Unix time (also known as POSIX time or UNIX Epoch time) is a system for describing a point in time. It is the number of seconds that have elapsed since 00:00:00 Thursday, 1 January 1970, Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), minus leap seconds. Every day is treated as if it contains exactly 86400 seconds, so leap seconds are to be subtracted since the epoch. It is used widely in Unix-like and many other operating systems and file formats. However, Unix time is not a true representation of UTC, as a leap second in UTC shares the same Unix time as the second which came before it. Unix time may be checked on most Unix systems by typing
date +%s on the command line.
On systems where Unix time is stored as a signed 32-bit number, the latest date and time that can be recorded is 2147483647 (231 − 1) seconds from 00:00:00 on 1 January 1970, which is 03:14:07 UTC on 19 January 2038. The following second, the clock will reset to negative 2147483648 (-231). This is referred to as the Year 2038 problem.
Two layers of encoding make up Unix time. The first layer encodes a point in time as a scalar real number which represents the number of seconds that have passed since 00:00:00 UTC Thursday, 1 January 1970. The second layer encodes that number as a sequence of bits or decimal digits.
As is standard with UTC, this article labels days using the Gregorian calendar, and counts times within each day in hours, minutes, and seconds. Some of the examples also show International Atomic Time (TAI), another time scheme which uses the same seconds and is displayed in the same format as UTC, but in which every day is exactly 86400 seconds long, gradually losing synchronization with the Earth's rotation at a rate of roughly one second per year.
Unix time is a single signed number which increments every second, without requiring the calculations to determine year, month, day of month, hour and minute required for intelligibility to humans.
The Unix epoch is the time 00:00:00 UTC on 1 January 1970. There is a problem with this definition, in that UTC did not exist in its current form until 1972; this issue is discussed below. For brevity, the remainder of this section uses ISO 8601 date and time format, in which the Unix epoch is 1970-01-01T00:00:00Z.
The Unix time number is zero at the Unix epoch, and increases by exactly 86400 per day since the epoch. Thus 2004-09-16T00:00:00Z, 12677 days after the epoch, is represented by the Unix time number 12677 × 86400 = 1095292800. This can be extended backwards from the epoch too, using negative numbers; thus 1957-10-04T00:00:00Z, 4472 days before the epoch, is represented by the Unix time number −4472 × 86400 = −386380800.
Within each day, the Unix time number is calculated as in the preceding paragraph at midnight UTC (00:00:00Z), and increases by exactly 1 per second since midnight. Thus, 2004-09-16T17:55:43.54Z, 64543.54 seconds since midnight on the first day in the example above, is represented by the Unix time number 1095292800 + 64543.54 = 1095357343.54. On dates before the epoch, the number still increases, thus becoming less negative as time moves forward.
Because Unix time is based on the Unix epoch, it is sometimes referred to as epoch time.
The above scheme means that on a normal UTC day, which has a duration of 86400 seconds, the Unix time number changes in a continuous manner across midnight. For example, at the end of the day used in the examples above, the time representations progress as follows:
|TAI (17 September 2004)||UTC (16 to 17 September 2004)||Unix time|
When a leap second occurs, the UTC day is not exactly 86400 seconds long and the Unix time number (which always increases by exactly 86400 each day) experiences a discontinuity. At the end of a day with a negative leap second, which has not yet occurred, the Unix time number would jump up by 1 to the start of the next day. During a positive leap second at the end of a day, which occurs about every year and a half on average, the Unix time number increases continuously into the next day during the leap second and then at the end of the leap second jumps back by 1 (returning to the start of the next day). For example, this is what happened on strictly conforming POSIX.1 systems at the end of 1998:
|TAI (1 January 1999)||UTC (31 December 1998 to 1 January 1999)||Unix time|
Unix time numbers are repeated in the second immediately following a positive leap second. The Unix time number 915148800.50 is thus ambiguous: it can refer either to the instant in the middle of the leap second, or to the instant one second later, half a second after midnight UTC. In the theoretical case when a negative leap second occurs, no ambiguity is caused, but instead there is a range of Unix time numbers that do not refer to any point in time at all.
A Unix clock is often implemented with a different type of positive leap second handling associated with the Network Time Protocol (NTP). This yields a system that does not conform to the POSIX standard. See the section below concerning NTP for details.
When dealing with periods that do not encompass a UTC leap second, the difference between two Unix time numbers is equal to the duration in seconds of the period between the corresponding points in time. This is a common computational technique. However, where leap seconds occur, such calculations give the wrong answer. In applications where this level of accuracy is required, it is necessary to consult a table of leap seconds when dealing with Unix times, and it is often preferable to use a different time encoding that does not suffer from this problem.
A Unix time number is easily converted back into UTC by taking the quotient and modulus of the Unix time number, modulo 86400. The quotient is the number of days since the epoch, and the modulus is the number of seconds since midnight UTC on that day. If given a Unix time number that is ambiguous due to a positive leap second, this algorithm interprets it as the time just after midnight. It never generates a time that is during a leap second. If given a Unix time number that is invalid due to a negative leap second, it generates an equally invalid UTC time. If these conditions are significant, it is necessary to consult a table of leap seconds to detect them.
Commonly a Mills-style Unix clock is implemented with leap second handling not synchronous with the change of the Unix time number. The time number initially decreases where a leap should have occurred, and then it leaps to the correct time 1 second after the leap. This makes implementation easier, and is described by Mills' paper. This is what happens across a positive leap second:
|TAI (1 January 1999)||UTC (31 December 1998 to 1 January 1999)||State||Unix clock|
This can be decoded properly by paying attention to the leap second state variable, which unambiguously indicates whether the leap has been performed yet. The state variable change is synchronous with the leap.
A similar situation arises with a negative leap second, where the second that is skipped is slightly too late. Very briefly the system shows a nominally impossible time number, but this can be detected by the TIME_DEL state and corrected.
In this type of system the Unix time number violates POSIX around both types of leap second. Collecting the leap second state variable along with the time number allows for unambiguous decoding, so the correct POSIX time number can be generated if desired, or the full UTC time can be stored in a more suitable format.
The decoding logic required to cope with this style of Unix clock would also correctly decode a hypothetical POSIX-conforming clock using the same interface. This would be achieved by indicating the TIME_INS state during the entirety of an inserted leap second, then indicating TIME_WAIT during the entirety of the following second while repeating the seconds count. This requires synchronous leap second handling. This is probably the best way to express UTC time in Unix clock form, via a Unix interface, when the underlying clock is fundamentally untroubled by leap seconds.
Another, much rarer, non-conforming variant of Unix time keeping involves encoding TAI rather than UTC; some Linux systems are configured this way. Because TAI has no leap seconds, and every TAI day is exactly 86400 seconds long, this encoding is actually a pure linear count of seconds elapsed since 1970-01-01T00:00:00 TAI. This makes time interval arithmetic much easier. Time values from these systems do not suffer the ambiguity that strictly conforming POSIX systems or NTP-driven systems have.
In these systems it is necessary to consult a table of leap seconds to correctly convert between UTC and the pseudo-Unix-time representation. This resembles the manner in which time zone tables must be consulted to convert to and from civil time; the IANA time zone database includes leap second information, and the sample code available from the same source uses that information to convert between TAI-based time stamps and local time. Conversion also runs into definitional problems prior to the 1972 commencement of the current form of UTC (see section UTC basis below).
This TAI-based system, despite its superficial resemblance, is not Unix time. It encodes times with values that differ by several seconds from the POSIX time values, and does not have the simple mathematical relationship to UTC that is mandated by POSIX.
A Unix time number can be represented in any form capable of representing numbers. In some applications the number is simply represented textually as a string of decimal digits, raising only trivial additional problems. However, certain binary representations of Unix times are particularly significant.
The Unix time_t data type that represents a point in time is, on many platforms, a signed integer, traditionally of 32 bits (but see below), directly encoding the Unix time number as described in the preceding section. Being 32 bits means that it covers a range of about 136 years in total. The minimum representable time is Friday 1901-12-13, and the maximum representable time is Tuesday 2038-01-19. One second after 03:14:07 UTC 2038-01-19 this representation will overflow. This milestone is anticipated with a mixture of amusement and dread—see year 2038 problem.
In some newer operating systems, time_t has been widened to 64 bits. This expands the times representable by approximately 293 billion years in both directions, which is over twenty times the present age of the universe per direction.
There was originally some controversy over whether the Unix time_t should be signed or unsigned. If unsigned, its range in the future would be doubled, postponing the 32-bit overflow (by 68 years). However, it would then be incapable of representing times prior to the epoch. The consensus is for time_t to be signed, and this is the usual practice. The software development platform for version 6 of the QNX operating system has an unsigned 32-bit time_t, though older releases used a signed type.
The POSIX and Open Group Unix specifications include the C standard library, which includes the time types and functions defined in the
<time.h> header file. The ISO C standard states that time_t must be an arithmetic type, but does not mandate any specific type or encoding for it. POSIX requires time_t to be an integer type, but does not mandate that it be signed or unsigned.
Unix has no tradition of directly representing non-integer Unix time numbers as binary fractions. Instead, times with sub-second precision are represented using composite data types that consist of two integers, the first being a time_t (the integral part of the Unix time), and the second being the fractional part of the time number in millionths (in struct timeval) or billionths (in struct timespec). These structures provide a decimal-based fixed-point data format, which is useful for some applications, and trivial to convert for others.
The present form of UTC, with leap seconds, is defined only from 1 January 1972 onwards. Prior to that, since 1 January 1961 there was an older form of UTC in which not only were there occasional time steps, which were by non-integer numbers of seconds, but also the UTC second was slightly longer than the SI second, and periodically changed to continuously approximate the Earth's rotation. Prior to 1961 there was no UTC, and prior to 1958 there was no widespread atomic timekeeping; in these eras, some approximation of GMT (based directly on the Earth's rotation) was used instead of an atomic timescale.
The precise definition of Unix time as an encoding of UTC is only uncontroversial when applied to the present form of UTC. The Unix epoch predating the start of this form of UTC does not affect its use in this era: the number of days from 1 January 1970 (the Unix epoch) to 1 January 1972 (the start of UTC) is not in question, and the number of days is all that is significant to Unix time.
The meaning of Unix time values below +63072000 (i.e., prior to 1 January 1972) is not precisely defined. The basis of such Unix times is best understood to be an unspecified approximation of UTC. Computers of that era rarely had clocks set sufficiently accurately to provide meaningful sub-second timestamps in any case. Unix time is not a suitable way to represent times prior to 1972 in applications requiring sub-second precision; such applications must, at least, define which form of UT or GMT they use.
As of 2009, the possibility of ending the use of leap seconds in civil time is being considered. A likely means to execute this change is to define a new time scale, called International Time, that initially matches UTC but thereafter has no leap seconds, thus remaining at a constant offset from TAI. If this happens, it is likely that Unix time will be prospectively defined in terms of this new time scale, instead of UTC. Uncertainty about whether this will occur makes prospective Unix time no less predictable than it already is: if UTC were simply to have no further leap seconds the result would be the same.
The earliest versions of Unix time had a 32-bit integer incrementing at a rate of 60 Hz, which was the rate of the system clock on the hardware of the early Unix systems. The value 60 Hz still appears in some software interfaces as a result. The epoch also differed from the current value. The first edition Unix Programmer's Manual dated 3 November 1971 defines the Unix time as "the time since 00:00:00, 1 January 1971, measured in sixtieths of a second".
The User Manual also commented that "the chronologically-minded user will note that 2**32 sixtieths of a second is only about 2.5 years". Because of this limited range, the epoch was redefined more than once, before the rate was changed to 1 Hz and the epoch was set to its present value of 1 January 1970 00:00:00 UTC. This yielded a range of about 136 years, though with more than half the range in the past (see discussion of signedness above).
As indicated by the definition quoted above, the Unix time scale was originally intended to be a simple linear representation of time elapsed since an epoch. However, there was no consideration of the details of time scales, and it was implicitly assumed that there was a simple linear time scale already available and agreed upon. The first edition manual's definition does not even specify which time zone is used. Several later problems, including the complexity of the present definition, result from Unix time having been defined gradually by usage rather than fully defined from the outset.
When POSIX.1 was written, the question arose of how to precisely define time_t in the face of leap seconds. The POSIX committee considered whether Unix time should remain, as intended, a linear count of seconds since the epoch, at the expense of complexity in conversions with civil time or a representation of civil time, at the expense of inconsistency around leap seconds. Computer clocks of the era were not sufficiently precisely set to form a precedent one way or the other.
The POSIX committee was swayed by arguments against complexity in the library functions, and firmly defined the Unix time in a simple manner in terms of the elements of UTC time. This definition was so simple that it did not even encompass the entire leap year rule of the Gregorian calendar, and would make 2100 a leap year.
The 2001 edition of POSIX.1 rectified the faulty leap year rule in the definition of Unix time, but retained the essential definition of Unix time as an encoding of UTC rather than a linear time scale. Since the mid-1990s, computer clocks have been routinely set with sufficient precision for this to matter, and they have most commonly been set using the UTC-based definition of Unix time. This has resulted in considerable complexity in Unix implementations, and in the Network Time Protocol, to execute steps in the Unix time number whenever leap seconds occur.
|Julian||19-December-1969||Fell on a Thursday|
|Hebrew||5730-Teveth-23||Embolismic deficient (383-day year)|
|Islamic||1389-Shawwal-22||Fell on a yawm al-khamis|
|Persian||1348 Dey 11||Fell on a Panjshanbeh (Thursday)|
|Mayan||188.8.131.52.5||Lord of the night was G1|
|Chinese||Yi-Chou (Ox), 24, 4667||Year Name was Ji You (Rooster)|
Unix enthusiasts have a history of holding "time_t parties" to celebrate significant values of the Unix time number. These are directly analogous to the new year celebrations that occur at the change of year in many calendars. As the use of Unix time has spread, so has the practice of celebrating its milestones. Usually it is time values that are round numbers in decimal that are celebrated, following the Unix convention of viewing time_t values in decimal. Among some groups round binary numbers are also celebrated, such as +230 which occurred at 13:37:04 UTC on Saturday, 10 January 2004.
The events that these celebrate are typically described as "N seconds since the Unix epoch", but this is inaccurate. As discussed above, due to the handling of leap seconds in Unix time, the number of seconds elapsed since the Unix epoch is slightly greater than the Unix time number for times later than the epoch.
Vernor Vinge's novel A Deepness in the Sky describes a spacefaring trading civilization thousands of years in the future that still uses the Unix epoch. The "programmer-archaeologist" responsible for finding and maintaining usable code in mature computer systems first believes that the epoch refers to the time when man first walked on the Moon, but then realizes that it is "the 0-second of one of Humankind's first computer operating systems".
time returns the time since 00:00:00, 1 Jan. 1971, measured in sixtieths of a second.
Billennium may refer to:
2nd millennium, the second period of one thousand years in the Common Era
3rd millennium, the period of time which began with the year 2001
Beretta 92 Billennium, a type of pistol
Unix billennium, a point in Unix time which occurred in 2001
"Billennium" (short story), a short story by J. G. BallardCalendar date
A calendar date is a reference to a particular day represented within a calendar system. The calendar date allows the specific day to be identified. The number of days between two dates may be calculated. For example, "24 February 2019" is ten days after "14 February 2019" in the Gregorian calendar. The date of a particular event depends on the observed time zone. For example, the air attack on Pearl Harbor that began at 7:48 a.m. Hawaiian time on December 7, 1941, took place at 3:18 a.m. December 8 in Japan (Japan Standard Time).
A particular day may be represented by a different date in another calendar as in the Gregorian calendar and the Julian calendar, which have been used simultaneously in different places. In most calendar systems, the date consists of three parts: the day of month, month, and the year. There may also be additional parts, such as the day of week. Years are usually counted from a particular starting point, usually called the epoch, with era referring to the particular period of time (Note the different use of the terms in geology).
The most widely used epoch is a conventional birthdate of Jesus (which was established by Dionysius Exiguus in the sixth century). A date without the year part may also be referred to as a date or calendar date (such as "23 February" rather than "23 February 2019"). As such, it defines the day of an annual event, such as a birthday or Christmas on 24/25 December.
Many computer systems internally store points in time in Unix time format or some other system time format.
The date (Unix) command—internally using the C date and time functions—can be used to convert that internal representation of a point in time
to most of the date representations shown here.
The current date in the Gregorian calendar is 23 February 2019. If this is not really the current date, then to update it.Inode
The inode (index node) is a data structure in a Unix-style file system that describes a file-system object such as a file or a directory. Each inode stores the attributes and disk block location(s) of the object's data. File-system object attributes may include metadata (times of last change, access, modification), as well as owner and permission data.Directories are lists of names assigned to inodes. A directory contains an entry for itself, its parent, and each of its children.Lex (software)
Lex is a computer program that generates lexical analyzers ("scanners" or "lexers").Lex is commonly used with the yacc parser generator. Lex, originally written by Mike Lesk and Eric Schmidt and described in 1975, is the standard lexical analyzer generator on many Unix systems, and an equivalent tool is specified as part of the POSIX standard.Lex reads an input stream specifying the lexical analyzer and outputs source code implementing the lexer in the C programming language.List of Unix systems
Each version of the UNIX Time-Sharing System evolved from the version before, with version one evolving from the prototypal Unix. Not all variants and descendants are displayed.List of operating systems
This is a list of operating systems. Computer operating systems can be categorized by technology, ownership, licensing, working state, usage, and by many other characteristics. In practice, many of these groupings may overlap. Criteria for inclusion is notability, as shown either through an existing Wikipedia article or citation to a reliable source.Overhead (computing)
In computer science, overhead is any combination of excess or indirect computation time, memory, bandwidth, or other resources that are required to perform a specific task. It is a special case of engineering overhead. Overhead can be a deciding factor in software design, with regard to structure, error correction, and feature inclusion. Examples of computing overhead may be found in functional programming, data transfer, and data structures.Pwd
In Unix-like and some other operating systems, the pwd command (print working directory)
writes the full pathname of the current working directory to the standard output.Research Unix
Research Unix refers to early versions of the Unix operating system for DEC PDP-7, PDP-11, VAX and Interdata 7/32 and 8/32 computers, developed in the Bell Labs Computing Sciences Research Center.Swatch Internet Time
Swatch Internet Time (or .beat time) is a decimal time concept introduced in 1998 by the Swatch corporation as part of their marketing campaign for their line of "Beat" watches.
Instead of hours and minutes, the mean solar day is divided into 1000 parts called ".beats". Each .beat is equal to one decimal minute in the French Revolutionary decimal time system and lasts 1 minute and 26.4 seconds (86.4 seconds) in standard time. Times are notated as a 3-digit number out of 1000 after midnight. So, @248 would indicate a time 248 .beats after midnight representing 248/1000 of a day, just over 5 hours and 57 minutes.
There are no time zones in Swatch Internet Time; instead, the new time scale of Biel Meantime (BMT) is used, based on Swatch's headquarters in Biel, Switzerland and equivalent to Central European Time, West Africa Time, and UTC+01. Unlike civil time in Switzerland and many other countries, Swatch Internet Time does not observe daylight saving time.System 7 (disambiguation)
System 7 is a Macintosh operating system introduced in 1991.
System 7 may also refer to:
IBM System/7, a minicomputer developed by IBM; premiered in 1971
System 7 (band), a British electronic music duo
System 7 (album), eponymous, debut studio album of System 7; released in 1991
Version 7 Unix. otherwise known as (Unix Time Sharing) System 7; released in 1979System time
In computer science and computer programming, system time represents a computer system's notion of the passage of time. In this sense, time also includes the passing of days on the calendar.
System time is measured by a system clock, which is typically implemented as a simple count of the number of ticks that have transpired since some arbitrary starting date, called the epoch. For example, Unix and POSIX-compliant systems encode system time ("Unix time") as the number of seconds elapsed since the start of the Unix epoch at 1 January 1970 00:00:00 UT, with exceptions for leap seconds. Systems that implement the 32-bit and 64-bit versions of the Windows API, such as Windows 9x and Windows NT, provide the system time as both SYSTEMTIME, represented as a year/month/day/hour/minute/second/milliseconds value, and FILETIME, represented as a count of the number of 100-nanosecond ticks since 1 January 1601 00:00:00 UT as reckoned in the proleptic Gregorian calendar.
System time can be converted into calendar time, which is a form more suitable for human comprehension. For example, the Unix system time 1000000000 seconds since the beginning of the epoch translates into the calendar time 9 September 2001 01:46:40 UT. Library subroutines that handle such conversions may also deal with adjustments for timezones, daylight saving time (DST), leap seconds, and the user's locale settings. Library routines are also generally provided that convert calendar times into system times.Time-based One-time Password algorithm
The Time-based One-time Password algorithm (TOTP) is an extension of the HMAC-based One-time Password algorithm (HOTP) generating a one-time password by instead taking uniqueness from the current time. It has been adopted as Internet Engineering Task Force standard RFC 6238, is the cornerstone of Initiative For Open Authentication (OATH), and is used in a number of two-factor authentication systems.
Because of latency, both network and human, and unsynchronised clocks, the one-time password must validate over a range of times between the authenticator and the authenticated. Here, time is downsampled into larger durations (e.g., 30 seconds) to allow for validity between the parties. However, as with HOTP the decreased uniqueness requires additional countermeasures, such as rate limiting.Timestamp
A timestamp is a sequence of characters or encoded information identifying when a certain event occurred, usually giving date and time of day, sometimes accurate to a small fraction of a second. The term derives from rubber stamps used in offices to stamp the current date, and sometimes time, in ink on paper documents, to record when the document was received. Common examples of this type of timestamp are a postmark on a letter or the "in" and "out" times on a time card.
In modern times usage of the term has expanded to refer to digital date and time information attached to digital data. For example, computer files contain timestamps that tell when the file was last modified, and digital cameras add timestamps to the pictures they take, recording the date and time the picture was taken.Tz database
The tz database is a collaborative compilation of information about the world's time zones, primarily intended for use with computer programs and operating systems. Paul Eggert is its current editor and maintainer, with the organizational backing of ICANN. The tz database is also known as tzdata, the zoneinfo database or IANA time zone database, and occasionally as the Olson database, referring to the founding contributor, Arthur David Olson.Its uniform naming convention for time zones, such as America/New_York and Europe/Paris, was designed by Paul Eggert. The database attempts to record historical time zones and all civil changes since 1970, the Unix time epoch. It also includes transitions such as daylight saving time, and also records leap seconds.The database, as well as some reference source code, is in the public domain. New editions of the database and code are published as changes warrant, usually several times per year.Unix
Unix (; trademarked as UNIX) is a family of multitasking, multiuser computer operating systems that derive from the original AT&T Unix, development starting in the 1970s at the Bell Labs research center by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and others.Initially intended for use inside the Bell System, AT&T licensed Unix to outside parties in the late 1970s, leading to a variety of both academic and commercial Unix variants from vendors including University of California, Berkeley (BSD), Microsoft (Xenix), IBM (AIX), and Sun Microsystems (Solaris). In the early 1990s, AT&T sold its rights in Unix to Novell, which then sold its Unix business to the Santa Cruz Operation (SCO) in 1995. The UNIX trademark passed to The Open Group, a neutral industry consortium, which allows the use of the mark for certified operating systems that comply with the Single UNIX Specification (SUS). As of 2014, the Unix version with the largest installed base is Apple's macOS.Unix systems are characterized by a modular design that is sometimes called the "Unix philosophy". This concept entails that the operating system provides a set of simple tools that each performs a limited, well-defined function, with a unified filesystem (the Unix filesystem) as the main means of communication, and a shell scripting and command language (the Unix shell) to combine the tools to perform complex workflows. Unix distinguishes itself from its predecessors as the first portable operating system: almost the entire operating system is written in the C programming language, thus allowing Unix to reach numerous platforms.Unix philosophy
The Unix philosophy, originated by Ken Thompson, is a set of cultural norms and philosophical approaches to minimalist, modular software development. It is based on the experience of leading developers of the Unix operating system. Early Unix developers were important in bringing the concepts of modularity and reusability into software engineering practice, spawning a "software tools" movement. Over time, the leading developers of Unix (and programs that ran on it) established a set of cultural norms for developing software, norms which became as important and influential as the technology of Unix itself; this has been termed the "Unix philosophy."
The Unix philosophy emphasizes building simple, short, clear, modular, and extensible code that can be easily maintained and repurposed by developers other than its creators. The Unix philosophy favors composability as opposed to monolithic design.WebCite
WebCite is an on-demand archiving service, designed to digitally preserve scientific and educationally important material on the web by making snapshots of Internet contents as they existed at the time when a blogger, or a scholar or a Wikipedia editor cited or quoted from it. The preservation service enables verifiability of claims supported by the cited sources even when the original web pages are being revised, removed, or disappear for other reasons, an effect known as link rot.Year 2038 problem
The Year 2038 problem relates to representing time in many digital systems as the number of seconds passed since 1 January 1970 and storing it as a signed 32-bit binary integer. Such implementations cannot encode times after 03:14:07 UTC on 19 January 2038. Just like the Y2K problem, the Year 2038 problem is caused by insufficient capacity of the chosen storage unit.