Ural Mountains

The Ural Mountains (/ˈjʊərəl/; Russian: Ура́льские го́ры, tr. Uralskiye gory, IPA: [ʊˈralʲskʲɪjə ˈgorɨ]; Bashkir: Урал тауҙары, Ural tauźarı), or simply the Urals, are a mountain range that runs approximately from north to south through western Russia, from the coast of the Arctic Ocean to the Ural River and northwestern Kazakhstan.[1] The mountain range forms part of the conventional boundary between the continents of Europe and Asia. Vaygach Island and the islands of Novaya Zemlya form a further continuation of the chain to the north into the Arctic Ocean.

The mountains lie within the Ural geographical region and significantly overlap with the Ural Federal District and with the Ural economic region. They have rich resources, including metal ores, coal, and precious and semi-precious stones. Since the 18th century the mountains have contributed significantly to the mineral sector of the Russian economy.

Ural Mountains
Ural mountains 3 448122223 93fa978a6d b
Rock formation in the Urals
Highest point
PeakMount Narodnaya
Elevation1,895 m (6,217 ft)
Coordinates60°N 60°E / 60°N 60°ECoordinates: 60°N 60°E / 60°N 60°E
Dimensions
Length2,500 km (1,600 mi)
Width150 km (93 mi)
Geography
Ural Mountains Map 2
CountriesRussia and Kazakhstan
Geology
Age of rockCarboniferous

Etymology

As attested by Sigismund von Herberstein, in the 16th century Russians called the range by a variety of names derived from the Russian words for rock (stone) and belt. The modern Russian name for the Urals (Урал, Ural), first appearing in the 16th–17th century when the Russian conquest of Siberia was in its heroic phase, was initially applied to its southern parts and gained currency as the name of the entire range during the 18th century. It might have been a borrowing from either Turkic "stone belt"[2] (Bashkir, where the same name is used for the range), or Ob-Ugric.[3] From the 13th century, in Bashkortostan there has been a legend about a hero named Ural. He sacrificed his life for the sake of his people and they poured a stone pile over his grave, which later turned into the Ural Mountains.[4][5][6] Possibilities include Bashkir үр "elevation; upland" and Mansi ур ала "mountain peak, top of the mountain",[7] V.N. Tatischev believes that this oronym is set to "belt" and associates it with the Turkic verb oralu- "gird".[7] I.G. Dobrodomov suggests a transition from Aral to Ural explained on the basis of ancient Bulgar-Chuvash dialects. Geographer E.V. Hawks believes that the name goes back to the Bashkir folklore Ural-Batyr.[7] The Evenk geographical term era "mountain" has also been theorized.[7] Finno-Ugrist scholars consider Ural deriving from the Ostyak word urr meaning "chain of mountains".[8] Turkologists, on the other hand, have achieved majority support for their assertion that 'ural' in Tatar means a belt, and recall that an earlier name for the range was 'stone belt'.[9]

History

UralMountains1

As Middle-Eastern merchants traded with the Bashkirs and other people living on the western slopes of the Ural as far north as Great Perm, since at least the 10th century medieval mideastern geographers had been aware of the existence of the mountain range in its entirety, stretching as far as to the Arctic Ocean in the north. The first Russian mention of the mountains to the east of the East European Plain is provided by the Primary Chronicle, when it describes the Novgorodian expedition to the upper reaches of the Pechora in 1096. During the next few centuries Novgorodians engaged in fur trading with the local population and collected tribute from Yugra and Great Perm, slowly expanding southwards. The rivers Chusovaya and Belaya were first mentioned in the chronicles of 1396 and 1468, respectively. In 1430 the town of Solikamsk (Kama Salt) was founded on the Kama at the foothills of the Ural, where salt was produced in open pans. Ivan III of Moscow captured Perm, Pechora and Yugra from the declining Novgorod Republic in 1472. With the excursions of 1483 and 1499–1500 across the Ural Moscow managed to subjugate Yugra completely.

Herberstein-Moscovia-NE
A fragment of von Herberstein's map

Nevertheless, around that time early 16th century Polish geographer Maciej of Miechów in his influential Tractatus de duabus Sarmatiis (1517) argued that there were no mountains in Eastern Europe at all, challenging the point of view of some authors of Classical antiquity, popular during the Renaissance. Only after Sigismund von Herberstein in his Notes on Muscovite Affairs (1549) had reported, following Russian sources, that there are mountains behind the Pechora and identified them with the Ripheans and Hyperboreans of ancient authors, did the existence of the Ural, or at least of its northern part, become firmly established in the Western geography. The Middle and Southern Ural were still largely unavailable and unknown to the Russian or Western European geographers.

Verkhoturye 1910 LOC prok 02108
Verkhoturye in 1910

In the 1550s, after the Tsardom of Russia had defeated the Khanate of Kazan and proceeded to gradually annex the lands of the Bashkirs, the Russians finally reached the southern part of the mountain chain. In 1574 they founded Ufa. The upper reaches of the Kama and Chusovaya in the Middle Ural, still unexplored, as well as parts of Transuralia still held by the hostile Siberian Khanate, were granted to the Stroganovs by several decrees of the tsar in 1558–1574. The Stroganovs' land provided the staging ground for Yermak's incursion into Siberia. Yermak crossed the Ural from the Chusovaya to the Tagil around 1581. In 1597 Babinov's road was built across the Ural from Solikamsk to the valley of the Tura, where the town of Verkhoturye (Upper Tura) was founded in 1598. Customs was established in Verkhoturye shortly thereafter and the road was made the only legal connection between European Russia and Siberia for a long time. In 1648 the town of Kungur was founded at the western foothills of the Middle Ural. During the 17th century the first deposits of iron and copper ores, mica, gemstones and other minerals were discovered in the Ural.

Iron and copper smelting works emerged. They multiplied particularly quickly during the reign of Peter I of Russia. In 1720–1722 he commissioned Vasily Tatishchev to oversee and develop the mining and smelting works in the Ural. Tatishchev proposed a new copper smelting factory in Yegoshikha, which would eventually become the core of the city of Perm and a new iron smelting factory on the Iset, which would become the largest in the world at the time of construction and give birth to the city of Yekaterinburg. Both factories were actually founded by Tatishchev's successor, Georg Wilhelm de Gennin, in 1723. Tatishchev returned to the Ural on the order of Empress Anna to succeed de Gennin in 1734–1737. Transportation of the output of the smelting works to the markets of European Russia necessitated the construction of the Siberian Route from Yekaterinburg across the Ural to Kungur and Yegoshikha (Perm) and further to Moscow, which was completed in 1763 and rendered Babinov's road obsolete. In 1745 gold was discovered in the Ural at Beryozovskoye and later at other deposits. It has been mined since 1747.

The first ample geographic survey of the Ural Mountains was completed in the early 18th century by the Russian historian and geographer Vasily Tatishchev under the orders of Peter I. Earlier, in the 17th century, rich ore deposits were discovered in the mountains and their systematic extraction began in the early 18th century, eventually turning the region into the largest mineral base of Russia.[1][4]

One of the first scientific descriptions of the mountains was published in 1770–71. Over the next century, the region was studied by scientists from a number of countries, including Russia (geologist Alexander Karpinsky, botanist Porfiry Krylov and zoologist Leonid Sabaneyev), the United Kingdom (geologist Sir Roderick Murchison), France (paleontologist Édouard de Verneuil), and Germany (naturalist Alexander von Humboldt, geologist Alexander Keyserling).[1][10] In 1845, Murchison, who had according to Encyclopædia Britannica "compiled the first geologic map of the Ural in 1841",[1] published The Geology of Russia in Europe and the Ural Mountains with de Verneuil and Keyserling.[10][11]

The first railway across the Ural had been built by 1878 and linked Perm to Yekaterinburg via Chusovoy, Kushva and Nizhny Tagil. In 1890 a railway linked Ufa and Chelyabinsk via Zlatoust. In 1896 this section became a part of the Trans-Siberian Railway. In 1909 yet another railway connecting Perm and Yekaterinburg passed through Kungur by the way of the Siberian Route. It has eventually replaced the Ufa – Chelyabinsk section as the main trunk of the Trans-Siberian railway.

The highest peak of the Ural, Mount Narodnaya, (elevation 1,895 m (6,217 ft)) was identified in 1927.[12]

Уральские горы - panoramio (1)
Wooded Ural Mountains

During the Soviet industrialization in the 1930s the city of Magnitogorsk was founded in the South-Eastern Ural as a center of iron smelting and steelmaking. During the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941–1942, the mountains became a key element in Nazi planning for the territories which they expected to conquer in the USSR. Faced with the threat of having a significant part of the Soviet territories occupied by the enemy, the government evacuated many of the industrial enterprises of European Russia and Ukraine to the eastern foothills of the Ural, considered a safe place out of reach of the German bombers and troops. Three giant tank factories were established at the Uralmash in Sverdlovsk (as Yekaterinburg used to be known), Uralvagonzavod in Nizhny Tagil, and Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant in Chelyabinsk. After the war, in 1947–1948, Chum – Labytnangi railway, built with the forced labor of Gulag inmates, crossed the Polar Ural.

Mayak, 150 km southeast of Yekaterinburg, was a center of the Soviet nuclear industry[1][13][14][15] and site of the Kyshtym disaster.[14][16]

Geography and topography

The Ural Mountains extend about 2,500 km (1,600 mi) from the Kara Sea to the Kazakh Steppe along the n border of Kazakhstan. Vaygach Island and the island of Novaya Zemlya form a further continuation of the chain on the north. Geographically this range marks the northern part of the border between the continents of Europe and Asia. Its highest peak is Mount Narodnaya, approximately 1,895 m (6,217 ft) in elevation.[1]

By topography and other natural features, the Urals are divided, from north to south, into the Polar (or Arctic), Nether-Polar (or Sub-Arctic), Northern, Central and Southern parts.

Polar Ural

The Polar Urals extend for about 385 kilometers (239 mi) from Mount Konstantinov Kamen in the north to the Khulga River in the south; they have an area of about 25,000 km2 (9,700 sq mi) and a strongly dissected relief. The maximum height is 1,499 m (4,918 ft) at Payer Mountain and the average height is 1,000 to 1,100 m (3,300 to 3,600 ft).

The mountains of the Polar Ural have exposed rock with sharp ridges, though flattened or rounded tops are also found.[1][4]

Nether-polar Ural

Ural Mountains IMG 3277 (28448487562)
Ural Mountains in summer

The Nether-Polar Ural are higher, and up to 150 km (93 mi) wider than the Polar Urals. They include the highest peaks of the range: Mount Narodnaya (1,895 m (6,217 ft)), Mount Karpinsky (1,878 m (6,161 ft)) and Manaraga (1,662 m (5,453 ft)). They extend for more than 225 km (140 mi) south to the Shchugor River. The many ridges are sawtooth shaped and dissected by river valleys. Both Polar and Nether-Polar Urals are typically Alpine; they bear traces of Pleistocene glaciation, along with permafrost and extensive modern glaciation, including 143 extant glaciers.[1][4]

Northern Ural

The Northern Ural consist of a series of parallel ridges up to 1,000–1,200 m (3,300–3,900 ft) in height and longitudinal hollows. They are elongated from north to south and stretch for about 560 km (350 mi) from the Usa River. Most of the tops are flattened, but those of the highest mountains, such as Telposiz, 1,617 m (5,305 ft) and Konzhakovsky Stone, 1,569 m (5,148 ft) have a dissected topography. Intensive weathering has produced vast areas of eroded stone on the mountain slopes and summits of the northern areas.[1][4]

Middle Ural

The Central Ural are the lowest part of the Ural, with smooth mountain tops, the highest mountain being 994 m (3,261 ft) (Basegi); they extend south from the Ufa River.[4]

Southern Ural

The relief of the Southern Ural is more complex, with numerous valleys and parallel ridges directed south-west and meridionally. The range includes the Ilmensky Mountains separated from the main ridges by the Miass River. The maximum height is 1,640 m (5,380 ft) (Mount Yamantau) and the width reaches 250 km (160 mi). Other notable peaks lie along the Iremel mountain ridge (Bolshoy Iremel and Maly Iremel). The Southern Urals extend some 550 km (340 mi) up to the sharp westward bend of the Ural River and terminate in the wide Mughalzhar Hills.[1]

Mountain formation near Saranpaul Rochers dans les montagnes de l Oural 448122760 3572eca433 o Mount Iremel Ignateva cave entry
Mountain formation near Saranpaul, Nether-Polar Urals Rocks in a river, Nether-Polar Urals Big Iremel Mountain Entry to Ignateva Cave, South Urals

Geology

Gorskii 04428u
A mine in the Ural Mountains, early colour photograph by Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky, 1910

The Urals are among the world's oldest extant mountain ranges. For its age of 250 to 300 million years, the elevation of the mountains is unusually high. They formed during the Uralian orogeny due to the collision of the eastern edge of the supercontinent Laurussia with the young and rheologically weak continent of Kazakhstania, which now underlies much of Kazakhstan and West Siberia west of the Irtysh, and intervening island arcs. The collision lasted nearly 90 million years in the late Carboniferous – early Triassic.[17][18][19][20] Unlike the other major orogens of the Paleozoic (Appalachians, Caledonides, Variscides), the Urals have not undergone post-orogenic extensional collapse and are unusually well preserved for their age, being underlaid by a pronounced crustal root.[21][22] East and south of the Urals much of the orogen is buried beneath later Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediments.[17] The adjacent Pay-Khoy Ridge to the north and Novaya Zemlya are not a part of the Uralian orogen and formed later.

Many deformed and metamorphosed rocks, mostly of Paleozoic age, surface within the Urals. The sedimentary and volcanic layers are folded and faulted. The sediments to the west of the Ural Mountains are formed of limestone, dolomite and sandstone left from ancient shallow seas. The eastern side is dominated by basalts.[4]

Ural Mountains Winter woods (32035729862)
Wooded Ural Mountains in winter

The western slope of the Ural Mountains has predominantly karst topography, especially in the Sylva River basin, which is a tributary of the Chusovaya River. It is composed of severely eroded sedimentary rocks (sandstones and limestones) that are about 350 million years old. There are many caves, sinkholes and underground streams. The karst topography is much less developed on the eastern slopes. The eastern slopes are relatively flat, with some hills and rocky outcrops and contain alternating volcanic and sedimentary layers dated to the middle Paleozoic Era.[4] Most high mountains consist of weather-resistant rocks such as quartzite, schist and gabbro that are between 570 and 395 million years old. The river valleys are underlain by limestone.[1]

The Ural Mountains contain about 48 species of economically valuable ores and economically valuable minerals. Eastern regions are rich in chalcopyrite, nickel oxide, gold, platinum, chromite and magnetite ores, as well as in coal (Chelyabinsk Oblast), bauxite, talc, fireclay and abrasives. The Western Urals contain deposits of coal, oil, natural gas (Ishimbay and Krasnokamsk areas) and potassium salts. Both slopes are rich in bituminous coal and lignite, and the largest deposit of bituminous coal is in the north (Pechora field). The specialty of the Urals is precious and semi-precious stones, such as emerald, amethyst, aquamarine, jasper, rhodonite, malachite and diamond. Some of the deposits, such as the magnetite ores at Magnitogorsk, are already nearly depleted.[1][4]

Minerals from the Ural Mountains
Andradite-23893 Beryl-md20a Platinum-41654 Quartz-34654
Andradite Beryl Platinum Quartz

Rivers and lakes

Maksimovsky rock Chusovaya river
Chusovaya River

Many rivers originate in the Ural Mountains. The western slopes south of the border between the Komi Republic and Perm Krai and the eastern slopes south of approximately 54°30'N drain into the Caspian Sea via the Kama and Ural River basins. The tributaries of the Kama include the Vishera, Chusovaya, and Belaya and originate on both the eastern and western slopes. The rest of the Urals drain into the Arctic Ocean, mainly via the Pechora basin in the west, which includes the Ilych, Shchugor, and the Usa, and via the Ob basin in the east, which includes the Tobol, Tavda, Iset, Tura and Severnaya Sosva. The rivers are frozen for more than half the year. Generally, the western rivers have higher flow volume than the eastern ones, especially in the Northern and Nether-Polar regions. Rivers are slower in the Southern Urals. This is because of low precipitation and the relatively warm climate resulting in less snow and more evaporation.[1][4]

The mountains contain a number of deep lakes.[23] The eastern slopes of the Southern and Central Urals have most of these, among the largest of which are the Uvildy, Itkul, Turgoyak, and Tavatuy lakes.[4] The lakes found on the western slopes are less numerous and also smaller. Lake Bolshoye Shchuchye, the deepest lake in the Polar Urals, is 136 meters (446 ft) deep. Other lakes, too, are found in the glacial valleys of this region. Spas and sanatoriums have been built to take advantage of the medicinal muds found in some of the mountain lakes.[1][4]

Climate

The climate of the Urals is continental. The mountain ridges, elongated from north to south, effectively absorb sunlight thereby increasing the temperature. The areas west of the Ural Mountains are 1–2 °C (1.8–3.6 °F) warmer in winter than the eastern regions because the former are warmed by Atlantic winds whereas the eastern slopes are chilled by Siberian air masses. The average January temperatures increase in the western areas from −20 °C (−4 °F) in the Polar to −15 °C (5 °F) in the Southern Urals and the corresponding temperatures in July are 10 °C (50 °F) and 20 °C (68 °F). The western areas also receive more rainfall than the eastern ones by 150–300 mm (5.9–11.8 in) per year. This is because the mountains trap clouds from the Atlantic Ocean. The highest precipitation, approximately 1,000 mm (39 in), is in the Northern Urals with up to 1,000 cm (390 in) snow. The eastern areas receive from 500–600 mm (20–24 in) in the north to 300–400 mm (12–16 in) in the south. Maximum precipitation occurs in the summer: the winter is dry because of the Siberian High.[1][4]

Flora

The landscapes of the Urals vary with both latitude and longitude and are dominated by forests and steppes. The southern area of the Mughalzhar Hills is a semidesert. Steppes lie mostly in the southern and especially south-eastern Urals. Meadow steppes have developed on the lower parts of mountain slopes and are covered with zigzag and mountain clovers, Serratula gmelinii, dropwort, meadow-grass and Bromus inermis, reaching the height of 60–80 cm. Much of the land is cultivated. To the south, the meadow steppes become more sparse, dry and low. The steep gravelly slopes of the mountains and hills of the eastern slopes of the Southern Urals are mostly covered with rocky steppes. River valleys contain willow, poplar and caragana shrubs.[4]

Forest landscapes of the Urals are diverse, especially in the southern part. The western areas are dominated by dark coniferous taiga forests which change to mixed and deciduous forests in the south. The eastern mountain slopes have light coniferous taiga forests. The Northern Urals are dominated by conifers, namely Siberian fir, Siberian pine, Scots pine, Siberian spruce, Norway spruce and Siberian larch, as well as by silver and downy birches. The forests are much sparser in the Polar Urals. Whereas in other parts of the Ural Mountains they grow up to an altitude of 1000 m, in the Polar Urals the tree line is at 250–400 m. The polar forests are low and are mixed with swamps, lichens, bogs and shrubs. Dwarf birch, mosses and berries (blueberry, cloudberry, black crowberry, etc.) are abundant. The forests of the Southern Urals are the most diverse in composition: here, together with coniferous forests are also abundant broadleaf tree species such as English oak, Norway maple and elm.[4] The Virgin Komi Forests in the northern Urals are recognized as a World Heritage site.

Fauna

The Ural forests are inhabited by animals typical of Siberia, such as elk, brown bear, fox, wolf, wolverine, lynx, squirrel, and sable (north only). Because of the easy accessibility of the mountains there are no specifically mountainous species. In the Middle Urals, one can see a rare mixture of sable and pine marten named kidus. In the Southern Urals, badger and black polecat are common. Reptiles and amphibians live mostly in the Southern and Central Ural and are represented by the common viper, lizards and grass snakes. Bird species are represented by capercaillie, black grouse, hazel grouse, spotted nutcracker, and cuckoos. In summers, the South and Middle Urals are visited by songbirds, such as nightingale and redstart.[1][4]

The steppes of the Southern Urals are dominated by hares and rodents such as gophers, susliks, and jerboa. There are many birds of prey such as lesser kestrel and buzzards. The animals of the Polar Urals are few and are characteristic of the tundra; they include Arctic fox, lemming, and reindeer. The birds of these areas include rough-legged buzzard, snowy owl, tundra partridge, and rock ptarmigan.[1][4]

Gulo gulo 2 European Polecat (Mustela putorius)-8
Wolverine Polecat

Ecology

The continuous and intensive economic development of the last centuries has affected the fauna, and wildlife is much diminished around all industrial centers. During World War II, hundreds of factories were evacuated from Western Russia before the German occupation, flooding the Urals with industry. The conservation measures include establishing national wildlife parks.[1] There are nine strict nature reserves in the Urals: the Ilmen, the oldest one, mineralogical reserve founded in 1920 in Chelyabinsk Oblast, Pechora-Ilych in the Komi Republic, Bashkir and its former branch Shulgan-Tash in Bashkortostan, Visim in Sverdlovsk Oblast, Southern Ural in Bashkortostan, Basegi in Perm Krai, Vishera in Perm Krai and Denezhkin Kamen in Sverdlovsk Oblast.

The area has also been severely damaged by the plutonium-producing facility Mayak opened in Chelyabinsk-40 (later called Chelyabinsk-65, Ozyorsk), in the Southern Ural, after World War II.[1] Its plants went into operation in 1948 and, for the first ten years, dumped unfiltered radioactive waste into the Techa River and Lake Karachay.[1][13][14] In 1990, efforts were underway to contain the radiation in one of the lakes, which was estimated at the time to expose visitors to 500 millirem per day.[14] As of 2006, 500 mrem in the natural environment was the upper limit of exposure considered safe for a member of the general public in an entire year (though workplace exposure over a year could exceed that by a factor of 10).[15] Over 23,000 km2 (8,900 sq mi) of land were contaminated in 1957 from a storage tank explosion, only one of several serious accidents that further polluted the region.[1] The 1957 accident expelled 20 million curies of radioactive material, 90% of which settled into the land immediately around the facility.[16] Although some reactors of Mayak were shut down in 1987 and 1990,[14] the facility keeps producing plutonium.[24]

Cultural significance

The Urals have been viewed by Russians as a "treasure box" of mineral resources, which were the basis for its extensive industrial development. In addition to iron and copper the Urals were a source of gold, malachite, alexandrite, and other gems such as those used by the court jeweller Fabergé. As Russians in other regions gather mushrooms or berries, Uralians gather mineral specimens and gems. Dmitry Mamin-Sibiryak (1852–1912) Pavel Bazhov (1879–1950), as well as Aleksey Ivanov and Olga Slavnikova, post-Soviet writers, have written of the region.[25]

The region served as a military stronghold during Peter the Great's Great Northern War with Sweden, during Stalin's rule when the Magnitogorsk Metallurgical Complex was built and Russian industry relocated to the Urals during the Nazi advance at the beginning of World War II, and as the center of the Soviet nuclear industry during the Cold War. Extreme levels of air, water, and radiological contamination and pollution by industrial wastes resulted. Population exodus resulted, and economic depression at the time of the collapse of the Soviet Union, but in post-Soviet times additional mineral exploration, particularly in the northern Urals, has been productive and the region has attracted industrial investment.[25]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Ural Mountains, Encyclopædia Britannica on-line
  2. ^ Koryakova, Ludmila; Epimakhov, Andrey (2014). The Urals and Western Siberia in the Bronze and Iron Ages. Cambridge University Press. p. 338. ISBN 978-1-139-46165-8.
  3. ^ Фасмер, Макс. Этимологический словарь русского языка
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q "Ural (geographical)". Great Soviet Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 18 September 2014. Retrieved 31 May 2016.
  5. ^ *Koriakova, Ludmila; Epimakhov, Andrei (2007). The Urals and Western Siberia in the Bronze and Iron Ages. Cambridge University Press. p. 338. ISBN 978-0-521-82928-1.
  6. ^ Ural, toponym Chlyabinsk Encyclopedia (in Russian)
  7. ^ a b c d What is the Urals? survinat.com (30 October 2014)
  8. ^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Ural Mountains". Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 27 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 787.
  9. ^ Dukes, Paul (2015). A History of the Urals: Russia's Crucible from Early Empire to the Post-Soviet Era. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 5. ISBN 978-1-4725-7379-7.
  10. ^ a b Geological Society of London (1894). The Quarterly journal of the Geological Society of London. The Society. p. 53.
  11. ^ cf. Murchison, Roderick Impey; de Verneuil, Edouard; Keyserling, Alexander (1845). The Geology of Russia in Europe and the Ural Mountains. John Murray.
  12. ^ welcome-ural.ru
  13. ^ a b Podvig, Pavel; Bukharin, Oleg; von Hippel, Frank (2004). Russian Strategic Nuclear Forces. MIT Press. p. 70. ISBN 978-0-262-66181-2.
  14. ^ a b c d e Paine, Christopher (22 July 1989). "Military reactors go on show to American visitors". New Scientist. Retrieved 8 July 2010.
  15. ^ a b American Chemical Society (2006). Chemistry in the Community: ChemCom. Macmillan. p. 499. ISBN 978-0-7167-8919-2.
  16. ^ a b Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. Educational Foundation for Nuclear Science, Inc. May 1991. p. 25. ISSN 0096-3402.
  17. ^ a b Brown, D. and Echtler, H. (2005). "The Urals". In Selley, R. C.; Cocks, L. R. M. and Plimer, I. R. (ed.). Encyclopedia of Geology. Vol. 2. Elsevier. pp. 86–95. ISBN 978-0126363807.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  18. ^ Cocks, L. R. M. and Torsvik, T. H. (2006). "European geography in a global context from the Vendian to the end of the Palaeozoic". In Gee, D. G. and Stephenson, R. A. (ed.). European Lithosphere Dynamics (PDF). 32. Geological Society of London. pp. 83–95. ISBN 978-1862392120.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  19. ^ Puchkov, V. N. (2009). "The evolution of the Uralian orogen". Geological Society, London, Special Publications. 327: 161–195. doi:10.1144/SP327.9.
  20. ^ Brown, D.; Juhlin, C.; Ayala, C.; Tryggvason, A.; Bea, F.; Alvarez-Marron, J.; Carbonell, R.; Seward, D.; Glasmacher, U.; Puchkov, V.; Perez-Estaun, sexbombA. (2008). "Mountain building processes during continent–continent collision in the Uralides". Earth-Science Reviews. 89 (3–4): 177. doi:10.1016/j.earscirev.2008.05.001.
  21. ^ Leech, M. L. (2001). "Arrested orogenic development: Eclogitization, delamination, and tectonic collapse" (PDF). Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 185: 149–159. doi:10.1016/S0012-821X(00)00374-5.
  22. ^ Scarrow, J. H.; Ayala, C.; Kimbell, G. S. (2002). "Insights into orogenesis: Getting to the root of a continent-ocean-continent collision, Southern Urals, Russia" (PDF). Journal of the Geological Society. 159 (6): 659. doi:10.1144/0016-764901-147.
  23. ^ Davis, W.M. (1898). "The Ural mountains". Science. 7 (173): 563–564. doi:10.1126/science.7.173.563
  24. ^ Производство плутония с ПО "Маяк" на Сибирский химкомбинат перенесено не будет [Plutonium production will not be transferred from Mayak], obzor.westsib.ru, 25 March 2010 (in Russian)
  25. ^ a b Givental, E. (2013). "Three Hundred Years of Glory and Gloom: The Urals Region of Russia in Art and Reality". SAGE Open. 3 (2): 215824401348665. doi:10.1177/2158244013486657.

External links

Baltic Plate

The Baltic Plate was an ancient tectonic plate that existed from the Cambrian Period to the Carboniferous Period. The Baltic Plate collided against Siberia, to form the Ural Mountains about 280 million years ago. The Baltic Plate, however, fused onto the Eurasian Plate when the Baltic Plate collided against Siberia when the Ural Mountains were completely formed. The Baltic Plate contained Baltica and the Baltic Shield which is now located in Norway, Sweden and Finland.

Cisuralian

The Cisuralian or Early Permian is the first series/epoch of the Permian. The Cisuralian was preceded by the Pennsylvanian and followed by the Guadalupian. The Cisuralian Epoch is named after the western slopes of the Ural Mountains in Russia and Kazakhstan and dates between 298.9 ± 0.15 – 272.3 ± 0.5 Mya.

The series saw the appearance of beetles and flies and was a relatively stable warming period of about 21 million years.

European Russia

European Russia is the western part of the Russian Federation, which is part of Eastern Europe. With a population of 110 million people, European Russia has about 77% of Russia's population, but covers less than 25% of Russia's territory. European Russia includes Moscow and Saint Petersburg, the two largest cities in Russia.

The boundaries between continents are almost exclusively determined by geography, with the one exception being that the eastern boundary of Europe is generally considered, by convention, to run along the Ural Mountains, the Ural River, the Caucasus Mountains, the Turkish Straits. The southern part of Russia has some small areas that lie geographically south of the Caucasus Mountain range, and therefore are geographically in Asia; this territory includes the city of Sochi.

The other, eastern, part of the Russian Federation forms part of northern Asia, and is known as North Asia, also called Asian Russia or Siberia. Europe also forms a subcontinent within Eurasia,

making all of Russia a part of the Eurasian continent.

Kushva

Kushva (Russian: Кушва) is a town in Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russia, located in the Ural Mountains near Yekaterinburg. Population: 30,167 (2010 Census); 35,555 (2002 Census); 43,096 (1989 Census).

Magyar

Magyar may refer to:

A nation and an ethnic group associated with the Hungarian people

Magyar tribes, fundamental political units of Hungarians between the period of leaving the Ural Mountains and the entrance of the Carpathian Basin

Hungarian language

Mount Narodnaya

Mount Narodnaya (also known as Naroda and Poenurr; Russian: Гора Народная, На'рода-Из; "People's Mountain") is the highest peak of the Urals in Russia. Its elevation is 1,894 metres (6,214 ft). It is in Khanty–Mansi Autonomous Okrug in Tyumen Oblast, 0.5 km to east from the border of Komi Republic. The name refers to Naroda River, which originates from the mount, located in the Research Range.

It is the highest point in European Russia outside the Caucasus. This leads to its large topographic prominence of 1,772 metres (5,814 ft).

Narodnaya is located in the Ural mountains water divide, and therefore on the border between Europe and Asia: the Naroda river flows south-east from the summit into the Ob river in Siberia, and the Kos'yu river flows north-west from the summit into the Pechora river in Europe.

The mountain is formed with quartzites and metamorphosed slates of the Proterozoic Eon and Cambrian Period. There are some glaciers on the mountain. Also, there are sparse forests of larch and birch in the deep valleys at the foot of the mountain. The slopes of the mountain are covered with highland tundra.

The easiest route to the summit is a technically easy hike on the moderate north-west slope. Depending on snow and ice conditions, crampons may be required. The south wall of Narodnaya is steeper and less commonly used to reach the summit.

Mount Yamantau

Yamantau (Bashkir: Ямантау, Russian: гора Ямантау) is a mountain in the Ural Mountains, located in Beloretsky District, Bashkortostan, Russia. Standing at 1,640 metres (5,381 ft) it is the highest mountain in the Southern Ural section, and is featured within the South Ural Nature Reserve.

Yamantau is notable as the subject of claims by the United States that a secret extensive bunker complex of the Russian government or Russian Armed Forces is contained within the mountain, equivalent to the Cheyenne Mountain Complex.

North Asia

North Asia or Northern Asia (Russian: Северная Азия, lit. 'Severnaya Aziya'), sometimes also referred to as Siberia or Eurasia, is partly a subregion of Asia, consisting of the Russian regions east of the Ural Mountains: Siberia, Ural and the Russian Far East. The region is sometimes also known as Asian Russia (as opposed to the smaller but more densely populated European Russia to the west). North Asia is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the west by Eastern Europe, to the south by Central and East Asia and to the east by the Pacific Ocean and North America. North Asia covers an area of approximately 13,100,000 square kilometres (5,100,000 sq mi) or 8.8% of the earth's land area, or 1.5 times the size of Brazil. It is the largest subregion of Asia by area, but is also the least populated, with an approximate total population of only 33 million people or 0.74% of Asia’s population. North Asia is solely administrated by Russia, and makes up more than 75% of the territory of the country, but only 22% of its population, at a density of 2.5 people per km2 (6.5 per sq mi). The region of Western Siberia and occasionally Kazakhstan is usually called Northwestern Asia or Northwest Asia; (Russian: Северо-Западная Азия, lit. 'Severo-zapadnaya Aziya'), although the name sometimes refers to Caucasus or nearby provinces.

Topographically, the region is dominated by the Eurasian Plate, except for its eastern part, which lies on the North American, Amurian and Okhotsk Plates. It is divided by three major plains: the West Siberian Plain, Central Siberian Plateau and Verhoyansk-Chukotka collision zone. The Uralian orogeny in the west raised Ural Mountains, the informal boundary between Europe and Asia. Tectonic and volcanic activities are frequently occurred in the eastern part of the region as part of the Ring of Fire, evidenced by the formation of island arc such as Kuril Islands and ultra-prominent peaks such as Klyuchevskaya Sopka, Kronotsky and Koryaksky. The central part of North Asia is a large igneous province called the Siberian Traps, formed by a massive eruption occurred 250 million years ago.

European influences, especially Russian, are strong in the southwestern and central part of the region, due to its high Russian population from Eastern Europe which began to settle the area in the 18th-century CE. The southeastern part is historically under the influence of East Asian cultural sphere, especially the Chinese. Indigenous cultures are mostly strong in the eastern and southern part of the region due to concentrated population of indigenous ethnicities. In recent years there are growing number of movements by the indigenous peoples of the region to preserve its culture from extinction. The region is the home of different peoples such as Turkic, Tungusic and Uralic peoples.

Pechora River

The Pechora River (Russian: Печо́ра; Komi: Печӧра; Nenets: Санэроˮ яха) is a river in northwest Russia which flows north into the Arctic Ocean on the west side of the Ural Mountains. It lies mostly in the Komi Republic but the northernmost part crosses the Nenets Autonomous Okrug.

Perm Governorate

Perm Governorate (Russian: Пермская губерния) was an administrative unit of the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union from 1781 to 1923. It was located on both slopes of the Ural Mountains, and its administrative center was the city of Perm. The region gave its name to the Permian period.

Southern Ural

Southern Ural - the south, the widest part of the Ural Mountains, stretches from the river Ufa (near the village of Lower Ufaley) to the Ural River. From the west and east of the Southern Ural is limited to the East European, West Siberian Plain and the steppes near Aral Sea and Caspian sea.

The highest peak - Mount Yamantau - 1640 m. Due to the wide abutting the foothills of the Southern Ural extends up to 250 km with an average width of the Ural Mountains from 40 to 150 km.

The length of the Southern Ural - 550 km.

The relief of the Southern Ural is more complex, with numerous valleys and parallel ridges directed south-west and meridionally. The range includes the Ilmensky Mountains separated from the main ridges by the Miass River. The maximum height is 1,640 m (5,380 ft) (Mount Yamantau) and the width reaches 250 km (160 mi). Other notable peaks lie along the Iremel mountain ridge (Bolshoy Iremel and Maly Iremel). The Southern Urals extend some 550 km (340 mi) up to the sharp westward bend of the Ural River and terminate in the wide Mughalzhar Hills.

Tura River

The Tura River (Russian: Тура́), also known as Dolgaya River (Long River, Russian: Долгая) is a historically important Siberian river which flows eastward from the central Ural Mountains into the Tobol River, a part of the Ob River basin. The main town on it is Tyumen.

Ural (region)

Ural (Russian: Ура́л) is a geographical region located around the Ural Mountains, between the East European and West Siberian plains. It is considered a part of Eurasian Steppe, extending approximately from the North to the South; from the Arctic Ocean to the end of Ural River near Orsk city. The border between Europe and Asia runs along the Eastern side of the Ural Mountains. Ural mostly lies within Russia but also includes a small part of Northwestern Kazakhstan. This is a historical, not an official entity, with borders overlapping its Western Volga and Eastern Siberia neighboring regions. At some point in the past, parts of the currently existing Ural region were considered a gateway to Siberia, or even Siberia itself, and were combined with the Volga administrative divisions. Today, there are two official namesake entities; the Ural Federal District and the Ural economic region. While the latter follows the historical borders, the former is a political product; the District omits Western Ural and includes Western Siberia instead.

The historical center of the Ural is Cherdyn, nowadays it is a small town in Perm Krai.

Perm was an administrative center of the gubernia with the same name by 1797. The most territory of historical and modern Ural was included in Perm Gubernia. The administrative center of Urals was moved to Sverdlovsk (nowadays Yekaterinburg) after Revolution and Civil war. Nowadays Ural economic region does not have an administrative and informal capital, whereas Yekaterinburg is the administrative center of the Ural Federal District.

Ural Mountains in Nazi planning

The Ural Mountains played a prominent role in Nazi planning. Adolf Hitler and the rest of the Nazi German leadership made many references to them as a strategic objective of the Third Reich to follow a decisive victory on the Eastern Front against the Soviet Union.

Ural River

The Ural (Russian: Урал, pronounced [ʊˈraɫ]), known as Yaik (Russian: Яик, Bashkir: Яйыҡ, translit. Yayıq, pronounced [jɑˈjɯq]; Kazakh: Жайық, translit. Jaıyq, جايىق, pronounced [ʑɑˈjəq]) before 1775, is a river flowing through Russia and Kazakhstan in Eurasia. It originates in the southern Ural Mountains and discharges into the Caspian Sea. At 2,428 kilometres (1,509 mi), it is the third-longest river in Europe after the Volga and the Danube, and the 18th-longest river in Asia. The Ural River is conventionally considered part of the boundary between the continents of Europe and Asia.

The Ural River arises near Mount Kruglaya in the Ural Mountains, flows south parallel and west of the north-flowing Tobol River, through Magnitogorsk, and around the southern end of the Urals, through Orsk where it turns west for about 300 kilometres (190 mi), to Orenburg, when the Sakmara River joins. From Orenburg it continues west, passing into Kazakhstan, then turning south again at Oral, and meandering through a broad flat plain until it reaches the Caspian a few miles below Atyrau, where it forms a fine digitate delta at (46°53′N 51°37′E).

Uralian orogeny

The Uralian orogeny refers to the long series of linear deformation and mountain building events that raised the Ural Mountains, starting in the Late Carboniferous and Permian periods of the Palaeozoic Era, c. 323–299 and 299–251 Mya respectively, and ending with the last series of continental collisions in Triassic to early Jurassic times. In terms of plate tectonics, the Uralian orogeny resulted from a southwestern movement of the Siberian plate, catching a smaller landmass, Kazakhstania, between it and the nearly completely assembled supercontinent, Pangaea. The mountains of Eastern Europe on the paleocontinent Laurussia, and those of Western Siberia both rose as the edge of Kazakhstania dove under the European plate. This event was the last stage in the assembly of Pangaea.The region affected by the orogeny, the Uralian orogenic belt, is usually thought of as the boundary between Europe and Asia. It extends from the Aral Sea to Novaya Zemlya, and it includes in addition to the Ural Mountains, the Pay-Khoy Ridge and the Mugodzhar Hills of northwest Kazakhstan. Its total length is about 3,500 kilometres (2,200 mi), of which the Ural Mountains are about 2,500 km (1,600 mi).At the latitude of the Middle-Urals Ring Structure (c. 56° N, between Perm and Ufa) the Ural mountains have a eastward-convex bend. It has been proposed that the Precambrian Middle-Uralian Ring Structure caused a disturbance in the orogeny leading to the formation the bend.

Verkhoturye

Verkhoturye (Russian: Верхоту́рье) is a historical town and the administrative center of Verkhotursky District of Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russia, located in the middle Ural Mountains on the left bank of the Tura River 306 kilometers (190 mi) north of Yekaterinburg. Population: 8,820 (2010 Census); 7,815 (2002 Census; 8,973 (1989 Census); 10,900 (1967).

Virgin Komi Forests

The Virgin Komi Forests is a natural UNESCO World Heritage site in the Northern Ural Mountains of the Komi Republic, Russia. At 32,800 km² it is the largest virgin forest in Europe.

West Siberian Plain

The West Siberian Plain, also known as Zapadno-sibirskaya Ravnina, (Russian: За́падно-Сиби́рская равни́на) is a large plain that occupies the western portion of Siberia, between the Ural Mountains in the west and the Yenisei River in the east, and by the Altay Mountains on the southeast. Much of the plain is poorly drained and consists of some of the world's largest swamps and floodplains. Important cities include Omsk, Novosibirsk, Tomsk and Chelyabinsk.

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