Upper Galilee

The Upper Galilee (Hebrew: הגליל העליון‎, HaGalil Ha'Elyon; Arabic: الجليل الأعلى‎, Al Jaleel Al A'alaa) is a geographical-political term in use since the end of the Second Temple period, originally referring to a mountainous area straddling present-day northern Israel and southern Lebanon, its boundaries being the Litani River in the north, the Mediterranean Sea in the west, the Lower Galilee in the south, from which it is separated by the Beit HaKerem Valley, and the upper Jordan River and the Hula Valley in the east.[1] According to 1st-century historian, Josephus, the bounds of Upper Galilee stretched from Bersabe in the Beit HaKerem Valley to Baca (Peki'in) in the north.[2] The said region contains approximately 180 square miles.[3]

In present-day Israeli terminology, the toponym is mainly used in reference to the northern part of the Galilee situated under Israeli sovereignty, i.e. without the part of Southern Lebanon up to the Litani River, while also excluding the corresponding stretches of the Coastal Plain to the west and Jordan Rift Valley to the east, which are considered separate geographical entities.

WV Upper Galilee region in Israel
The location of the Upper Galilee region in Israel

History

AinEbelWinter
Ain Ebel in the Lebanese Upper Galilee

Following the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire and the Balfour Declaration in which the British Empire promised to create "A Jewish National Home" in Palestine, the Zionist Movement presented to the Versailles Peace Conference a document calling for including in the British Mandate of Palestine the entire territory up to the Litani river — with a view to this becoming eventually part of a future Jewish state.

In the event, only less than half this area came to be actually included in British Mandatory Palestine, the final border being influenced both by diplomatic maneuverings and struggles between Britain and France and by fighting on the ground, especially the March 1920 battle of Tel Hai.

For a considerable time after the border was defined so to make the northern portion of the territory concerned part of the French mandated territory that became Lebanon, many Zionist geographers — and Israeli geographers in the state's early years — continued to speak of "The Upper Galilee" as being "the northern sub-area of the Galilee region of Israel and Lebanon".

Under this definition, "The Upper Galilee" covers an area spreading over 1,500 km², about 700 in Israel and the rest in Lebanon. This included the highland region of Belad Bechara in Jabal Amel located in South Lebanon, [4] which was at for some time known in Hebrew as "The Lebanese Galilee".[1] As defined in geographical terms, "it is separated from the Lower Galilee by the Beit HaKerem valley; its mountains are taller and valleys are deeper than those in the Lower Galilee; its tallest peak is Har Meron at 1,208 m above sea level. Safed is one of the major cities in this region".

In recent decades, however, this usage has virtually disappeared from the general Israeli discourse, the term "Upper Galilee" being used solely in reference to the part located in Israel.

A panoramic view taken from mount Ari in the Upper Galilee towards the Lower Galilee
A panoramic view taken from mount Ari in the Upper Galilee towards the Lower Galilee

Gallery

Upper Galilee 123

Mountainous area in the Upper Galilee

Baydar

Ain Ebel in the Lebanese Upper Galilee

Meron 124PAN

A view looking north from the top of Har Meron in the Upper Galilee. Parts of southern Lebanon are visible in the background

GalileeRoshPina

Old road from Rosh Pinna to Safed, Upper Galilee, Israel

PikiWiki Israel 4518 Keshet Cave

The Keshet cave (a natural arch) located on a ridge near Nahal Betzet

Lemon Orchard in the Galilee by David Shankbone

An orchard in Upper Galilee

AmudHorses

Horses roam in Amud stream, near the Sea of Galilee

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Vilnai, Ze'ev (1976). "Upper Galilee". Ariel Encyclopedia (in Hebrew). Volume 2. Israel: Am Oved. pp. 1364–67.
  2. ^ M. Aviam & P. Richardson, "Josephus' Galilee in Archaeological Perspective", published in: Mason, Steve, ed. (2001). Life of Josephus. Flavius Josephus: Translation and Commentary. 9. BRILL. pp. 179;182. ISBN 9004117938.; Josephus, De Bello Judaico (Wars of the Jews) II, 577; III, 46 (Wars of the Jews 3.3.1)
  3. ^ Erich M. Meyers, "Galilean Regionalism as a Factor in Historical Reconstruction," in: Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research (No. 221, 1976), p. 95
  4. ^ Salibi, Kamal S. (1988). A House of Many Mansions: The History of Lebanon Reconsidered. London: I.B. Tauris. p. 4. ISBN 1-85043-091-8.

External links

Coordinates: 33°01′46″N 35°19′45″E / 33.02939°N 35.32928°E

2009–10 Liga Gimel

The 2009–10 Liga Gimel season saw 91 clubs competing in 7 regional divisions for promotion to Liga Bet. This was the first season since 1998–99 that Liga Gimel was the fifth tier in the Israeli football league system.

Hapoel Shefa-'Amr (Upper Galilee), F.C. Kfar Kama (Jezreel), F.C. Givat Olga (Samaria), Maccabi Bnei Jaljulia (Sharon), Hapoel Oranit (Tel Aviv), Bnei Yichalel Rehovot (Central) and Hapoel Katamon Jerusalem (South) all won their respective divisions and were promoted to Liga Bet.

During the summer, as several vacancies were created in Liga Bet, runners-up Bnei Kabul (Upper Galilee) and Maccabi Daliyat al-Karmel (Samaria) were also promoted to Liga Bet, as well as third-placed Ironi Nesher (Samaria).

2010–11 Liga Gimel

The 2010–11 Liga Gimel season saw 92 clubs competing in 6 regional divisions for promotion to Liga Bet.

F.C. Bu'eine (Upper Galilee), F.C. Daburiyya (Jezreel), Hapoel Baqa al-Gharbiyye (Samaria), F.C. Tira (Sharon), Gadna Tel Aviv (Tel Aviv) and Maccabi Be'er Ya'akov (Central) all won their respective divisions and were promoted to Liga Bet.

During the summer, as several vacancies were created in Liga Bet, runners-up F.C. Bnei Arraba (Upper Galilee), Maccabi Ein Mahil (Jezreel) and Hapoel Hod HaSharon (Sharon) were also promoted to Liga Bet.

Ami'ad

Ami'ad (Hebrew: עַמִּיעַד) is a kibbutz in northern Israel. Located in the Korazim Plateau, it falls under the jurisdiction of Upper Galilee Regional Council. In 2017 it had a population of 425.

Dan, Israel

Dan (Hebrew: דָּן) is a kibbutz in northern Israel. Located in the north of the Hula Valley, at the foot of Mount Hermon, it falls under the jurisdiction of Upper Galilee Regional Council. In 2017 it had a population of 736.

Gadot

Gadot (Hebrew: גָּדוֹת, lit. Banks) is a kibbutz in northern Israel. Located in the Korazim Plateau, it falls under the jurisdiction of Upper Galilee Regional Council. In 2017, it had a population of 421.

Galilee

Galilee (Hebrew: הַגָּלִיל, HaGalil; Arabic: الجليل‎, romanized: al-Jalīl) is a region in northern Israel. The term Galilee traditionally refers to the mountainous part, divided into Upper Galilee (Hebrew: גליל עליון‎, romanized: Galil Elyon) and Lower Galilee (Hebrew: גליל תחתון‎, romanized: Galil Tahton).

In modern, common usage, Galilee refers to all of the area that is beyond Mount Carmel to the northeast, extending from Dan to the north, at the base of Mount Hermon, along Mount Lebanon to the ridges of Mount Carmel and Mount Gilboa north of Jenin to the south, and from the Jordan Rift Valley to the east across the plains of the Jezreel Valley and Acre to the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and the coastal plain in the west, including Beth Shean's valley, Sea of Galilee's valley, and Hula Valley, although it usually does not include Haifa's immediate northern suburbs.

By this definition it overlaps with much of the administrative Northern District of the country (which also includes the Golan Heights and part of Menashe Heights but not Qiryat Tiv'on). Western Galilee (Hebrew: גליל מערבי‎, romanized: Galil Ma'aravi) is a common term referring to the western part of the Upper Galilee and its shore, and usually also the northwestern part of the Lower Galilee, mostly overlapping with Acre sub district. Galilee Panhandle is a common term referring to the "panhandle" in the east that extends to the north, where Lebanon is to the west, and includes Hula Valley and Ramot Naftali mountains of the Upper Galilee. Historically, the part of Southern Lebanon south of the east-west section of the Litani River also belonged to the region of Galilee, but the present article mainly deals with the Israeli part of the region.

Kfar Blum

Kfar Blum (Hebrew: כְּפַר בְּלוּם, lit. Blum Village) is a kibbutz in the Hula Valley part of the Upper Galilee in Israel. Located about 6 km (4 mi) southeast of the town of Kiryat Shmona, it falls under the jurisdiction of Upper Galilee Regional Council. In 2017 it had a population of 746.

Kfar Giladi

Kfar Giladi (Hebrew: כְּפַר גִּלְעָדִי, lit. Giladi Village) is a kibbutz in the Galilee Panhandle of northern Israel. Located south of Metula on the Naftali Mountains above the Hula Valley and along the Lebanese border, it falls under the jurisdiction of Upper Galilee Regional Council. In 2017 it had a population of 670.

List of radio stations in Israel

This is a list of radio stations in Israel.

Lower Galilee

The Lower Galilee (Hebrew: הגליל התחתון‎, translit. HaGalil HaTaḥton), is a region within the Northern District of Israel. The Lower Galilee is bordered by the Jezreel Valley to the south; the Upper Galilee to the north, from which it is separated by the Beit HaKerem Valley; the Jordan Rift Valley with the Jordan River and the Sea of Galilee to the east; and to the west, a segment of the Northern Coastal Plain known as the Zebulon (Zvulun) Valley, stretching between the Carmel ridge and Acre. The Lower Galilee is the southern part of the Galilee. In Josephus' time, it was known to stretch in breadth from Xaloth (Iksal) to Bersabe, and in length from Cabul to Tiberias, a region that contains around 470 square miles. It is called "Lower" since it is less mountainous than the Upper Galilee. The peaks of the Lower Galilee rise to 500 meters above sea level. The tallest peaks are Mount Kamon (598 m) at the northern part of the Lower Galilee and Mount Tabor (588 m) in the southern part.

Ma'ayan Baruch

Ma'ayan Baruch (Hebrew: מַעְיַן בָּרוּךְ, lit. Blessed Spring) is a kibbutz in northern Israel. Located near the intersection of the Israeli, Syrian and Lebanese border, it falls under the jurisdiction of Upper Galilee Regional Council. In 2014 it had a population of 720.

Manara, Israel

Menara (Hebrew: מְנָרָה) is a kibbutz in northern Israel. Located in the Upper Galilee adjacent to the Lebanese border and overlooking the Hula Valley, it falls under the jurisdiction of Upper Galilee Regional Council. In 2017 it had a population of 244.

Misgav Am

Misgav Am (Hebrew: מִשְׂגַּב עָם, lit. Fortress of the People) is a kibbutz in the Upper Galilee in northern Israel. Located close to the border with Lebanon near the town of Kiryat Shmona, it falls under the jurisdiction of Upper Galilee Regional Council. In 2017 it had a population of 329.Misgav Am is 840 m (2,760 feet) above sea level and overlooks on one side the Hula Valley and on the other side the neighboring Lebanese village of Adaisseh.

National parks and nature reserves of Israel

National parks of Israel are declared historic sites or nature reserves, which are mostly operated and maintained by the National Nature and Parks Authority. As of 2015, Israel maintains more than 400 nature reserves that protect 2,500 species of indigenous wild plants, 32 species of fish, 530 species of birds and 100 species of mammals.Some parks are located at archaeological sites such as Tel Megiddo, Beit She'an, Ashkelon and Kursi. Others, such as the Alexander stream, Mount Carmel National Park or Hurshat Tal focus on nature and the preservation of local flora and fauna. Several parks and nature reserves have camping options, such as tent grounds and bungalows, open to small groups and individual campers. Some of them are located in the Israeli-occupied territories of the Golan Heights and the West Bank.

In 2011, the most popular national parks were Yarkon National Park, Caesarea, Ein Gedi and Tel Dan.

Neot Mordechai

Neot Mordechai (Hebrew: נְאוֹת מָרְדְּכַי) is a kibbutz in northern Israel. Located in the Upper Galilee, it falls under the jurisdiction of Upper Galilee Regional Council. In 2017 it had a population of 582.

Sasa, Israel

Sasa or Sassa (Hebrew: סָאסָא) is a kibbutz in the Upper Galilee area of northern Israel. Located one mile from the border with Lebanon, it falls under the jurisdiction of Upper Galilee Regional Council. In 2017 it had a population of 412.

Upper Galilee Mountains blind mole-rat

The Upper Galilee Mountains blind mole-rat (Spalax galili) is an extant species of subterranean rodent within the family Spalacidae, indigenous to Upper Galilee in northern Israel. Following the identification of S. galili in 2001, Nevo et al. recorded specimens in the vicinity surrounding the Kerem Ben Zimra settlement.S. galili is a model organism for the adaptation to underground conditions and has been genome sequenced in 2014.

Upper Galilee Regional Council

The Upper Galilee Regional Council (Hebrew: מוֹעָצָה אֲזוֹרִית הַגָּלִיל הַעֶלְיוֹן, translit. Mo'atza Azorit HaGalil HaElyon) is a regional council in Israel's Upper Galilee region, bordered by the Mevo'ot HaHermon Regional Council and the Golan Regional Council, as well as a border with southern Lebanon.

The municipal area has a population of 15,500 and is headed by Giora Salz since December 2012, following 14 years by veteran Aharon Valenci. Its headquarters are located in Kiryat Shmona, an independent city not included in the council's jurisdiction.

Yir'on

Yir'on (Hebrew: יִרְאוֹן) is a kibbutz in the Galilee Panhandle in northern Israel. Located adjacent to the Lebanese border, it falls under the jurisdiction of Upper Galilee Regional Council. In 2017 it had a population of 390.

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