain cross-cut by a system of scarps, canyons, and ridges. The surface shows signs of more recent geological activity than other Uranian moons, most likely due to tidal heating.

Cronus

In Greek mythology, Cronus, Cronos, or Kronos ( or , US: , from Greek: Κρόνος, Krónos), was the leader and youngest of the first generation of Titans, the divine descendants of Uranus, the sky, and Gaia, the earth. He overthrew his father and ruled during the mythological Golden Age, until he was overthrown by his own son Zeus and imprisoned in Tartarus. According to Plato, however, the deities Phorcys, Cronus, and Rhea were the eldest children of Oceanus and Tethys.Cronus was usually depicted with a harpe, scythe or a sickle, which was the instrument he used to castrate and depose Uranus, his father. In Athens, on the twelfth day of the Attic month of Hekatombaion, a festival called Kronia was held in honour of Cronus to celebrate the harvest, suggesting that, as a result of his association with the virtuous Golden Age, Cronus continued to preside as a patron of the harvest. Cronus was also identified in classical antiquity with the Roman deity Saturn.

Exploration of Uranus

The exploration of Uranus has, to date, been solely through telescopes and NASA's Voyager 2 spacecraft, which made its closest approach to Uranus on January 24, 1986. Voyager 2 discovered 10 moons, studied the planet's cold atmosphere, and examined its ring system, discovering two new rings. It also imaged Uranus' five large moons, revealing that their surfaces are covered with impact craters and canyons.

A number of dedicated exploratory missions to Uranus have been proposed, but as of 2017 none have been approved.

Gaia

In Greek mythology, Gaia ( or ; from Ancient Greek Γαῖα, a poetical form of Γῆ Gē, "land" or "earth"), also spelled Gaea (), is the personification of the Earth and one of the Greek primordial deities. Gaia is the ancestral mother of all life: the primal Mother Earth goddess. She is the immediate parent of Uranus (the sky), from whose sexual union she bore the Titans (themselves parents of many of the Olympian gods) and the Giants, and of Pontus (the sea), from whose union she bore the primordial sea gods. Her equivalent in the Roman pantheon was Terra.

List of Uranus-crossing minor planets

A Uranus-crosser is a minor planet whose orbit crosses that of Uranus. The numbered Uranus-crossers (as of 2005) are listed below. Most, if not all, are centaurs.

Notes: † inner-grazer; ‡ outer-grazer

2060 Chiron †

5145 Pholus

5335 Damocles

7066 Nessus

8405 Asbolus

10199 Chariklo †

10370 Hylonome ‡

20461 Dioretsa

(29981) 1999 TD10

42355 Typhon

(44594) 1999 OX3

49036 Pelion

52975 Cyllarus

54598 Bienor †

55576 Amycus

(65407) 2002 RP120

65489 Ceto

(73480) 2002 PN34

83982 Crantor

(87555) 2000 QB243

(88269) 2001 KF77 ‡

(95626) 2002 GZ32

Miranda (moon)

Miranda, also designated Uranus V, is the smallest and innermost of Uranus's five round satellites. It was discovered by Gerard Kuiper on 16 February 1948 at McDonald Observatory, and named after Miranda from William Shakespeare's play The Tempest. Like the other large moons of Uranus, Miranda orbits close to its planet's equatorial plane. Because Uranus orbits the Sun on its side, Miranda's orbit is perpendicular to the ecliptic and shares Uranus's extreme seasonal cycle.

At just 470 km in diameter, Miranda is one of the smallest closely observed objects in the Solar System that might be in hydrostatic equilibrium (spherical under its own gravity). The only close-up images of Miranda are from the Voyager 2 probe, which made observations of Miranda during its Uranus flyby in January 1986. During the flyby, Miranda's southern hemisphere pointed towards the Sun, so only that part was studied.

Miranda probably formed from an accretion disc that surrounded the planet shortly after its formation, and, like other large moons, it is likely differentiated, with an inner core of rock surrounded by a mantle of ice. Miranda has one of the most extreme and varied topographies of any object in the Solar System, including Verona Rupes, a 20-kilometer-high scarp that is the highest cliff in the Solar System, and chevron-shaped tectonic features called coronae. The origin and evolution of this varied geology, the most of any Uranian satellite, are still not fully understood, and multiple hypotheses exist regarding Miranda's evolution.

Moons of Uranus

Uranus, the seventh planet of the Solar System, has 27 known moons, all of which are named after characters from the works of William Shakespeare and Alexander Pope. Uranus's moons are divided into three groups: thirteen inner moons, five major moons, and nine irregular moons. The inner moons are small dark bodies that share common properties and origins with Uranus's rings. The five major moons are massive enough to have reached hydrostatic equilibrium, and four of them show signs of internally driven processes such as canyon formation and volcanism on their surfaces. The largest of these five, Titania, is 1,578 km in diameter and the eighth-largest moon in the Solar System, and about one-twentieth the mass the Earth's Moon. The orbits of the regular moons are nearly coplanar with Uranus's equator, which is tilted 97.77° to its orbit. Uranus's irregular moons have elliptical and strongly inclined (mostly retrograde) orbits at large distances from the planet.William Herschel discovered the first two moons, Titania and Oberon, in 1787, and the other three ellipsoidal moons were discovered in 1851 by William Lassell (Ariel and Umbriel) and in 1948 by Gerard Kuiper (Miranda). These five have planetary mass, and so would be considered (dwarf) planets if they were in direct orbit about the Sun. The remaining moons were discovered after 1985, either during the Voyager 2 flyby mission or with the aid of advanced Earth-based telescopes.

Neptune

Neptune is the eighth and farthest known planet from the Sun in the Solar System. In the Solar System, it is the fourth-largest planet by diameter, the third-most-massive planet, and the densest giant planet. Neptune is 17 times the mass of Earth, slightly more massive than its near-twin Uranus. Neptune is denser and physically smaller than Uranus because its greater mass causes more gravitational compression of its atmosphere. Neptune orbits the Sun once every 164.8 years at an average distance of 30.1 AU (4.5 billion km). It is named after the Roman god of the sea and has the astronomical symbol ♆, a stylised version of the god Neptune's trident.

Neptune is not visible to the unaided eye and is the only planet in the Solar System found by mathematical prediction rather than by empirical observation. Unexpected changes in the orbit of Uranus led Alexis Bouvard to deduce that its orbit was subject to gravitational perturbation by an unknown planet. Neptune was subsequently observed with a telescope on 23 September 1846 by Johann Galle within a degree of the position predicted by Urbain Le Verrier. Its largest moon, Triton, was discovered shortly thereafter, though none of the planet's remaining known 13 moons were located telescopically until the 20th century. The planet's distance from Earth gives it a very small apparent size, making it challenging to study with Earth-based telescopes. Neptune was visited by Voyager 2, when it flew by the planet on 25 August 1989. The advent of the Hubble Space Telescope and large ground-based telescopes with adaptive optics has recently allowed for additional detailed observations from afar.

Like Jupiter and Saturn, Neptune's atmosphere is composed primarily of hydrogen and helium, along with traces of hydrocarbons and possibly nitrogen, though it contains a higher proportion of "ices" such as water, ammonia, and methane. However, similar to Uranus, its interior is primarily composed of ices and rock; Uranus and Neptune are normally considered "ice giants" to emphasise this distinction. Traces of methane in the outermost regions in part account for the planet's blue appearance.In contrast to the hazy, relatively featureless atmosphere of Uranus, Neptune's atmosphere has active and visible weather patterns. For example, at the time of the Voyager 2 flyby in 1989, the planet's southern hemisphere had a Great Dark Spot comparable to the Great Red Spot on Jupiter. These weather patterns are driven by the strongest sustained winds of any planet in the Solar System, with recorded wind speeds as high as 2,100 km/h (580 m/s; 1,300 mph). Because of its great distance from the Sun, Neptune's outer atmosphere is one of the coldest places in the Solar System, with temperatures at its cloud tops approaching 55 K (−218 °C; −361 °F). Temperatures at the planet's centre are approximately 5,400 K (5,100 °C; 9,300 °F). Neptune has a faint and fragmented ring system (labelled "arcs"), which was discovered in 1984, then later confirmed by Voyager 2.

Oberon (moon)

Oberon, also designated Uranus IV, is the outermost major moon of the planet Uranus. It is the second-largest and second most massive of the Uranian moons, and the ninth most massive moon in the Solar System. Discovered by William Herschel in 1787, Oberon is named after the mythical king of the fairies who appears as a character in Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream. Its orbit lies partially outside Uranus's magnetosphere.

It is likely that Oberon formed from the accretion disk that surrounded Uranus just after the planet's formation. The moon consists of approximately equal amounts of ice and rock, and is probably differentiated into a rocky core and an icy mantle. A layer of liquid water may be present at the boundary between the mantle and the core. The surface of Oberon, which is dark and slightly red in color, appears to have been primarily shaped by asteroid and comet impacts. It is covered by numerous impact craters reaching 210 km in diameter. Oberon possesses a system of chasmata (graben or scarps) formed during crustal extension as a result of the expansion of its interior during its early evolution.

The Uranian system has been studied up close only once: the spacecraft Voyager 2 took several images of Oberon in January 1986, allowing 40% of the moon's surface to be mapped.

Operation Uranus

Operation Uranus (Russian: Опера́ция «Ура́н», romanised: Operatsiya "Uran") was the codename of the Soviet 19–23 November 1942 strategic operation in World War II which led to the encirclement of the German Sixth Army, the Third and Fourth Romanian armies, and portions of the German Fourth Panzer Army. The operation was executed at roughly the midpoint of the five month long Battle of Stalingrad, and was aimed at destroying German forces in and around Stalingrad. Planning for Operation Uranus had commenced in September 1942, and was developed simultaneously with plans to envelop and destroy German Army Group Center (Operation Mars) and German forces in the Caucasus. The Red Army took advantage of the German army's poor preparation for winter, and the fact that its forces in the southern Soviet Union were overstretched near Stalingrad, using weaker Romanian troops to guard their flanks; the offensives' starting points were established along the section of the front directly opposite Romanian forces. These Axis armies lacked heavy equipment to deal with Soviet armor.

Due to the length of the front created by the German summer offensive, aimed at taking the Caucasus oil fields and the city of Stalingrad, German and other Axis forces were forced to guard sectors beyond the length they were meant to occupy. The situation was exacerbated by the German decision to relocate several mechanized divisions from the Soviet Union to Western Europe. Furthermore, units in the area were depleted after months of fighting, especially those which took part in the fighting in Stalingrad. The Germans could only count on the XXXXVIII Panzer Corps, which had the strength of a single panzer division, and the 29th Panzergrenadier Division as reserves to bolster their Romanian allies on the German Sixth Army's flanks. In comparison, the Red Army deployed over one million personnel for the purpose of beginning the offensive in and around Stalingrad. Soviet troop movements were not without problems, due to the difficulties of concealing their build-up, and to Soviet units commonly arriving late due to logistical issues. Operation Uranus was first postponed from 8 to 17 November, then to 19 November.

At 07:20 Moscow time on 19 November, Soviet forces on the northern flank of the Axis forces at Stalingrad began their offensive; forces in the south began on 20 November. Although Romanian units were able to repel the first attacks, by the end of 20 November the Third and Fourth Romanian armies were in headlong retreat, as the Red Army bypassed several German infantry divisions. German mobile reserves were not strong enough to parry the Soviet mechanized spearheads, while the Sixth Army did not react quickly enough nor decisively enough to disengage German armored forces in Stalingrad and reorient them to defeat the impending threat. By late 22 November Soviet forces linked up at the town of Kalach, encircling some 290,000 men east of the Don River. Instead of attempting to break out of the encirclement, German leader Adolf Hitler decided to keep Axis forces in Stalingrad and resupply them by air. In the meantime, Soviet and German commanders began to plan their next movements.

Rings of Uranus

The rings of Uranus are a system of rings around the planet Uranus, intermediate in complexity between the more extensive set around Saturn and the simpler systems around Jupiter and Neptune. The rings of Uranus were discovered on March 10, 1977, by James L. Elliot, Edward W. Dunham, and Jessica Mink. William Herschel had also reported observing rings in 1789; modern astronomers are divided on whether he could have seen them, as they are very dark and faint.By 1978, nine distinct rings were identified. Two additional rings were discovered in 1986 in images taken by the Voyager 2 spacecraft, and two outer rings were found in 2003–2005 in Hubble Space Telescope photos. In the order of increasing distance from the planet the 13 known rings are designated 1986U2R/ζ, 6, 5, 4, α, β, η, γ, δ, λ, ε, ν and μ. Their radii range from about 38,000 km for the 1986U2R/ζ ring to about 98,000 km for the μ ring. Additional faint dust bands and incomplete arcs may exist between the main rings. The rings are extremely dark—the Bond albedo of the rings' particles does not exceed 2%. They are probably composed of water ice with the addition of some dark radiation-processed organics.

The majority of Uranus's rings are opaque and only a few kilometers wide. The ring system contains little dust overall; it consists mostly of large bodies 0.2–20 m in diameter. Some rings are optically thin: the broad and faint 1986U2R/ζ, μ and ν rings are made of small dust particles, while the narrow and faint λ ring also contains larger bodies. The relative lack of dust in the ring system may be due to aerodynamic drag from the extended Uranian exosphere.

The rings of Uranus are thought to be relatively young, and not more than 600 million years old. The Uranian ring system probably originated from the collisional fragmentation of several moons that once existed around the planet. After colliding, the moons probably broke up into many particles, which survived as narrow and optically dense rings only in strictly confined zones of maximum stability.

The mechanism that confines the narrow rings is not well understood. Initially it was assumed that every narrow ring had a pair of nearby shepherd moons corralling them into shape. In 1986 Voyager 2 discovered only one such shepherd pair (Cordelia and Ophelia) around the brightest ring (ε).

Sailor Uranus

Sailor Uranus (セーラーウラヌス, Sērā Uranusu) is a fictional lead character in the Sailor Moon media franchise. Sailor Uranus’ alternate identity is Haruka Tenoh (天王 はるか, Ten'ō Haruka, renamed "Amara Tenoh" in some English adaptations), a teenage Japanese student. Haruka is a member of the Sailor Soldiers, supernatural fighters who protect the Solar System from evil.

Sailor Uranus fights alongside her partner and lover Sailor Neptune. Sailor Uranus possesses powers associated with the wind and sky, precognition, as well as sword combat.

Solar System

The Solar System is the gravitationally bound planetary system of the Sun and the objects that orbit it, either directly or indirectly. Of the objects that orbit the Sun directly, the largest are the eight planets, with the remainder being smaller objects, such as the five dwarf planets and small Solar System bodies. Of the objects that orbit the Sun indirectly—the moons—two are larger than the smallest planet, Mercury.The Solar System formed 4.6 billion years ago from the gravitational collapse of a giant interstellar molecular cloud. The vast majority of the system's mass is in the Sun, with the majority of the remaining mass contained in Jupiter. The four smaller inner planets, Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars, are terrestrial planets, being primarily composed of rock and metal. The four outer planets are giant planets, being substantially more massive than the terrestrials. The two largest, Jupiter and Saturn, are gas giants, being composed mainly of hydrogen and helium; the two outermost planets, Uranus and Neptune, are ice giants, being composed mostly of substances with relatively high melting points compared with hydrogen and helium, called volatiles, such as water, ammonia and methane. All eight planets have almost circular orbits that lie within a nearly flat disc called the ecliptic.

The Solar System also contains smaller objects. The asteroid belt, which lies between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, mostly contains objects composed, like the terrestrial planets, of rock and metal. Beyond Neptune's orbit lie the Kuiper belt and scattered disc, which are populations of trans-Neptunian objects composed mostly of ices, and beyond them a newly discovered population of sednoids. Within these populations are several dozen to possibly tens of thousands of objects large enough that they have been rounded by their own gravity. Such objects are categorized as dwarf planets. Identified dwarf planets include the asteroid Ceres and the trans-Neptunian objects Pluto and Eris. In addition to these two regions, various other small-body populations, including comets, centaurs and interplanetary dust clouds, freely travel between regions. Six of the planets, at least four of the dwarf planets, and many of the smaller bodies are orbited by natural satellites, usually termed "moons" after the Moon. Each of the outer planets is encircled by planetary rings of dust and other small objects.

The solar wind, a stream of charged particles flowing outwards from the Sun, creates a bubble-like region in the interstellar medium known as the heliosphere. The heliopause is the point at which pressure from the solar wind is equal to the opposing pressure of the interstellar medium; it extends out to the edge of the scattered disc. The Oort cloud, which is thought to be the source for long-period comets, may also exist at a distance roughly a thousand times further than the heliosphere. The Solar System is located in the Orion Arm, 26,000 light-years from the center of the Milky Way galaxy.

Solar eclipses on Uranus

Solar eclipses on Uranus occur when any of the natural satellites of Uranus passes in front of the Sun as seen from Uranus. Eclipses can occur only near a solar ring plane-crossing of Uranus (equinox), occurring approximately every 42 years, with the last crossing being in 2007/2008.For bodies that appear smaller in angular diameter than the Sun, the proper term would be a transit and bodies that are larger than the apparent size of the Sun, the proper term would be an occultation.

Twelve satellites of Uranus—Cressida, Desdemona, Juliet, Portia, Rosalind, Belinda, Puck, Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel, Titania and Oberon—are large enough and near enough to eclipse the Sun.

All other satellites of Uranus are too small or too distant to produce an umbra.

At its distance from the Sun, the Sun's angular diameter is reduced to a tiny disk about 2 arcminutes across. The angular diameters of the moons large enough to fully eclipse the sun are: Cressida, 6–8'; Desdemona, 6–7'; Juliet, 10–12'; Portia, 9–13'; Rosalind, 4–5'; Belinda, 6–8'; Puck, 6–8'; Miranda, 10–15'; Ariel, 20–23'; Umbriel, 15–17'; Titania, 11–13'; Oberon, 8–9'.

Titania (moon)

Titania is the largest of the moons of Uranus and the eighth largest moon in the Solar System at a diameter of 1,578 kilometres (981 mi). Discovered by William Herschel in 1787, Titania is named after the queen of the fairies in Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream. Its orbit lies inside Uranus's magnetosphere.

Titania consists of approximately equal amounts of ice and rock, and is probably differentiated into a rocky core and an icy mantle. A layer of liquid water may be present at the core–mantle boundary. The surface of Titania, which is relatively dark and slightly red in color, appears to have been shaped by both impacts and endogenic processes. It is covered with numerous impact craters reaching up to 326 kilometres (203 mi) in diameter, but is less heavily cratered than Oberon, outermost of the five large moons of Uranus. Titania probably underwent an early endogenic resurfacing event which obliterated its older, heavily cratered surface. Titania's surface is cut by a system of enormous canyons and scarps, the result of the expansion of its interior during the later stages of its evolution. Like all major moons of Uranus, Titania probably formed from an accretion disk which surrounded the planet just after its formation.

Infrared spectroscopy conducted from 2001 to 2005 revealed the presence of water ice as well as frozen carbon dioxide on the surface of Titania, which in turn suggested that the moon may have a tenuous carbon dioxide atmosphere with a surface pressure of about 10 nanopascals (10−13 bar). Measurements during Titania's occultation of a star put an upper limit on the surface pressure of any possible atmosphere at 1–2 mPa (10–20 nbar).

The Uranian system has been studied up close only once, by the spacecraft Voyager 2 in January 1986. It took several images of Titania, which allowed mapping of about 40% of its surface.

Umbriel (moon)

Umbriel is a moon of Uranus discovered on October 24, 1851, by William Lassell. It was discovered at the same time as Ariel and named after a character in Alexander Pope's poem The Rape of the Lock. Umbriel consists mainly of ice with a substantial fraction of rock, and may be differentiated into a rocky core and an icy mantle. The surface is the darkest among Uranian moons, and appears to have been shaped primarily by impacts. However, the presence of canyons suggests early endogenic processes, and the moon may have undergone an early endogenically driven resurfacing event that obliterated its older surface.

Covered by numerous impact craters reaching 210 km (130 mi) in diameter, Umbriel is the second most heavily cratered satellite of Uranus after Oberon. The most prominent surface feature is a ring of bright material on the floor of Wunda crater. This moon, like all moons of Uranus, probably formed from an accretion disk that surrounded the planet just after its formation. The Uranian system has been studied up close only once, by the spacecraft Voyager 2 in January 1986. It took several images of Umbriel, which allowed mapping of about 40% of the moon’s surface.

Uranus (mythology)

Uranus (; Ancient Greek Οὐρανός, Ouranos [oːranós] meaning "sky" or "heaven") was the primal Greek god personifying the sky and one of the Greek primordial deities. Uranus is associated with the Roman god Caelus. In Ancient Greek literature, Uranus or Father Sky was the son and husband of Gaia, Mother Earth. According to Hesiod's Theogony, Uranus was conceived by Gaia alone, but other sources cite Aether as his father. Uranus and Gaia were the parents of the first generation of Titans, and the ancestors of most of the Greek gods, but no cult addressed directly to Uranus survived into Classical times, and Uranus does not appear among the usual themes of Greek painted pottery. Elemental Earth, Sky, and Styx might be joined, however, in a solemn invocation in Homeric epic.

Uranus Glacier

Uranus Glacier (71°24′S 68°20′W) is a glacier on the east coast of Alexander Island, Antarctica, 30 kilometres (20 miles) long and 10 km (6 mi) wide at its mouth, flowing east into George VI Sound immediately south of Fossil Bluff. Along the south face of the glacier is an east–west escarpment called Kuiper Scarp.

The glacier was probably first seen by Lincoln Ellsworth, who flew directly over it and photographed segments of this coast on November 23, 1935. The portion near the mouth of the glacier was first roughly surveyed in 1936 by the British Graham Land Expedition. It was named by the United Kingdom Antarctic Place-Names Committee for the planet Uranus following the resurvey of its lower portions by the Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey in 1948 and 1949. Although the glacier is named for a planet of the Solar System, it is not named in association with the nearby mountain range Planet Heights. The entire glacier was mapped from air photos taken by the Ronne Antarctic Research Expedition in 1947-48, by Searle of the FIDS in 1960.

Voyager 2

Voyager 2 is a space probe launched by NASA on August 20, 1977, to study the outer planets. Part of the Voyager program, it was launched 16 days before its twin, Voyager 1, on a trajectory that took longer to reach Jupiter and Saturn but enabled further encounters with Uranus and Neptune. It is the only spacecraft to have visited either of these two ice giant planets.

Its primary mission ended with the exploration of the Neptunian system on October 2, 1989, after having visited the Uranian system in 1986, the Saturnian system in 1981, and the Jovian system in 1979. Voyager 2 is now in its extended mission to study the outer reaches of the Solar System and has been operating for 41 years, 6 months and 27 days as of 19 March 2019. It remains in contact through the NASA Deep Space Network.At a distance of 120 AU (1.80×1010 km) (about 16.5 light-hours) from the Sun as of February 25, 2019, moving at a velocity of 15.341 km/s (55,230 km/h) relative to the Sun, Voyager 2 is the fourth of five spacecraft to achieve the escape velocity that will allow them to leave the Solar System. The probe left the heliosphere for interstellar space on November 5, 2018, becoming the second artificial object to do so, and has begun to provide the first direct measurements of the density and temperature of the interstellar plasma.

Uranus (outline)
Geography
Moons
Astronomy
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