Unrecognized ethnic groups in China

Several ethnic groups of the People's Republic of China are not officially recognized. Taken together, these groups ( wèi shíbié mínzú) number more than 730,000 people; if considered as a single group, they would constitute the twentieth most populous ethnic group of China. Some scholars have estimated that there are over 200 distinct ethnic groups that inhabit China. There are in addition small distinct ethnic groups that have been classified as part of larger ethnic groups that are officially recognized. Some groups like the Hui of Xinjiang with the Hui of Fujian are geographically and culturally separate except for the shared belief of Islam. Han Chinese being the world's largest ethnic group has a large diversity within it, such as in Gansu, the Han here may have genetic traits from the assimilated Tangut civilization. Although they are indigenous to Hainan island and do not speak a Chinese language, the Limgao (Ong-Be) people near the capital (8% of the population) are counted as Han Chinese.

Notable unrecognized ethnic groups include:

English Name
Mandarin Pinyin
Simplified Chinese
Population Classified in census as ..... Territory Details
Ongkor Wēng kuò rén 翁阔人 20 Evenki Yining County, Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang It is said that Ongkor is the smallest ethnic group in China. The 1993 survey showed that there were only 20 people.
Aynu Ài nǔ rén 艾努人 10,000 Uyghur Moyu/Hetian/Luopu/Shache/Shule/Yingjisha Counties, Hotan Prefecture, Xinjiang They speak Aynu language (Karluk subfamily). Their dominant religion is Islam (Hanafi).
Keriya Kè lǐ yǎ rén 克里雅人 1,300 Uyghur Yutian/Minfeng County, Hotan Prefecture, Xinjiang The Keriya people are said to be descendants of the Tibet Aliguge dynasty. Another is said to be a desert indigenous people living here. The natural environment determines the life style of the Keriya people in the deep Taklimakan Desert. It still retains the simple and pure folk customs. Culture and a more primitive way of life. Most of them lived together for generations. The elderly at home are the most respected elders. The tribes rarely marry outsiders. They are called "the primitive tribes in the desert."
Tomao Tuō mào rén 托茂人 500 Hui Yanqi Hui Autonomous County, Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang and Zhidoi County, Yushu Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Qinghai Distributed in Qinghai and Xinjiang, with its own unique customs, using Tomo language (a Mongolian mixed Arabic and Persian vocabulary)
Guge Gǔ gé rén 古格人 5000 Hui (Qinghai) and Tibetan (Yunnan/Tibet) Hualong Hui Autonomous County, Haidong Prefecture, Qinghai, Deqen/Weixi Counties, Diqing Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan and Lhasa, Tibet Autonomous Region It is distributed in Hualong Hui Autonomous County of Qinghai Province, Shangri-La, Deqin, Weixi County, and Lhasa City of Tibet Autonomous Region in the Diqing Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Yunnan Province. The Guge people are culturally coordinated and adapted to be compatible with and preserve multi-ethnic culture. Suddenly retain the characteristics of the Hui culture, forming a unique nation.
Kangjia Kāng jiā rén 康家人 500-600 Hui Jainca (Jianzha) County, Huangnan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Qinghai The Kangjia people s has its own language, Kangjia language. It belongs to the Mongolian language group of the Altaic language group. The lifestyle is mixed with the Hui and Tu nationalities. Therefore, the Kangjia peoples now consider themselves to be an independent nationalities, which is not the same as the surrounding people.
Manmi Màn mī rén 曼咪人 1000 Blang Jinghong County, Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Manmi people have their own language, Man Met which belongs to the Mon-Khmer (Austroasiatic) language group, and the Manmi people's housing, costumes, religious beliefs, and festivals are similar to the Yi people, but the ethnic group is classified as the Blang ethnic group. Now, Manmi people hope to be counted as an independent nation.
Kunge Kūn gé rén 昆格人 1656 (338 households) Blang Jinghong County, Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan The custom of the Kunge is different from that of the general Blang. The unique special day has the Dragon and the Dragon Festival. The Dragon Column is an iron festival. The time is in the solar calendar in February. During the festival, you must kill the cows, burn the bonfire, and worship the ancestors.
Bajia Bā jiǎ rén 八甲人 1500 Blang and Yi Yu'a/Yucha Township, Menghai County, Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Distributed in Menghai County, Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province. Those who mixed with Blang are being classified as Blang peoples while those who unmixed are being classified as Yi peoples (this happened on 2011 after approval by Chinese National Civil Affairs Commission and the Yunnan Provincial Government).
Akha Ā kǎ rén 阿卡人 6000 Hani Jinghong/Jinghan/Qilong town (Jinghong County), Bulangshan town (Menghai County) and Qilun town (Mengla County), Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan The Akha claimed to be "over gram", and Akha was the name of the Yi people (meaning "slaves").
Laopin Lǎo pǐn rén 老品人 233 (in 52 households) May be classified as Dai Menghai County, Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan The Lao Ping ethnics call themselves "old products", also known as "card products." Old people retain their own language, such as eating for "Tangza", housing for "crowding", and fluent slang. The old-fashioned housing is a Chinese-style bungalow. A unique original religion, with temples and godless statues, is held every year in the whole village.
Laomian Lǎo miǎn rén 老緬人 233 (in 52 households) Lahu Menghai County, Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan The Laomian has nothing to do with the Burmese. The Laomian people is a cross-border ethnic group distributed in the border areas of China, Thailand, Myanmar, and Laos. In China, Laojia Dazhai in Zhutang Township of Mula County and Miaohai Village in Menghai County of Mianhai County are the main settlements.
Bisu Bì sū rén 毕苏人 6000 Some are classified as Lahu while those who live in Menghai County are counted as "undistinguished nationalities" Menghai County, Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan
Muxi Mù lǎo rén 木佬人 30000 Yi Majiang/Kaili/Huangping (Qiandongnan Miao and Dong Autonomous Prefecture), Duyun/Fuquan (Qiannan Buyei and Miao Autonomous Prefecture), Guizhou and Chun'an County, Zhejiang Their language Muyu language belongs to the Kra language group, close to the proverb, but because he is close to Gelao they are being classified into the Yi.
Caizu Cài zú rén 菜族人 170 (in 32 households) Han Unknown
Chuanqing Chuān qīng rén 穿青人 670000 Han Liupanshui/Zhijin County, Bijie Prefecture, Guizhou The Chuanqings, however, view themselves as a distinct people group. Most of them live in Anshun area of Guizhou province. Other locals call the Chuanqings "Da Jiao Ban" (Big Foot) or "Da Xiuzi" (Big Sleeves). Uniquely, they worship a god called Wuxian (五显).
Caijia Cài jiā rén 蔡家人 40000 Han or Bai Guizhou Caijia people's language is said to be relative of Bai language.
Longjia Lóng jiā rén 龍家人 >500000 Han, Bai, and Bouyei Anshun Prefecture, Guizhou They are not same with Bai of Yunnan.
Mojia Mò jiā rén 莫家人 20000 Bouyei Libo County, Qiannan Buyei and Miao Autonomous Prefecture, Guizhou They speak Mak language (Kam-Sui)
Lemo Lēi mò rén 勒墨人 7000 Bai and Lisu Lushui County, Nujiang Lisu Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan They are results of intermarriage between Tai Mao (Dehong Dai/Shan) and Lisu peoples.
Deng Chēng rén 僜人 2000 May be classified as Tibetan Zayu County, Linzhi (Nyingchi), Tibet Autonomous Region They speak various Mishmi languages (including Kaman/Miju and Idu Mishmi language).
Ya Yá rén 崖人 5000000 Zhuang Baise, Guangxi
Limin Lǐ mín rén 里民人 100000 Li Anshun/Qianxinan Buyei and Miao Autonomous Prefecture, Guizhou They are not descendants of Li people of Hainan. In fact, they are part of Chuanqing people.
Bunu Bù nǔ rén 布努人 400,000 Yao Guangxi
Mang Mǎng rén 莽人 568 Blang Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan
Pakan Bù gēng rén 布赓人 2,000 Yi Wennan, Xiqiao. Wenshan, Yunnan

See also

External links


Bolyu is one of the Unrecognized ethnic groups in China.

Bolyu language (autonym: pɔ˧lju˩˧; Chinese: 巴琉语, 布流语; also known as Paliu, Palyu, or Lai 俫语, 徕语) is an Austroasiatic language of the Pakanic branch (Sidwell 1995). It is unwritten and moribund.

Chinese people

Chinese people are the various individuals or ethnic groups associated with China, usually through ancestry, ethnicity, nationality, citizenship or other affiliation. Han Chinese, the largest ethnic group in China, at about 92% of the population, are often referred to as "Chinese" or "ethnic Chinese" in English, however there are dozens of other related and unrelated ethnic groups in China.

Daman people

The Daman people (Chinese: 达曼人) was one of the unrecognized ethnic groups in China and now officially classified as Tibetans. They are descendants of Nepalese Gurkha army centuries ago and closely related to Tamang people of Nepal. Previously stateless, they were granted Chinese citizenship in 2003. Located around 30 kilometers away from the China-Nepal border in Gyirong County of Shigatse Prefecture, the Daman New Village, with a total population of 197, is the only settlement of the Daman people in China.

Ethnic minorities in China

Ethnic minorities in China are the non-Han Chinese population in China. China officially recognizes 55 ethnic minority groups within China in addition to the Han majority. As of 2010, the combined population of officially recognized minority groups comprised 8.49% of the population of mainland China. In addition to these officially recognized ethnic minority groups, there are Chinese nationals who privately classify themselves as members of unrecognized ethnic groups (such as Jewish, Tuvan, Oirat, Ili Turki, and Japanese).

The ethnic minority groups officially recognized by the PRC reside within mainland China and Taiwan, whose minorities are called the Taiwanese aborigines. The Republic of China (ROC) in Taiwan officially recognises 14 Taiwanese aborigine groups, while the PRC classifies them all under a single ethnic minority group, the Gaoshan. Hong Kong and Macau do not use this ethnic classification system, and figures by the PRC government do not include the two territories.

By definition, these ethnic minority groups, together with the Han majority, make up the greater Chinese nationality known as zhonghua minzu. Chinese minorities alone are referred to as "shaoshu minzu".

Gejia people

The Gejia (Chinese: 家人 or 革家人; Hanyu pinyin: Géjiā Rén; also Gedou) is an ethnic group of Chinese found in Guizhou province, southwestern China. They are officially classified as a part of the Miao, but have separate status in Guizhou Province. The Gejia live mainly in Qiandongnan Prefecture, in the counties of Huangping, Kaili, and Guanling. They are concentrated in the towns of Chong'an, Chong Xing, Huangpiao in Huangping and Longchang, Wanshui of Kaili. Matang is exclusively inhabited by these people. There are over 400 inhabitants in this village. The total Gejia population is approximately 50,000.

List of ethnic groups in China

Multiple ethnic groups populate China, the area claimed by both the People's Republic of China (China) and the Republic of China (Taiwan).

The Han (汉) people are the largest ethnic group in mainland China. In 2010, 91.51% of the population were classified as Han (~1.2 billion). Besides the Han-Chinese majority, 55 other ethnic (minority) groups are categorized in present China, numbering approximately 105 million people (8%), mostly concentrated in the bordering northwest, north, northeast, south, and southwest but with some in central interior areas.

The major minority ethnic groups in China are Zhuang (16.9 million), Hui (10.5 million), Manchu (10.3 million), Uyghur (10 million), Miao (9.4 million), Yi (8.7 million), Tujia (8.3 million), Tibetan (6.2 million), Mongol (5.9 million), Dong (2.8 million), Buyei (2.8 million), Yao (2.7 million), Bai (1.9 million), Korean (1.8 million), Hani (1.6 million), Li (1.4 million), Kazakh (1.4 million), and Dai (1.2 million).There are also undistinguished ethnic groups, for example: Chuanqing Ren (穿青人).

List of unrecognized ethnic groups of Guizhou

There are dozens of ethnic groups in Guizhou province of China that are not officially recognized. These ethnic groups and their languages include:

Caijia 蔡家

Chuanlan 穿兰: over 300,000 people classified as Han, in Anshun Prefecture; many also speak Bouyei and Miao

Chuanqing 穿青: 500,000–1,000,000 people classified as Han, mostly in Zhijin and Nayong, but also in Dafang, Shuicheng, Guanling, Qingzhen, Puding, and Liuzhi counties of Guizhou; has some non-Chinese loanwords

Limin 里民: 50,000–100,000 people classified as Yi and sometimes as Li, in Liuzhi, Guanling, Pu'an, Xingren, Zhenning, and Anlong counties of western Guizhou; most have shifted to Southwestern Mandarin, with few Limin speakers remaining. Also in Qinglong (Qinglong County Almanac 1993). Wang (2011) has researched ethnic Limin villages including Fanhua Village 凡化村, Pogong Township 坡贡镇, Guanling County.

Liujia 六甲: 4,000 (1999) people classified as Han, in Congjiang County, Guizhou. Hou Jingrong (2009) considers the Liujia language to be a Yue Chinese dialect. In Guangxi, Liujia is spoken in Sanjiang County (in Guyi 古宜, Zhouping 周坪, and Chengcun 程村) and Rongshui County (in Dalang 大浪 and Danian 大年乡).

Longjia 龙家

Lu 卢: 3,000–6,000 people classified as Manchu, in Dafang, Qianxi (in Fuyuan 附源村 of Jinpo 金坡乡), and Bijie counties, Guizhou; also in Anluo 安洛, Jinsha County; the Lu now speak Southwestern Mandarin. In Qianxi County, the ethnic Manchu (pop. 916 as of 1990) are known as Lu'eren 禄额子, Luren 禄人, and Yuanren 原人, and are distributed in Huangni Township 黄泥乡 of Shachang District 沙厂区, as well as Dashui 大水, Gamu 嘎木乡, and Shachang 沙厂镇. Subdivisions include the White Luren 白卢人 and Black Luren 黑卢人.

Nanjing people 南京人: 120,000 people classified as Bai, in Bijie, Dafang (in Shagou 沙沟村 and Dongfeng 东丰村), Liupanshui, Qianxi, Weining, Jinsha, Nayong, Anshun, Qingzhen, and Zhijin counties of western Guizhou; some speak the Longjia language. Ertang Township 二塘乡, Zhongshan District 钟山区 has a population of 2,262 Nanjingren, with a total of 2,936 in Liupanshui prefecture; historical names include Longjiazi 龙家子/龙架子 and Longgedou 龙格兜. Their autonym in Qianxi County is Xienan 写南, and Xiejing 写京 in Dafang County (Zhenxiong County Almanac 1987:447). In Xixiu District, Anshun, the Nanjingren are also called the Yingtian 应天. In Zhenxiong County, Yunnan, their autonyms include Awupu 阿乌浦 and Awudu 阿乌堵 (You 2013:134).

Qixingmin 七姓民

Shenzhou 神州: 4,000 (1999) people classified as Han, in Anshun Prefecture; has some non-Chinese loanwords

Tunbao 屯堡: archaic Chinese dialect spoken in Anshun Prefecture. Long, et al. (2011) covers the Tunbao dialect of Jiuxi Village, Daxiqiao Township, Anshun (安顺市大西桥镇九溪村).

Mongols in China

Chinese Mongols are citizens of China who are ethnic Mongols (Chinese: 蒙古族; pinyin: Měnggǔzú; literally: 'Mongol ethnicity'). They form one of the 55 ethnic minorities officially recognized by the People's Republic of China. There are approximately 5.8 million people classified as ethnic Mongols living in China. Most of them live in Inner Mongolia, Northeast China, Xinjiang, etc. The Mongol population in China is over twice that of the sovereign state of Mongolia.

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