Ural (region)

Ural (Russian: Ура́л) is a geographical region located around the Ural Mountains, between the East European and West Siberian plains. It is considered a part of Eurasian Steppe, extending approximately from the North to the South; from the Arctic Ocean to the end of Ural River near Orsk city. The border between Europe and Asia runs along the Eastern side of the Ural Mountains.[3] Ural mostly lies within Russia but also includes a small part of Northwestern Kazakhstan. This is a historical, not an official entity, with borders overlapping its Western Volga and Eastern Siberia neighboring regions. At some point in the past, parts of the currently existing Ural region were considered a gateway to Siberia, or even Siberia itself, and were combined with the Volga administrative divisions. Today, there are two official namesake entities; the Ural Federal District and the Ural economic region. While the latter follows the historical borders, the former is a political product; the District omits Western Ural and includes Western Siberia instead.

The historical center of the Ural is Cherdyn, nowadays it is a small town in Perm Krai. Perm was an administrative center of the gubernia with the same name by 1797. The most territory of historical and modern Ural was included in Perm Gubernia. The administrative center of Urals was moved to Sverdlovsk (nowadays Yekaterinburg) after Revolution and Civil war. Nowadays Ural economic region does not have an administrative and informal capital, whereas Yekaterinburg is the administrative center of the Ural Federal District.[1]

Ural Mountains Map 2
Ural geographical region

Etymology

From the 11th century, the region of the Ural Mountains was called "stone" by Russians. In the mid-16th – early 17th century, the southern parts became known as Ural, which later spread to the entire area. The name probably originated from Turkic "aral". This word literally means "island" and was used for any territory different from the surrounding terrain. In Bashkortostan there is a 13th-century legend about a hero named Ural. He sacrificed his life for the sake of his people, and they poured a stone pile over his grave, which later turned into the Ural Mountains.[3]

Topography

Iset - view from Three Caves (left)
Iset River near Kamensk-Uralsky.

By topography and other natural features, Ural is divided, from north to south, into the Polar (or Arctic), Near-Polar (or Sub-Arctic), Northern, Central and Southern parts. The Polar Ural has an area of about 25,000 km2 and a strongly dissected relief. The Near-Polar Ural is wider (up to 150 km) and higher than the Polar Ural. The Northern Ural consists of a series of parallel ridges with the height up to 1,000–1,300 m and longitudinal depressions, which are elongated from north to south. The Central Ural is the lowest part of Urals, with the highest mountain of 994 m (Basegi) and a smooth relief. The relief of Southern Ural is more complex, with numerous valleys and ridges directed south-west and meridionally.[3][4]

Geology

Urals contains 48 species of economically valuable ores and minerals. Eastern regions are rich in chalcopyrite, nickel oxide, chromite and magnetite ores, as well as in coal (Chelyabinsk Oblast), bauxite, gold and platinum. Western Ural contains deposits of coal, oil, gas and potassium salts. The speciality of Urals is precious and semi-precious stones, such as emerald, amethyst, aquamarine, jasper, rhodonite, malachite and diamond.[3]

Climate

The climate of Ural is continental. The ridges of the Ural Mountains are elongated from north to south, they effectively absorb sunlight thereby increasing the temperature. The areas west to the Ural Mountains are 1–2 °C warmer in winter than the eastern regions because the former are warmed by the Atlantic winds whereas the eastern slopes are chilled by the Siberian air masses. The average January temperatures increase in the western areas from –20 °C in the Polar to –15 °C in the Southern Urals and the corresponding temperatures in July are 10 °C and 20 °C. The western areas also received more rainfall than the eastern ones by 150–300 mm per year. The highest precipitation (1000 mm) is in the Northern Ural that causes the average height of snow up to 90 cm. The eastern parts receive from 500–600 mm on the north to 300–400 mm on the south.[3]

Rivers and lakes

Maksimovsky rock Chusovaya river
Chusovaya River

Most Ural rivers belong to the basin of the Arctic Ocean. They include Tobol, Iset, Tura, Pechora, Lozva and Severnaya Sosva Rivers. The southern rivers – Ural, Kama, Belaya and Chusovaya Rivers – belong to the Caspian Sea basin. Western rivers, especially north-western ones, are more affluent. They have high and long (2–3 months) floods in May–June (June–July in the Polar Ural). The south-eastern rivers are much narrower and may dry up in summer. Rivers are fed by melting snow and precipitations. The largest lakes are on the east of the Central and Southern Urals. They include Tawatui, Argazi, Uvildy and Turgoyak. The deepest lake (136 m) is Bolshoe Schuchye. Rivers and lakes are used as a water supply, transport routes and for waterlogging. Some rivers have dams forming the Kama and Votkinsk Reservoirs.[3][4]

Flora

The landscapes of Ural change both in the latitudinal and vertical directions and are dominated by steppes and forests. Steppes lie mostly in the southern and especially south-eastern Urals. Meadow steppes have developed in the lower parts of mountain slopes and are covered with various clovers, daisies, filipendula, meadow-grass and foxtail millet, reaching the height of 60–80 cm. Many lands are cultivated. Moving to the south, the meadow steppes become more sparse, dry and low. The steep gravelly slopes of mountains and hills of eastern slopes of the Southern Ural are mostly covered with rocky steppes. Valleys of the rivers contain willow, poplar and caragana shrubs.[3]

Aurora Near Novy Urengoy
Aurora in Northern Ural

Forest landscapes of Urals are diverse, especially the southern part. The western areas are dominated by dark coniferous taiga forests which change to mixed and deciduous forests on the south. The eastern mountain slopes have light coniferous taiga forests. Southern Ural is most diverse in the forest composition; here together with coniferous forests also abundant are other tree species such as larch, oak, birch, maple and elm. The Northern Ural is dominated by Siberian species of fir, cedar, spruce and pine. Forests are much more sparse in Polar Ural. Whereas in other Ural Mountains areas they grow up to the heights of 1 km, the forests cease at 250–400 m in the Polar Urals. The polar forests are low and are mixed with swamps, lichens, bogs and shrubs. Abundant are dwarf birch, mosses and berries (blueberry, cloudberry, black crowberry, etc.).[3]

Fauna

Ural forests are inhabited by animals typical of Siberia, such as elk, brown bear, fox, wolf, wolverine, lynx, squirrel and sable (north only). In the Central Ural, one can meet a rare mixture of sable and pine marten named kidus. In the Southern Ural frequent are badger and black polecat. Reptiles and amphibians live mostly in the Southern and Central Ural and are represented by the common viper, lizards and grass snakes. Bird species are represented by capercaillie, black grouse, hazel grouse, spotted nutcracker and cuckoos. In the summer, South and Central Urals are visited by songbirds, such as nightingale and redstart.[3][4]

Steppes of the Southern Urals are dominated by hares and rodents such as gophers, susliks and jerboa. There are many birds of prey such as lesser kestrel and buzzards. The animals of the Polar Ural are characteristic of the tundra and include fox, lemming and reindeer. The birds of those areas include rough-legged buzzard, snowy owl and rock ptarmigan.[3][4]

Astronomical events

2013 Russian meteor event

At around 9:20 a.m. on Friday, February 15, 2013, an astronomical incident occurred, known as the 2013 Russian meteor event. A fiery meteor, roughly 55 feet wide, weighing at least 10,000 tons and travelling at a speed of 30,000 miles per hour, burst through earth's atmosphere over the Ural Mountains. The news media reported that the meteor's deafening shock wave packed the punch of a 500-kiloton explosion, and was so powerful that it shattered windows and collapsed walls, damaging 4,000 buildings and injuring 1,491 people, the majority of whom were caught in the shards of flying glass. Of the people injured, 311 were children who were at school at the time. Small rocky meteorite fragments were discovered near an eight-metre crater, believed to have been created by the impact, in an ice-covered reservoir near the town of Chebarkul. The overall resulting damage from the shock wave was estimated at $33,000,000.

History

The first people appeared on the Ural at the end of the Early Paleolithic period (about 75 thousand years ago). Several sites were discovered from the late Paleolithic (35–10 thousand years ago) including the Kapova Cave. In the Neolithic period, tribes have formed which became the basis of the Uralic language community, and mixed (Mongoloid, europoid) anthropological type. Around the same time, farming and animal husbandry develop in the Southern Ural. Manufacture of copper and bronze started in the early 2nd millennium BC and production of iron was developed around the 8th–7th centuries BC.[3]

Medezavodmiass
Dam of the copper smelter in Miass.

At the beginning of the 2nd millennium, the primitive society of Ural started transforming to feudal relations. Around the 14th century, the feudal state Great Perm was created west to the Northern Ural. Russian started moving to Ural in the 11th century, mostly from the Novgorod areas. They became active around the 14th century when a number of settlements were established in the Northern Ural and attributed to Veliky Novgorod. Their ownership went to the Moscow state in 1471, together with lands around the Kama River. After the defeat of Khanate of Kazan in 1552, the Russian influence expanded to the most parts of Bashkortostan and Udmurtia.[3]

1910Верх-исетский завод
Iset ironworks factory near Yekaterinburg, established in 1726 (photo of 1910).

In the 17th century, Ural became inhabited by Slavs who brought advanced farming technique and craftsmanship. This changed the lifestyle of the area and quenches the past armed conflicts. Grain-based agriculture, small-scale industries (wood, leather, pottery, blacksmithing, etc.) and a network of markets spread over Ural. The salt industry was developed in Solikamsk. At the same time, the national and social oppression started of the indigenous people of the area, such as Mansi, Khanty and Bashkirs.[3]

Orenburg cossacks with camels
Orenburg Cossacks with camels, 19th century.

In the 17th century rich and high-quality mineral deposits were discovered in the Ural region. First iron and copper smelters were founded by the mid-17th century. The area was recognized by the Russian government as a strategic source of raw materials. More than 60 factories were built in the first half of the 18th century and this number doubled in the 1750–60s. The industrial activity declined in the early 19th century due to the crisis of the feudal system in Russia, and the growth slowed down in all areas except for the gold mining. The largest industrial and commercial centers were Perm, Yekaterinburg, Orenburg, Ufa, Kungur and Irbit. Irbit hosted the biggest fair of the Urals. In the 1840s, regular commercial navigation started on the Kama River.[3]

As a result of the Emancipation reform of 1861, most Ural farmers lost more than half of their personal lands. First joint-stock companies appeared on the Ural in the second half of the 19th century, including those with foreign capital. Many old ironworks were reconstructed and a number of new ones were built. The development accelerated not only in the traditional gold and platinum industries, but also in the coal mining and engineering. Mechanical factories were established in Yekaterinburg, Perm, Izhevsk and others cities, and chemical industry was developed in Berezniki. Nevertheless, Ural lost its status of the main metallurgical area to the South of Russia. The end of 19th century saw a rapid growth of the Ural cities and of the anti-capitalist movements. The long-term exploitation of the factory workers resulted in establishment of Social Democratic committees demanding improvements of working conditions. Those activities peaked around the period of the political collapse of the 1910's in Russia. This brought a severe industrial crisis, fuel shortages, disruption of transport, reduction of agricultural production and the deterioration of the life conditions. The October Revolution brought numerous benefits to the workers, but was followed by the years of Civil Wars (1917–19). The situation improved only after 1920. In 1920–21, the industrial production was at the 12% level of that in 1913, but by 1925–26 it recovered to 93% and in 1937 reached 700%. New giant plants were raised in Magnitogorsk (1932, iron and steel production), Bereznikovskiy (1932, Chemistry), Sverdlovsk (1933, Heavy Machinery), Chelyabinsk (1933, tractors), Solikamsk (1934, potassium), Krasnokamsk (1936, pulp and paper), Novotagilsk (metallurgy) and others. In 1929, oil was discovered in the Kama River basin and its production began in 1932 in Bashkortostan.[3]

During World War II (1941–45) Ural became the industrial backbone of Russia as most important industrial enterprises were evacuated there from the western Russia occupied by Germans. From the summer to winter of 1941, 667 factories were moved to Ural and by the end of 1941 Ural accounted for 62% of the Soviet iron production. The Ural's industrial production increased 3 times in 1943 relatively to 1941 and the military production increased 6 times. During the war, Ural accounted for 40% of the Soviet military production. Three Ural's plants gave 66% of Soviet tanks and mobile artillery units. The annual increase of production was about 50%. In 1946, most plants were converted into non-military directions.[3]

Ethnic composition

The Northern Urals is home to Uralic speaking people like Udmurts, Mari, Komi, Mansi and Khanty people. The indigenous population of the Polar Urals consists of the Nenets and Samoyedic peoples who are widespread through the Siberia and have their own languages. Bashkirs form the largest indigenous group of the region. They live in the Southern Ural and speak a language of the Turkic group. Kazakhs are another significant national fraction of the Southern Ural. Many northern tribals still continue their traditional activities, including fishing, hunting and animal husbandry (reindeer). The nomadic people of the south used to breed horses, but are mostly settled now and are involved in agriculture, especially growth of wheat, potato, melons and watermelons. The majority of the Urals population (about 80%) is however Russians, who are mostly concentrated in the cities of the Central and Southern Urals and are involved in the industry.[4]

Current administrative divisions of Urals

Subdivision (major city) Economic region[2] Federal District[1]
Bashkortostan Republic (Ufa) Ural Volga
Chelyabinsk Oblast (Chelyabinsk) Ural Ural
Kurgan Oblast (Kurgan) Ural Ural
Orenburg Oblast (Orenburg) Ural Volga
Perm Krai (Perm) Ural Volga
Sverdlovsk Oblast (Yekaterinburg) Ural Ural
Tyumen Oblast (Tyumen) West Siberia Ural
Khanty–Mansi Autonomous Okrug (Khanty-Mansiysk) West Siberia Ural
Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug (Salekhard) West Siberia Ural
Udmurt Republic (Izhevsk) Ural Volga

The table (see also maps above) reveals that the Ural Federal District and Ural economical region are rather different entities, which geographically differ from the Urals, even though the Urals is not well defined geographically. In particular, those entities include parts of Volga and Siberia, and do not include areas belonging to Kazakhstan. Meanwhile, the southern part of the Ural Mountains (including Mugodzhar Mountains) does belong to Kazakhstan.[4]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c "Указ Президента РФ от 13 мая 2000 г. N 849 "О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе" (Decree No 849 by the President of Russia on 13 May 2000)" (in Russian).
  2. ^ a b "Ural economic region" (in Russian). Great Soviet Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 24 December 2010.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p "Ural (geographical)". Great Soviet Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 18 September 2014. Retrieved 31 May 2016.
  4. ^ a b c d e f Ural Mountains, Encyclopædia Britannica on-line

Coordinates: 60°00′N 60°00′E / 60.000°N 60.000°E

Acleris kochiella

Acleris kochiella is a moth of the family Tortricidae. It is found in most of Europe, Kazakhstan, the Ural region, Irkutsk and China.

The wingspan is 15–18 mm. Adults are on the wing from June to July and in September. There are two generations per year.

The larvae feed on Ulmus species. They feed on folded or spun leaves.

Central Ural Publishing House

The Central Ural Publishing House (Russian: Средне-Уральское книжное издательство, tr. Sredne-Uralskoe knizhnoe izdatelstvo), formerly the Sverdlovsk Publishing House (Russian: Свердловское книжное издательство, tr. Sverdlovskoe knizhnoe izdatelstvo) was a Soviet and Russian book publisher head-quartered in Yekaterinburg. It was established in 1920. In 1930–1940 it was the largest book publisher in the Ural region.

European route E123

European route E 123 is a Class A north-south reference European route that connects the Ural region with Central Asia, spanning 2,840 kilometres (1,760 mi).

Great Russia

Great Russia, sometimes Great Rus' (Russian: Великая Русь, Velikaya Rus', Великая Россия, Velikaya Rossiya, Великороссия, Velikorossiya), is an obsolete name formerly applied to the territories of "Russia proper", the land that formed the core of Muscovy and later Russia. This was the land to which the ethnic Russians were native and where the ethnogenesis of (Great) Russians took place. The name is said to have come from the Greek Μεγάλη Ῥωσ(σ)ία, Megálē Rhōs(s)ía used by Byzantines for the northern part of the lands of Rus'.

From 1654–1721, Russian Tsars adopted the word - their official title included the wording (literal translation): "The Sovereign of all Rus': the Great, the Little, and the White".

Similarly, the terms Great Russian language (Великорусский язык, Velikorusskiy yazyk) and Great Russians (Великороссы, Velikorossy) were employed by ethnographers and linguists in the 19th century, but have since fallen out of use.

However, the area became, together with the Volga-Ural region, North Caucasus and Siberia, the Russian SFSR, while Little Russia and White Russia became the Ukrainian SSR and the Byelorussian SSR respectively.

Idel-Ural

Idel-Ural (Tatar: Идел-Урал, Russian: Идель-Урал) literally Volga-Ural is a historical region in Eastern Europe, in what is today Russia. The name literally means Volga-Urals in the Tatar language. The frequently used Russian variant is Volgo-Uralye (Russian: Волго-Уралье). The term Idel-Ural is often used to designate 6 republics of Russia of this region: Bashkortostan, Chuvashia, Mari El, Mordovia, Tatarstan, and Udmurtia, especially in Tatar-language literature or in the context of minority languages.Idel-Ural is at the center of the Volga Federal District (Поволжье, Povolzhye). The major religions in the region are Islam and Orthodox Christianity.

Before being conquered by the Tsardom of Russia in the 16th century, the region was dominated by native Uralic tribes and a succession of Turkic empires, such as Volga Bulgaria, the Khazars, the Golden Horde, and the Khanate of Kazan.

Islam in the Soviet Union

The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a federation made up of 15 soviet socialist republics, and existed from 1922 until its dissolution in 1991. Six of the 15 republics had a Muslim majority: Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kirghizia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. There was also a large Muslim population in the Volga-Ural region and in the northern Caucasus region of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. A large number of Tatar Muslims also lived in Siberia and other regions.In forming the USSR, the Bolsheviks wanted to include as much territory of the former Russian Empire as possible. This meant they were faced with conflict in attempting to establish communism in regions with strong Islamic influences. While actively encouraging atheism in the USSR, Soviet authorities allowed limited religious activities in the six Muslim republics. Mosques operated in most large cities within these territories, though the number decreased dramatically from 25,000 in 1917 to 500 in the 1970s.

In 1989, as part of the relaxation of religious restrictions by the USSR, some additional Muslim associations were formed, and a number of the mosques that had been closed by the government were reopened. The Soviet government also announced plans to permit the education of a limited number of imams in the cities of Ufa and Baku.

By this time, Islam was the second-largest religion within the USSR, with between 45 and 50 million people identifying themselves as Muslims. However, only about 500 mosques were in operation and Soviet law forbade Islamic religious activity outside these mosques and Islamic schools. All of these facilities were supervised by four "spiritual directorates" established by the Soviet government to provide oversight. The Spiritual Directorate for Central Asia and Kazakhstan, the Spiritual Directorate for the European Soviet Union and Siberia, and the Spiritual Directorate for the Northern Caucasus and Dagestan oversaw Sunni Muslims, while the Spiritual Directorate for Transcaucasia dealt with both Sunni and Shia Muslims. The majority of the Muslims within the USSR were Sunnis, with only about 10% Shia Muslims, most of whom lived in Azerbaijan.

Kara River

The Kara River (Russian: Ка́ра) is a river draining to the Arctic Kara Sea in Northern Siberia. It flows through the Pay-Khoy Mountains in the Polar Ural region, and makes parts of the borders between the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug. Nenets Autonomous Okrug and the Komi Republic

The length of the river, from the confluence of the Malaya and Bolshaya Kara to the mouth in the Baydaratskaya Bay is 257 kilometres (160 mi). The settlement of Ust-Kara is near the river mouth. The name of the river is derived from Nenets word meaning "hummocked ice".

Old Tatar language

The Old Tatar language (İske imlâ: يسكى تاتار تلى, translit. İske Tatar Tele, also Old Bashkir language, Volga Turki) was a literary language used among the some ethnic groups of Volga-Ural region (Tatars, Bashkirs and others) from the Middle Ages till the 19th century. It was a regional variety of Turki, a written Turkic language used throughout the Muslim Turkic world.

Old Tatar is a member of the Kipchak (or Northwestern) group of Turkic languages, although it is partly derived from the ancient Bulgar language (the first poem, considered to be written by Qol Ghali in Old Tatar dates back to Volga Bulgaria's epoch). It included many Persian and Arabic loans.

In its written form the language was spelled uniformly among different ethnic groups, speaking different Turkic languages of the Kipchak group, but pronunciation differed from one people to another, approximating to the spoken language, making this written form universal for different languages. The main reason for this universal usage was that the principal differences between the languages of the Kipchak group are in the pronunciation of the vowels, which was not adequately represented by the Arabic script.

The language formerly used the Arabic script and later its variant İske imlâ. The Old Tatar Language is a language of Idel-Ural poetry and literature. With the Ottoman Turkish, Azeri, Kipchak, Uigur and Chagatai, they were the only Turkic literary languages used in the Middle Ages. It was actively used in publishing until 1905, when the first Tatar newspaper started being published in modern Tatar, which until then had been used only in a spoken form.

Orenburg Muslim Spiritual Assembly

The Orenburg Muslim Spiritual Assembly (Russian: Оренбургское магометанское духовное собрание) was a state-controlled religious administration in the Russian Empire that had jurisdiction over certain aspects of Islamic activity in Siberia, the Volga-Ural region, and parts of Central Asia, including the Kazakh steppe. It was established in 1788 by order of Russian Empress Catherine II.

TIZ (motorcycle)

TIZ (ТИЗ; Russian: Таганрогслий инструментальный завод No. 65 им. т. Сталина, lit. 'Taganrogskiy Instrumentalniy Zavod No. 65 named after Stalin') was a motorcycle manufacturer.

Following the German Invasion of the Soviet Union, the plant was transferred east to the town of Tyumen in the Ural region and became known as TMZ (ТМЗ; Russian: Тюменский мотоциклетный завод, romanized: Tyumenskiy Mototsikletniy Zavod).

Trifurcula beirnei

Trifurcula beirnei is a moth of the Nepticulidae family. It is found in Great Britain, Denmark and parts of Germany, Poland, Austria, the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary. It is also found in the Volga and Ural region of Russia.

The wingspan is 8–11 mm. Adults are on wing from the end of June to late September.

The larvae feed on Genista species, including Genista tinctoria, Genista germanica and Genista pilosa.

Turkestan Front

The Turkestan Front (Russian: Туркестанский фронт) was a front of the Red Army during the Russian Civil War, which was formed on the territory of Turkestan Military District by Order of the Republic of Turkestan on February 23, 1919. It was formed a second time by the directive of the Commander-in-Chief on August 11, 1919 on the territory of Samara, Astrakhan, Orenburg Province and Ural region by renaming the Southern group of armies from the Eastern Front of the RSFSR. Its headquarters were in Samara and by 1920 the Turkestan Front counted some 114,000 soldiers.

Ural

Ural may refer to:

Ural (region)

Ural Mountains

Ural River

Ural Federal District

Ural economic region

Ural Oblast (Russian Empire) (1868–1920), an administrative division of the Russian Empire and the early Russian SFSR

Ural (computer)

Ural Airlines, a Russian airline based in Yekaterinburg

Ural Automotive Plant (brand name "Ural"):

Ural-375D, a military truck manufactured by Ural Automotive Plant

Ural-4320, a military truck manufactured by Ural Automotive Plant

Ural-5323, a military truck manufactured by Ural Automotive Plant

Ural 63055 and Ural-63059, variants of Ural Typhoon, a Russian armored vehicle

Ural bomber, aircraft design program to design a long-range bomber for Luftwaffe

IMZ-Ural, a Russian motorcycle manufacturer

Murat Ural (b. 1987), Swiss soccer player

Ural (rural locality), several rural localities in Russia

Ural (ship), two Russian ships

Ural owl, a nocturnal owl found in Europe and North Asia

Ural Ocean, an ancient ocean

PBC Ural Great Perm, a basketball club in Perm, Russia

FC Ural, an association football club in Russia

Ural Ufa, a volleyball club in Ufa, Russia

14519 Ural, a main-belt asteroid

Uralsky Sovremennik, a Soviet magazine also known as Ural

Ural Federal University

The Ural Federal University named after the first President of Russia B. N. Yeltsin (Уральский федеральный университет имени первого Президента России Б.Н. Ельцина, Uralʹskiĭ federalʹnyĭ universitet imeni pervogo Prezidenta Rossii B.N. Yelʹtsina, often shortened to UrFU, УрФУ) (formed by a merger of the Ural State Technical University and Ural State University) is one of the leading educational institutions in the Ural region of Russia. Ural Federal University acts as a research and innovation center of the Ural region and cooperates with the Russian Academy of Sciences. UrFU offers educational programs in four main areas of knowledge and 108 academic majors. There are actively developed links between the university and intermediate educational institutions. UrFU also consistently works on establishing strategic partnerships with employers for the sake of development of the regional economy: employers are involved in the educational environment as direct participants, enployers-sponsored and corporate education is carried out based on the client-centered approach, joint business projects are realized in economic and social areas.

Ural Striped-maned pigeon

The Ural Striped Maned pigeon is a breed of domestic pigeon, white in color, found principally in the Ural region of Russia.

Uralic

Uralic is an adjective which refers to a group of peoples and their culture. It relates to the Ural region of Russia.

Eskimo–Uralic languages

Indo-Uralic languages

Proto-Uralic homeland hypotheses

Proto-Uralic language

Uralic languages

Uralic mythologies

Uralic neopaganism

Uralic peoples

Uralic Phonetic Alphabet

Uralic–Yukaghir languages

Volga Federal District

Volga (Privolzhsky) Federal District (Russian: Приво́лжский федера́льный о́круг, Privolzhsky federalny okrug) is one of the eight federal districts of Russia. It forms the southeastern part of European Russia. Its population was 29,899,699 (70.8% urban) according to the 2010 Census, living on an area of 1,038,000 square kilometers (401,000 sq mi). Igor Komarov was appointed the federal district's Presidential Envoy on 18 September 2018.

The historical center of the district is known as the Idel-Ural region.

Volga Tatars

The Volga Tatars are a Turkic ethnic group native to the Volga-Ural region of Russia. They are in turn subdivided into various subgroups. Volga Tatars are Russia's second-largest ethnicity, composing 53% of the population of Tatarstan and 25% of the population of Bashkortostan.

Western Army of the White Movement

The Western Separate Army (Russian: Западная отдельная армия) was an anti-Bolshevik Army on the Eastern Front during the Russian Civil War, which fought from January 1919 – July 1919 in the Siberia – Ural Region.

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