University of Paris

The University of Paris (French: Université de Paris), metonymically known as the Sorbonne (French: [sɔʁbɔn]), was a university in Paris, France, active 1150–1793, and 1806–1970.

Emerging around 1150 as a corporation associated with the cathedral school of Notre Dame de Paris, it was considered the second oldest university in Europe.[1] Officially chartered in 1200 by King Philip II of France and recognised in 1215 by Pope Innocent III, it was later often nicknamed after its theological College of Sorbonne, in turn founded by Robert de Sorbon and chartered by French King Saint Louis around 1257.

Internationally highly reputed for its academic performance in the humanities ever since the Middle Ages – notably in theology and philosophy – it introduced several academic standards and traditions that have endured ever since and spread internationally, such as doctoral degrees and student nations. Vast numbers of popes, royalty, scientists, and intellectuals were educated at the University of Paris. A few of the colleges of the time are still visible close to Pantheon and Luxembourg Gardens: Collège des Bernardins (18, rue de Poissy 75005), Hotel de Cluny (6, Place Paul Painleve 75005), College Sainte Barbe (4, rue Valette 75005), College d'Harcourt (44 Boulevard Saint-Michel 75006), and Cordeliers (21, Rue Ecole de Medecine 75006).[2]

In 1793, during the French Revolution, the university was closed and by Item-27 of the Revolutionary Convention, the college endowments and buildings were sold.[3] A new University of France replaced it in 1806 with four independent faculties: the Faculty of Humanities (French: Faculté des Lettres), the Faculty of Law (later including Economics), the Faculty of Science, the Faculty of Medicine and the Faculty of Theology (closed in 1885).

In 1970, following the May 1968 events, the university was divided into 13 autonomous universities. Although all the thirteen universities that resulted of the original University of Paris split can be considered its inheritors, just three universities of the post-1968 universities embodied direct faculties successors while inheriting the name "Sorbonne", as well as its physical location in the Latin Quarter: the Pantheon-Sorbonne University (Paris I; law); University of Paris III: Sorbonne Nouvelle; and Paris-Sorbonne University (Paris IV; humanities).[4][5][6][7]

From 2010, University of Paris successors started to reorganise themselves into different groups of universities and institutions (COMUE) that later were upgraded to "pôles de recherche et d'enseignement supérieur". As a result, various university groups exist in the Paris area, among them Sorbonne Paris Cité, Sorbonne Universities, the University of Paris-Saclay, Paris Lumiéres, Paris-Seine, and so on.[8]

In January 2018, two of the inheritors of the old University of Paris, Paris-Sorbonne University and Pierre and Marie Curie University, merged into a single university called Sorbonne University.[9][10][11] In 2019, two other inheritors of the University of Paris, namely Paris Diderot University and Paris Descartes University, are also expected to merge.[12]

University of Paris
French: Université de Paris
Coat of arms of the University of Paris
Latin: Universitas magistrorum et scholarium Parisiensis
MottoHic et ubique terrarum (Latin)
Motto in English
Here and anywhere on Earth
TypeCorporative then public university
EstablishedFounded: c. 1150
Suppressed: 1793
Faculties reestablished: 1806
University reestablished: 1896
Divided: 1970
Successors: 13 autonomous universities (University of Paris I-XIII)


In 1150, the future University of Paris was a student-teacher corporation operating as an annex of the Notre-Dame cathedral school. The earliest historical reference to it is found in Matthew of Paris' reference to the studies of his own teacher (an abbot of St. Albans) and his acceptance into "the fellowship of the elect Masters" there in about 1170,[13] and it is known that Pope Innocent III completed his studies there in 1182 at the age of 21.

The corporation was formally recognised as an "Universitas" in an edict by King Philippe-Auguste in 1200: in it, among other accommodations granted to future students, he allowed the corporation to operate under ecclesiastic law which would be governed by the elders of the Notre-Dame Cathedral school, and assured all those completing courses there that they would be granted a diploma.[14]

The university had four faculties: Arts, Medicine, Law, and Theology. The Faculty of Arts was the lowest in rank, but also the largest, as students had to graduate there in order to be admitted to one of the higher faculties. The students were divided into four nationes according to language or regional origin: France, Normandy, Picardy, and England. The last came to be known as the Alemannian (German) nation. Recruitment to each nation was wider than the names might imply: the English-German nation included students from Scandinavia and Eastern Europe.

The faculty and nation system of the University of Paris (along with that of the University of Bologna) became the model for all later medieval universities. Under the governance of the Church, students wore robes and shaved the tops of their heads in tonsure, to signify they were under the protection of the church. Students followed the rules and laws of the Church and were not subject to the king's laws or courts. This presented problems for the city of Paris, as students ran wild, and its official had to appeal to Church courts for justice. Students were often very young, entering the school at 13 or 14 years of age and staying for six to 12 years.

12th century: Organization

Sorbona 2005a

Three schools were especially famous in Paris: the palatine or palace school, the school of Notre-Dame, and that of Sainte-Geneviève Abbey. The decline of royalty brought about the decline of the first. The other two were ancient but did not have much visibility in the early centuries. The glory of the palatine school doubtless eclipsed theirs, until it completely gave way to them. These two centres were much frequented and many of their masters were esteemed for their learning. The first renowned professor at the school of Ste-Geneviève was Hubold, who lived in the tenth century. Not content with the courses at Liège, he continued his studies at Paris, entered or allied himself with the chapter of Ste-Geneviève, and attracted many pupils via his teaching. Distinguished professors from the school of Notre-Dame in the eleventh century include Lambert, disciple of Fulbert of Chartres; Drogo of Paris; Manegold of Germany; and Anselm of Laon. These two schools attracted scholars from every country and produced many illustrious men, among whom were: St. Stanislaus of Szczepanów, Bishop of Kraków; Gebbard, Archbishop of Salzburg; St. Stephen, third Abbot of Cîteaux; Robert d'Arbrissel, founder of the Abbey of Fontevrault etc. Three other men who added prestige to the schools of Notre-Dame and Ste-Geneviève were William of Champeaux, Abélard, and Peter Lombard.

Humanistic instruction comprised grammar, rhetoric, dialectics, arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy (trivium and quadrivium). To the higher instruction belonged dogmatic and moral theology, whose source was the Scriptures and the Patristic Fathers. It was completed by the study of Canon law. The School of Saint-Victor arose to rival those of Notre-Dame and Ste-Geneviève. It was founded by William of Champeaux when he withdrew to the Abbey of Saint-Victor. Its most famous professors are Hugh of St. Victor and Richard of St. Victor.

The plan of studies expanded in the schools of Paris, as it did elsewhere. A Bolognese compendium of canon law called the Decretum Gratiani brought about a division of the theology department. Hitherto the discipline of the Church had not been separate from so-called theology; they were studied together under the same professor. But this vast collection necessitated a special course, which was undertaken first at Bologna, where Roman law was taught. In France, first Orléans and then Paris erected chairs of canon law. Before the end of the twelfth century, the Decretals of Gerard La Pucelle, Mathieu d'Angers, and Anselm (or Anselle) of Paris, were added to the Decretum Gratiani. However, civil law was not included at Paris. In the twelfth century, medicine began to be publicly taught at Paris: the first professor of medicine in Paris records is Hugo, physicus excellens qui quadrivium docuit.

Professors were required to have measurable knowledge and be appointed by the university. Applicants had to be assessed by examination; if successful, the examiner, who was the head of the school, and known as scholasticus, capiscol, and chancellor, appointed an individual to teach. This was called the licence or faculty to teach. The licence had to be granted freely. No one could teach without it; on the other hand, the examiner could not refuse to award it when the applicant deserved it.

Lasorbonne photo2

The school of Saint-Victor, under the abbey, conferred the licence in its own right; the school of Notre-Dame depended on the diocese, that of Ste-Geneviève on the abbey or chapter. The diocese and the abbey or chapter, through their chancellor, gave professorial investiture in their respective territories where they had jurisdiction. Besides Notre-Dame, Ste-Geneviève, and Saint-Victor, there were several schools on the "Island" and on the "Mount". "Whoever", says Crevier "had the right to teach might open a school where he pleased, provided it was not in the vicinity of a principal school." Thus a certain Adam, who was of English origin, kept his "near the Petit Pont"; another Adam, Parisian by birth, "taught at the Grand Pont which is called the Pont-au-Change" (Hist. de l'Univers. de Paris, I, 272).

The number of students in the school of the capital grew constantly, so that lodgings were insufficient. French students included princes of the blood, sons of the nobility, and ranking gentry. The courses at Paris were considered so necessary as a completion of studies that many foreigners flocked to them. Popes Celestine II, Adrian IV and Innocent III studied at Paris, and Alexander III sent his nephews there. Noted German and English students included Otto of Freisingen, Cardinal Conrad, Archbishop of Mainz, St. Thomas of Canterbury, and John of Salisbury; while Ste-Geneviève became practically the seminary for Denmark. The chroniclers of the time called Paris the city of letters par excellence, placing it above Athens, Alexandria, Rome, and other cities: "At that time, there flourished at Paris philosophy and all branches of learning, and there the seven arts were studied and held in such esteem as they never were at Athens, Egypt, Rome, or elsewhere in the world." ("Les gestes de Philippe-Auguste"). Poets extolled the university in their verses, comparing it to all that was greatest, noblest, and most valuable in the world.

Sorbona in snow
The Sorbonne covered by snow.

As the university developed, it became more institutionalized. First, the professors formed an association, for according to Matthew Paris, John of Celles, twenty-first Abbot of St Albans, England, was admitted as a member of the teaching corps of Paris after he had followed the courses (Vita Joannis I, XXI, abbat. S. Alban). The masters, as well as the students, were divided according to national origin,. Alban wrote that Henry II, King of England, in his difficulties with St. Thomas of Canterbury, wanted to submit his cause to a tribunal composed of professors of Paris, chosen from various provinces (Hist. major, Henry II, to end of 1169). This was likely the start of the division according to "nations," which was later to play an important part in the university. Celestine III ruled that both professors and students had the privilege of being subject only to the ecclesiastical courts, not to civil courts.

The three schools: Notre-Dame, Sainte-Geneviève, and Saint-Victor, may be regarded as the triple cradle of the Universitas scholarium, which included masters and students; hence the name University. Henry Denifle and some others hold that this honour is exclusive to the school of Notre-Dame (Chartularium Universitatis Parisiensis), but the reasons do not seem convincing. He excludes Saint-Victor because, at the request of the abbot and the religious of Saint-Victor, Gregory IX in 1237 authorized them to resume the interrupted teaching of theology. But the university was largely founded about 1208, as is shown by a Bull of Innocent III. Consequently, the schools of Saint-Victor might well have contributed to its formation. Secondly, Denifle excludes the schools of Ste-Geneviève because there had been no interruption in the teaching of the liberal arts. This is debatable and through the period, theology was taught. The chancellor of Ste-Geneviève continued to give degrees in arts, something he would have ceased if his abbey had no part in the university organization.

13th–14th century: Expansion

Meeting of doctors at the university of Paris
Meeting of doctors at the University of Paris. From a 16th-century miniature.

In 1200, King Philip II issued a diploma "for the security of the scholars of Paris," which affirmed that students were subject only to ecclesiastical jurisdiction. The provost and other officers were forbidden to arrest a student for any offence, unless to transfer him to ecclesiastical authority. The king's officers could not intervene with any member unless having a mandate from an ecclesiastical authority. His action followed a violent incident between students and officers outside the city walls at a pub.

In 1215, the Apostolic legate, Robert de Courçon, issued new rules governing who could become a professor. To teach the arts, a candidate had to be at least twenty-one, to have studied these arts at least six years, and to take an engagement as professor for at least two years. For a chair in theology, the candidate had to be thirty years of age, with eight years of theological studies, of which the last three years were devoted to special courses of lectures in preparation for the mastership. These studies had to be made in the local schools under the direction of a master. In Paris, one was regarded as a scholar only by studies with particular masters. Lastly, purity of morals was as important as reading. The licence was granted, according to custom, gratuitously, without oath or condition. Masters and students were permitted to unite, even by oath, in defence of their rights, when they could not otherwise obtain justice in serious matters. No mention is made either of law or of medicine, probably because these sciences were less prominent.

In 1229, a denial of justice by the queen led to suspension of the courses. The pope intervened with a Bull that began with lavish praise of the university: "Paris", said Gregory IX, "mother of the sciences, is another Cariath-Sepher, city of letters". He commissioned the Bishops of Le Mans and Senlis and the Archdeacon of Châlons to negotiate with the French Court for the restoration of the university, but by the end of 1230 they had accomplished nothing. Gregory IX then addressed a Bull of 1231 to the masters and scholars of Paris. Not only did he settle the dispute, he empowered the university to frame statutes concerning the discipline of the schools, the method of instruction, the defence of theses, the costume of the professors, and the obsequies of masters and students (expanding upon Robert de Courçon's statutes). Most importantly, the pope granted the university the right to suspend its courses, if justice were denied it, until it should receive full satisfaction.

The pope authorized Pierre Le Mangeur to collect a moderate fee for the conferring of the license of professorship. Also, for the first time, the scholars had to pay tuition fees for their education: two sous weekly, to be deposited in the common fund.


The university was organized as follows: at the head of the teaching body was a rector. The office was elective and of short duration; at first it was limited to four or six weeks. Simon de Brion, legate of the Holy See in France, realizing that such frequent changes caused serious inconvenience, decided that the rectorate should last three months, and this rule was observed for three years. Then the term was lengthened to one, two, and sometimes three years. The right of election belonged to the procurators of the four nations.

Four "nations"

Four nations of the University of Paris
Map showing the territories covered by the four nations of the University of Paris during the Middle Ages.

The "nations" appeared in the second half of the twelfth century. They were mentioned in the Bull of Honorius III in 1222. Later, they formed a distinct body. By 1249, the four nations existed with their procurators, their rights (more or less well-defined), and their keen rivalries: the nations were the French, English, Normans, and Picards. After the Hundred Years' War, the English nation was replaced by the Germanic. The four nations constituted the faculty of arts or letters.

The territories covered by the four nations were:

  • French nation: all the Romance-speaking parts of Europe except those included within the Norman and Picard nations
  • English nation (renamed 'German nation' after the Hundred Years' War): the British Isles, the Germanic-speaking parts of continental Europe (except those included within the Picard nation), and the Slavic-speaking parts of Europe. The majority of students within that nation came from Germany and Scotland, and when it was renamed 'German nation' it was also sometimes called natio Germanorum et Scotorum ("nation of the Germans and Scots").[15][16]
  • Norman nation: the ecclesiastical province of Rouen, which corresponded approximately to the Duchy of Normandy. This was a Romance-speaking territory, but it was not included within the French nation.
  • Picard nation: the Romance-speaking bishoprics of Beauvais, Noyon, Amiens, Laon, and Arras; the bilingual (Romance and Germanic-speaking) bishoprics of Thérouanne, Cambrai, and Tournai; a large part of the bilingual bishopric of Liège; and the southernmost part of the Germanic-speaking bishopric of Utrecht (the part of that bishopric located south of the Meuse River; the rest of the bishopric north of the Meuse River belonged to the English nation). It was estimated that about half of the students in the Picard nation were Romance-speakers (Picard and Walloon), and the other half were Germanic-speakers (West Flemish, East Flemish, Brabantian and Limburgish dialects).[17]


To classify professors' knowledge, the schools of Paris gradually divided into faculties. Professors of the same science were brought into closer contact until the community of rights and interests cemented the union and made them distinct groups. The faculty of medicine seems to have been the last to form. But the four faculties were already formally established by 1254, when the university described in a letter "theology, jurisprudence, medicine, and rational, natural, and moral philosophy". The masters of theology often set the example for the other faculties—e.g., they were the first to adopt an official seal.

The faculties of theology, canon law, and medicine, were called "superior faculties". The title of "Dean" as designating the head of a faculty, came into use by 1268 in the faculties of law and medicine, and by 1296 in the faculty of theology. It seems that at first the deans were the oldest masters. The faculty of arts continued to have four procurators of its four nations and its head was the rector. As the faculties became more fully organized, the division into four nations partially disappeared for theology, law and medicine, though it continued in arts. Eventually the superior faculties included only doctors, leaving the bachelors to the faculty of arts. At this period, therefore, the university had two principal degrees, the baccalaureate and the doctorate. It was not until much later that the licentiate and the DEA became intermediate degrees.


Paris 75005 Rue Saint-Jacques La Sorbonne facade 01c
Rue Saint-Jacques and the Sorbonne in Paris

The scattered condition of the scholars in Paris often made lodging difficult. Some students rented rooms from townspeople, who often exacted high rates while the students demanded lower. This tension between scholars and citizens would have developed into a sort of civil war if Robert de Courçon had not found the remedy of taxation. It was upheld in the Bull of Gregory IX of 1231, but with an important modification: its exercise was to be shared with the citizens. The aim was to offer the students a shelter where they would fear neither annoyance from the owners nor the dangers of the world. Thus were founded the colleges (colligere, to assemble); meaning not centers of instruction, but simple student boarding-houses. Each had a special goal, being established for students of the same nationality or the same science. Often, masters lived in each college and oversaw its activities.

Four colleges appeared in the 12th century; they became more numerous in the 13th, including Collège d'Harcourt (1280) and the Collège de Sorbonne (1257). Thus the University of Paris assumed its basic form. It was composed of seven groups, the four nations of the faculty of arts, and the three superior faculties of theology, law, and medicine. Men who had studied at Paris became an increasing presence in the high ranks of the Church hierarchy; eventually, students at the University of Paris saw it as a right that they would be eligible to benefices. Church officials such as St. Louis and Clement IV lavishly praised the university.

Besides the famous Collège de Sorbonne, other collegia provided housing and meals to students, sometimes for those of the same geographical origin in a more restricted sense than that represented by the nations. There were 8 or 9 collegia for foreign students: the oldest one was the Danish college, the Collegium danicum or dacicum, founded in 1257. Swedish students could, during the 13th and 14th centuries, live in one of three Swedish colleges, the Collegium Upsaliense, the Collegium Scarense or the Collegium Lincopense, named after the Swedish dioceses of Uppsala, Skara and Linköping.

The Collège de Navarre was founded in 1305, originally aimed at students from Navarre, but due to its size, wealth, and the links between the crowns of France and Navarre, it quickly accepted students from other nations. The establishment of the College of Navarre was a turning point in the University's history: Navarra was the first college to offer teaching to its students, which at the time set it apart from all previous colleges, founded as charitable institutions that provided lodging, but no tuition. Navarre's model combining lodging and tuition would be reproduced by other colleges, both in Paris and other universities. [18]

The German College, Collegium alemanicum is mentioned as early as 1345, the Scots college or Collegium scoticum was founded in 1325. The Lombard college or Collegium lombardicum was founded in the 1330s. The Collegium constantinopolitanum was, according to a tradition, founded in the 13th century to facilitate a merging of the eastern and western churches. It was later reorganized as a French institution, the Collège de la Marche-Winville. The Collège de Montaigu was founded by the Archbishop of Rouen in the 14th century, and reformed in the 15th century by the humanist Jan Standonck, when it attracted reformers from within the Roman Catholic Church (such as Erasmus and Ignatius of Loyola) and those who subsequently became Protestants (John Calvin and John Knox).

At this time, the university also went the controversy of the condemnations of 1210–1277.

15th–18th century: Influence in France and Europe
The Old Sorbonne on fire in 1670.
Sorbonne 17thc
The Sorbonne, Paris, in a 17th-century engraving

In the fifteenth century, Guillaume d'Estouteville, a cardinal and Apostolic legate, reformed the university, correcting its perceived abuses and introducing various modifications. This reform was less an innovation than a recall to observance of the old rules, as was the reform of 1600, undertaken by the royal government with regard to the three higher faculties. Nonetheless, and as to the faculty of arts, the reform of 1600 introduced the study of Greek, of French poets and orators, and of additional classical figures like Hesiod, Plato, Demosthenes, Cicero, Virgil, and Sallust. The prohibition from teaching civil law was never well observed at Paris, but in 1679 Louis XIV officially authorized the teaching of civil law in the faculty of decretals. The "faculty of law" hence replaced the "faculty of decretals". The colleges meantime had multiplied; those of Cardinal Le-Moine and Navarre were founded in the fourteenth century. The Hundred Years' War was fatal to these establishments, but the university set about remedying the injury.

Besides its teaching, the University of Paris played an important part in several disputes: in the Church, during the Great Schism; in the councils, in dealing with heresies and divisions; in the State, during national crises. Under the domination of England it played a role in the trial of Joan of Arc.

Proud of its rights and privileges, the University of Paris fought energetically to maintain them, hence the long struggle against the mendicant orders on academic as well as on religious grounds. Hence also the shorter conflict against the Jesuits, who claimed by word and action a share in its teaching. It made extensive use of its right to decide administratively according to occasion and necessity. In some instances it openly endorsed the censures of the faculty of theology and pronounced condemnation in its own name, as in the case of the Flagellants.

Its patriotism was especially manifested on two occasions. During the captivity of King John, when Paris was given over to factions, the university sought to restore peace; and under Louis XIV, when the Spaniards crossed the Somme and threatened the capital, it placed two hundred men at the king's disposal and offered the Master of Arts degree gratuitously to scholars who should present certificates of service in the army (Jourdain, Hist. de l'Univers. de Paris au XVIIe et XVIIIe siècle, 132-34; Archiv. du ministère de l'instruction publique).

1793: Abolition by the French Revolution

Front of the Sorbonne
The Sorbonne as seen from rue des Écoles.

The ancient university disappeared with the ancien régime in the French Revolution. On 15 September 1793, petitioned by the Department of Paris and several departmental groups, the National Convention decided that independently of the primary schools,

"there should be established in the Republic three progressive degrees of instruction; the first for the knowledge indispensable to artisans and workmen of all kinds; the second for further knowledge necessary to those intending to embrace the other professions of society; and the third for those branches of instruction the study of which is not within the reach of all men".

Measures were to be taken immediately: "For means of execution the department and the municipality of Paris are authorized to consult with the Committee of Public Instruction of the National Convention, in order that these establishments shall be put in action by 1 November next, and consequently colleges now in operation and the faculties of theology, medicine, arts, and law are suppressed throughout the Republic". This was the death-sentence of the university. It was not to be restored after the Revolution had subsided, no more than those of the provinces.

1806–1968: Re-establishment

The university was re-established by Napoleon on 1 May 1806. All the faculties were replaced by a single centre, the University of France. The decree of 17 March 1808 created five distinct faculties: Law, Medicine, Letters/Humanities, Sciences, and Theology; traditionally, Letters and Sciences had been grouped together into one faculty, that of "Arts". After a century, people recognized that the new system was less favourable to study. The defeat of 1870 at the hands of Prussia was partially blamed on the growth of the superiority of the German university system of the 19th century, and led to another serious reform of the French university. In the 1880s, the "licence" (bachelor) degree is divided into, for the Faculty of Letters: Letters, Philosophy, History, Modern Languages, with French, Latin and Greek being requirements for all of them; and for the Faculty of Science, into: Mathematics, Physical Sciences and Natural Sciences; the Faculty of Theology is abolished by the Republic. At this time, the building of the Sorbonne was fully renovated.[19]

May 1968–1970: Shutdown

In 1966, after a student revolt in Paris, Christian Fouchet, minister of education, had proposed "the reorganisation of university studies into separate two- and four-year degrees, alongside the introduction of selective admission criteria" as a response to overcrowding in lecture halls.[20] Dissatisfied with these educational reforms, students began protesting in November 1967, at the campus of the University of Paris in Nanterre;[21] indeed, according to James Marshall, these reforms were seen "as the manifestations of the technocratic-capitalist state by some, and by others as attempts to destroy the liberal university".[22] After student activists protested the Vietnam War, the campus was closed by authorities on 22 March and again on 2 May 1968.[23] Agitation spread to the Sorbonne the next day, and many students were arrested in the following week.[24] Barricades were erected throughout the Latin Quarter, and a massive demonstration took place on 13 May, gathering students and workers on strike.[25] The number of workers on strike reached about nine million by 22 May.[21] As explained by Bill Readings:

[President Charles de Gaulle] responded on May 24 by calling for a referendum, and [...] the revolutionaries, led by informal action committees, attacked and burned the Paris Stock Exchange in response. The Gaullist government then held talks with union leaders, who agreed to a package of wage-rises and increases in union rights. The strikers, however, simply refused the plan. With the French state tottering, de Gaulle fled France on May 29 for a French military base in Germany. He later returned and, with the assurance of military support, announced [general] elections [within] forty days. [...] Over the next two months, the strikes were broken (or broke up) while the election was won by the Gaullists with an increased majority.[26]

1970: Division

Following the disruption, de Gaulle appointed Edgar Faure as minister of education; Faure was assigned to draft reforms about the French university system, with the help of academics.[27] Their proposal was adopted on 12 November 1968;[28] in accordance with the new law, the faculties of the University of Paris were to reorganize themselves.[29]

Some of the new universities took over the old faculties and the majority of their professors: social sciences by Panthéon-Sorbonne University;[30] law by Panthéon-Assas University;[31] humanities by Sorbonne Nouvelle[6][4] and Paris-Sorbonne University; natural sciences by Paris Descartes University[32][4] and Pierre and Marie Curie University.[33]

The thirteen successor universities to the University of Paris are now split over the three academies of the Île-de-France region.

University of Paris I Panthéon-Sorbonne University Academy of Paris Humanities, Social sciences, Economics
University of Paris II Panthéon-Assas University Academy of Paris Law, Economics
University of Paris III Sorbonne Nouvelle University Academy of Paris Humanities
University of Paris IV Paris-Sorbonne University Academy of Paris Humanities
University of Paris V René Descartes University Academy of Paris Medicine, Social sciences, Humanities
University of Paris VI Pierre-and-Marie-Curie University Academy of Paris Science, Medicine
University of Paris VII Denis Diderot University Academy of Paris Science, Medicine, Humanities, Social sciences, Arts
University of Paris VIII University of Vincennes in Saint-Denis Academy of Créteil Social sciences
University of Paris IX Paris Dauphine University Academy of Paris Economics
University of Paris X University of Paris Ouest Academy of Versailles Social sciences
University of Paris XI University of Paris Sud Academy of Versailles Science
University of Paris XII University of Paris Est Academy of Créteil Medicine, Science
University of Paris XIII University of Paris Nord Academy of Créteil Science, Social sciences, Medicine

Most of these successor universities have the joined the six groups of universities and (higher education) institutions in the Paris region, created in the 2010s.

Use of the buildings

Following the May 1968 events, French higher education was reorganized in the Faure law of November 12, 1968.[34][35][36] Some of the 13 autonomous universities created after the breakup of the University of Paris maintained operations in the Sorbonne building and decided to keep the word Sorbonne in their names: The University of Paris 1 (Panthéon-Sorbonne), the University of Paris 3 (Sorbonne-Nouvelle) and the University of Paris 4 (Paris-Sorbonne). Two other universities maintained operations in the building but opted to abandon the name: the University of Paris 5 (Paris Descartes) and the University of Paris 7 (Paris Diderot).[37]

Two additional higher education institutions also remained active in the historical Sorbonne building: the Ecole des chartes and the Ecole pratique de hautes études.[37] Furthermore, the University of Paris 2 (Panthéon-Assas), while not based in the Sorbonne building, does operate from the Panthéon site across the Cujas street.[38]

The common heritage and estate of the University of Paris (including the Sorbonne building) was not divided and instead placed under the authority of a common administration: the Chancellerie des Universités de Paris, whose headquarters are also located in the Sorbonne building.[34][39]

The building as a whole is then a common asset of the 13 successor universities of the University of Paris, and particularly the monumental sections are not attributed to any single university (but shared by all of them): the Sorbonne Chapel, the Cour d'honneur, the Pérystile and the Grand amphithéâtre.[37][40]

Some of the dependencies are administered by one of the successor universities (while remaining a common asset). The library of the Sorbonne (Bibliothèque Interuniversitaire de la Sorbonne) is a common library of the universities Panthéon-Sorbonne, Sorbonne-Nouvelle, Sorbonne-Université, Paris Descartes and Paris Diderot, administered by Panthéon-Sorbonne.[41]

The classrooms, libraries and administrative offices are attributed to the Universities maintaining operations in the building: Panthéon-Sorbonne, Sorbonne-Nouvelle, Sorbonne-Université (which also has its headquarters), Paris Descartes and Paris Diderot. All of them also operate in other campuses established across Paris.

The name and brand Sorbonne

Despite being a highly valued brand, the Sorbonne universities did not register their names as trademarks until the 1990s. Over the following years, they established partnerships, merging projects and associated institutions with the name Sorbonne, sometimes triggering conflicts over the usage and ownership of the name.

After the Faure law of 1968, Parisian universities – as other universities in other French cities – received names composed of their city of origin and a number.[34]They also chose an accompanying name and they usually go together in official documents, and colloquially may be referred as one or the other ("Paris 1" or "Panthéon-Sorbonne"):

However, almost 30 years went by without any of them registering their names as a trademark. The first one to do it was the University of Paris 4 Paris-Sorbonne, who trademarked the name Université de Paris-Sorbonne in 1996, followed by the registration of the updated logos over the next decade.[42] It was followed by Sorbonne-Nouvelle and Panthéon-Sorbonne[42] in 1999.[43] In 2007 Paris 4 trademarked also the brand "La Sorbonne". In 2006 it had granted permission to the authorities of Abu Dhabi to use the brand Sorbonne in the entire Middle east region; the "Sorbonne Abu Dhabi" logo was trademarked in 2007,[42] blocking other Sorbonne universities from doing the same.[44] This last initiative triggered a crisis with the other Sorbonne universities, forcing the French authorities to intervene.[45]

The local governments of Paris and the Île de France region threatened to block the merger of Paris 2, Paris 4 and Paris 6, who had trademarked the brand "Université de la Sorbonne",[42] if they persisted in taking over the name Sorbonne for themselves at the expense of the other Sorbonne universities.[46][47][48][49][50]

Later the merging project advanced only between the Universities of Paris 4 and Paris 6[51] but was forced to reconsider the name Sorbonne Université. The compromise in 2010 consisted of adding a "s" at the end of the name of the project (the future merged University would be named later), making it Sorbonne Universités.[34][42] In 2018 the project effectively merged the former universities of Paris 4 and 6, taking the name "Sorbonne-Université" with or without the hyphen.[52] In line with the naming convention and with the former crisis of 2006 in the background, the number in the name disappears and the accompanying name becomes "Sorbonne Université", replacing "Paris-Sorbonne" and "Pierre et Marie Curie".

The new naming is then "Université Sorbonne Université" or "Université Sorbonne-Université"[52] though colloquially and in most communications, and in registered trademarks[42] is simply "Sorbonne Université". The first "University" in the name refers to the fact that it is a University – only public higher education institutions are allowed to use that term in France[53]– and the second "University" comes from the naming convention of adding a name after the City-number designation. Currently Sorbonne-Université is the only Sorbonne university not using a number in its name.

The University of Paris 2 (Panthéon-Assas) trademarked the brand "Université Sorbonne-Assas" in 2007 and "Sorbonne-Assas" in 2013.[42]

Specific programs and institutions

Other mergers or association projects

Notable people



Nobel prizes


The university counts 50 Nobel Prize winners, placing it in 14th position globally, and 2nd outside of the English-speaking world. The Sorbonne has taught 11 French presidents, almost 50 French heads of government, 2 Popes, as well as many other political and social figures. The Sorbonne has also educated leaders of Albania, Canada, the Dominican Republic, Gabon, Guinea, Iraq, Jordan, Kosovo, Tunisia and Niger among others. List of Nobel Prize winners that had attended the University of Paris or one of its thirteen successors.

  1. [Ph.] Albert Fert (PhD) – 2007
  2. [Ph.] Alfred Kastler (DSc) – 1966
  3. [Ph.] Gabriel Lippmann (DSc) – 1908
  4. [Ph.] Jean Perrin (DSc) – 1926
  5. [Ph.] Louis Néel (MSc) – 1970
  6. [Ph.] Louis de Broglie (DSc) – 1929
  7. [Ph.] [Ch.] Marie Curie[65] (DSc) – 1903, 1911
  8. [Ph.] Pierre Curie (DSc) – 1903
  9. [Ph.] Pierre-Gilles de Gennes (DSc) – 1991
  10. [Ph.] Serge Haroche (PhD, DSc) – 2012
  11. [Ch.] Frédéric Joliot-Curie (DSc) – 1935
  12. [Ch.] Gerhard Ertl (Attendee) – 2007
  13. [Ch.] Henri Moissan (DSc) – 1906
  14. [Ch.] Irène Joliot-Curie (DSc) – 1935
  15. [Ch.] Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff (Attendee) – 2007
  16. [PM] André Frédéric Cournand (M.D) – 1956
  17. [PM] André Lwoff (M.D, DSc) – 1965
  18. [PM] Bert Sakmann (Attendee) – 1991
  19. [PM] Charles Nicolle (M.D) – 1928
  20. [PM] Charles Richet (M.D, DSc) – 1913
  21. [PM] François Jacob (M.D) – 1965
  22. [PM] Françoise Barré-Sinoussi (PhD) – 2008
  23. [PM] Jacques Monod (DSc) – 1965
  24. [PM] Jean Dausset (MD) – 1980
  25. [PM] Luc Montagnier (MD) – 2008
  26. [Ec.] Gérard Debreu (DSc) – 1983
  27. [Ec.] Maurice Allais (D.Eng.) – 1988
  28. [Ec.] Jean Tirole (PhD) – 2014
  29. [Pe.] Albert Schweitzer (PhD) – 1952
  30. [Pe.] Charles Albert Gobat (Attendee) – 1902
  31. [Pe.] Ferdinand Buisson (DLitt) – 1927
  32. [Pe.] Léon Bourgeois (DCL) – 1920
  33. [Pe.] Louis Renault (DCL) – 1907
  34. [Pe.] René Cassin (DCL) – 1968
  35. [Li.] Giorgos Seferis (LLB) – 1963
  36. [Li.] Henri Bergson (B.A) – 1927
  37. [Li.] Jean-Paul Sartre (B.A) – 1964
  38. [Li.] Patrick Modiano (Attendee) – 2014
  39. [Li.] Romain Rolland (D Litt) – 1915
  40. [Li.] T.S.Eliot (Attendee) – 1979


List of Nobel Prize winners that were affiliated with the University of Paris or one of its thirteen successors.

  1. [Ph.] George Smoot (Professor) – 2006
  2. [Ph.] Gabriel Lippmann (Professor) – 1908*
  3. [Ph.] Jean Perrin (Professor) – 1926*
  4. [Ph.] Louis de Broglie (Professor) – 1929*
  5. [Ph.][Ch.] Marie Curie[65] (Professor) – 1903*, 1911*
  6. [Ph.] Alfred Kastler (Researcher) – 1966
  7. [Ch.] Henri Moissan (Professor) – 1906*
  8. [Ch.] Irène Joliot-Curie (Professor) – 1935*
  9. [Ch.] Peter Debye[66] (Visiting Lecturer) - 1936
  10. [PM] Charles Richet (Professor) - 1913*
  11. [PM] Jules Bordet (Researcher) - 1919
  12. [PM] Roger Guillemin (Researcher) – 1977
  13. [PM] Jean Dausset (Professor) – 1980*
  14. [Pe.] Louis Renault (Professor) – 1907*
  15. [Li.] T.S. Eliot[67] (Visitor) – 1948


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  29. ^ Conac, p. 177.
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  33. ^ UPMC, Université Pierre et Marie Curie -. "De la faculté des sciences de l'université de Paris à l'UPMC".
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Further reading

External links

American University of Paris

The American University of Paris (AUP) is a private, independent, and accredited liberal arts and sciences university in Paris, France. Founded in 1962, the university is one of the oldest American institutions of higher education in Europe. The university campus consists of ten buildings, centrally located in the 7th arrondissement of Paris, on the Left Bank near the Eiffel Tower, Les Invalides, and the Seine.The university's language of instruction is English, although students must prove a level of proficiency in French prior to graduation. The university has over 1100 students, representing 108 nationalities, with an average student-to-faculty ratio of twelve to one. The university's faculty members represent thirty nationalities, with 69% holding doctoral degrees and close to 70% speaking three or more languages.The university sponsors more than 200 lectures and seminars every year. Past lecturers at AUP have included David Lynch, Martha Nussbaum, Jane Goodall, J.M. Coetzee, National Geographic photojournalist Reza, Calvin Klein, and Jean-Pierre Jeunet. Additionally, the university has hosted numerous international conferences, inviting an aggregate of over a thousand scholars, including Gary Becker, Nobel Prize-recipient of Economics in 1992 and Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, former President of France and Michel Rocard, former Prime Minister of France.The university has been awarding honorary degrees since 1984. Amongst the recipients are scholars, writers, artists, political figures and researches, including Gene Kelly, Olivia de Havilland, Leslie Caron, Robert Wilson, Pierre Salinger, Jessye Norman, I.M. Pei, William Styron, Simon Weisenthal, Pamela Harriman, Simone Veil, Sargent Shriver, James Ivory, Bernard Kouchner, Michel Rocard, Christine Lagarde, Christiane Amanpour, Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, Tzvetan Todorov, Muriel Spark, Mavis Gallant, J.M. Coetzee, Eugene Lang, Paul Muldoon, Jane Goodall, Archie Shepp, David McCullough, Louise Arbour, and Martha Nussbaum.

Eva Green

Eva Gaëlle Green (Swedish: [ˈɡreːn]; born 6 July 1980) is a French actress and model.

The daughter of actress Marlène Jobert, she started her career in theatre before making her film debut in Bernardo Bertolucci's The Dreamers (2003). She achieved international recognition for her portrayal of Sibylla, Queen of Jerusalem in Ridley Scott's historical epic Kingdom of Heaven (2005). The following year, she played Bond girl Vesper Lynd in the James Bond film Casino Royale (2006) and was awarded the BAFTA Rising Star Award.

Green has since starred in numerous independent films, including Cracks (2009), Womb (2010), and Perfect Sense (2011). In 2014, she played Artemisia in the 300 sequel, 300: Rise of an Empire, and Ava Lord in Frank Miller and Robert Rodriguez's Sin City sequel, Sin City: A Dame to Kill For. Green is also known for her collaborations with director Tim Burton, starring as Angelique Bouchard in the horror comedy film Dark Shadows (2012), Miss Alma Peregrine in the fantasy film Miss Peregrine's Home for Peculiar Children (2016), and Colette Marchant in the fantasy film Dumbo (2019).

Green starred as Morgan Pendragon in the Starz historical fantasy series Camelot (2011). She also starred as Vanessa Ives in the Showtime horror drama series Penny Dreadful (2014–2016), earning a nomination for Best Actress in a Television Series – Drama at the 73rd Golden Globe Awards.

Marie Curie

Marie Skłodowska Curie (; French: [kyʁi]; Polish: [kʲiˈri]; born Maria Salomea Skłodowska; 7 November 1867 – 4 July 1934) was a Polish and naturalized-French physicist and chemist who conducted pioneering research on radioactivity. She was the first woman to win a Nobel Prize, the first person and only woman to win twice, and the only person to win a Nobel Prize in two different sciences. She was part of the Curie family legacy of five Nobel Prizes. She was also the first woman to become a professor at the University of Paris, and in 1995 became the first woman to be entombed on her own merits in the Panthéon in Paris.

She was born in Warsaw, in what was then the Kingdom of Poland, part of the Russian Empire. She studied at Warsaw's clandestine Flying University and began her practical scientific training in Warsaw. In 1891, aged 24, she followed her older sister Bronisława to study in Paris, where she earned her higher degrees and conducted her subsequent scientific work. She shared the 1903 Nobel Prize in Physics with her husband Pierre Curie and physicist Henri Becquerel. She won the 1911 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

Her achievements included the development of the theory of radioactivity (a term that she coined), techniques for isolating radioactive isotopes, and the discovery of two elements, polonium and radium. Under her direction, the world's first studies into the treatment of neoplasms were conducted using radioactive isotopes. She founded the Curie Institutes in Paris and in Warsaw, which remain major centres of medical research today. During World War I she developed mobile radiography units to provide X-ray services to field hospitals.

While a French citizen, Marie Skłodowska Curie, who used both surnames, never lost her sense of Polish identity. She taught her daughters the Polish language and took them on visits to Poland. She named the first chemical element she discovered polonium, after her native country.Marie Curie died in 1934, aged 66, at a sanatorium in Sancellemoz (Haute-Savoie), France, of aplastic anemia from exposure to radiation in the course of her scientific research and in the course of her radiological work at field hospitals during World War I.

Pantheon-Sorbonne University

Pantheon-Sorbonne University (French: Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne), also known as Paris 1, is a multidisciplinary public research university in Paris, France. It focuses on the areas of humanities, law, political science, social sciences, economics and finance. It is one of the thirteen inheritors of the world's second oldest academic institution, the University of Paris — colloquially referred to as the Sorbonne —, shortly before the latter officially ceased to exist on December 31, 1970, as a consequence of the French cultural revolution of 1968, often referred to as "the French May". The double origin of the founders is now found in the name of the university: Panthéon for law and Economics, Sorbonne for humanities.Pantheon-Sorbonne is multidisciplinary, and has three main domains: Economic and Management Sciences, Human Sciences, and Legal and Political Sciences; comprising several subjects such as: Economics, Law, Philosophy, Geography, Humanities, Cinema, Plastic arts, Art history, Political science, Mathematics, Management, and Social sciences.Pantheon-Sorbonne's headquarters is located on the Place du Panthéon in the Latin Quarter, an area in the 5th and the 6th arrondissements of Paris. The university also occupies part of the historical Sorbonne campus. Overall, its campus includes over 25 buildings in Paris, such as the Centre Pierre Mendès France ("Tolbiac"), the Maison des Sciences Économiques, among others.In 2018, Pantheon-Sorbonne was globally ranked 299th by QS World University Rankings, and 501-600th by The Times Higher Education By world reputation, it was ranked 71-80th (2nd of France) in 2017 by The Times Higher Education. It was also ranked by the 2019 QS World University Ranking by Subject as being 1st in France in Archaeology, History, Law, Philosophy, Geography, Anthropology, and Economics. In the French Eduniversal rankings, it is ranked 1st of France in Economics, 4th in Law and 14th in Business.

Panthéon-Assas University

Panthéon-Assas University (French: Université Panthéon-Assas; [ynivɛʁsite pɑ̃teɔ̃ asas]), also referred to as Assas [asas], Paris II [paʁi dø], or Sorbonne-Assas, is a public university in Paris, France.

Panthéon-Assas is renowned for excellence in law and often described as the top law school in France.It is considered as the direct inheritor of the Paris Law School (1257-1970) since most of the latter’s law professors (88 out of 108) went to Panthéon-Assas and its main campuses are the same ones of those of the Paris Law Faculty (i.e., Place du Panthéon and rue d’Assas), from which its name comes. It currently provides law courses for the Sorbonne University and may become its faculty of law.Since its founding in 1971, it has produced two presidents, four prime ministers, and the holders of thirty-seven other ministerships in France and around the world. Forty alumni of the university have been members of various parliaments as well.

The majority of the nineteen campuses of Panthéon-Assas are located in the Latin Quarter, with the main campuses on place du Panthéon and rue d'Assas. The university is composed of five departments specializing in law, journalism and media, economics, public and private management, and political science and hosts twenty-four research centres and five specialized doctoral schools. Every year, the university enrolls approximately 18,000 students, including 3,000 international students.

Paris-Sorbonne University

Paris-Sorbonne University (also known as Paris IV; French: Université Paris-Sorbonne, Paris IV) was a public research university in Paris, France, active from 1971 to 2017. It was the main inheritor of the Faculty of Humanities of the University of Paris. In 2018, it was merged with Pierre and Marie Curie University and some smaller entities to forming a new university called Sorbonne University.

Paris-Sorbonne University was consistently ranked as France's as well as one of the world's most prominent ones in the humanities. QS World University Rankings ranked it 13th in humanities internationally in 2010, and 17th in 2011 and 2012. Times Higher Education World University Rankings also ranked it as France's highest reputed institution of higher education overall in 2012.

Paris 13 University

University of Paris 13 (French: Université Paris XIII or simply Paris XIII) is one of the thirteen universities in Paris which replaced the University of Paris in 1970. It is also identified as University of Paris North (Université Paris Nord).

Paris 8 University

The University of Paris VIII or University of Vincennes in Saint-Denis (French: Université Paris 8 Vincennes-Saint-Denis or Université de Vincennes à Saint-Denis) is a public university in Paris. Once part of the federal University of Paris system, it is now an autonomous public institution and is part of the Université Paris Lumières. Most undergraduate degrees (except modern languages) are taught in French.

It is one of the thirteen successors of the world's second oldest academic institution, the University of Paris, and was established shortly before the latter officially ceased to exist on 31 December 1970. It was founded as a direct response to events of May 1968. This response was twofold: it was sympathetic to students' demands for more freedom, but also represented the movement of students out of central Paris, especially the Latin Quarter, where the street fighting of 1968 had taken place.

Paris Dauphine University

Paris Dauphine University (French: Université Paris-Dauphine), often referred to as Paris Dauphine or Dauphine, is a selective public research and higher education institution in Paris, France. It is the only institution in France to be both a grande école and University. Dauphine was founded as a faculty of economics and management in 1968 in the former NATO headquarters in western Paris, in the 16th arrondissement.

Dauphine is renowned for its teaching in finance, economics, law, finance and mathematics and business strategy. Dauphine is a selective university with the status of "Grand Etablissement"; this unique legal status within the French higher education system allows Dauphine to make an entrance selection of its students. On average, 90 to 95% of the accepted students received either high distinctions or the highest distinctions at their French High School National Exam results (Examen National du Baccalauréat).Dauphine is also a founding member, and now a constituent college, of Université PSL. It also belongs to the Conférence des Grandes écoles.

Paris Descartes University

Paris Descartes University (French: Université Paris 5 René Descartes), also known as Paris V, is a French public research university located in Paris.

It is one of the inheritors of the University of Paris (often referred as the Sorbonne), which ceased to exist in 1970. It is a member of the Sorbonne Paris Cité University (USPC) group.

It was established as a mutidisciplinary university "of humanities and health sciences" ("des Sciences de l’Homme et de la Santé". It focuses in the areas of medical sciences, biomedical sciences, law, computer science, economics and psychology.Its main campus is in the historic École de Chirurgie in the 6th arrondissement of Paris.

Paris Diderot University

Paris Diderot University, also known as Paris 7 (French: Université Paris Diderot (Paris 7)), is a French university located in Paris, France.

It was one of the heirs of the University of Paris, which ceased to exist in 1970. Professors from the faculties of Science, of Medicine and of Humanities chose then to create a new multidisciplinary university. It adopted its current name in 1994 after the 18th-century French philosopher, art critic and writer Denis Diderot.

With two Nobel Prize laureates, two Fields Medal winners and two former French Ministers of Education among its faculty or former faculty, the university is famous for its teaching in science, especially in mathematics. Indeed, many fundamental results of the theory of probability have been discovered at one of its research centres, the Laboratoire de Probabilités et Modèles Aléatoires (Laboratory of Probability and Random Models). The university is also known for its teaching in psychology, which adopts a specific approach that draws from both psychopathology and psychoanalysis.

The university also hosts many other disciplines: currently, with 2,300 educators and researchers, 1,100 administrative personnel and 26,000 students studying humanities, science or medicine.Paris Diderot University is a founding member of the higher education and research alliance Sorbonne Paris Cité, a public institution for scientific co-operation, bringing together four renowned Parisian universities and four higher education and research institutes.Formerly based at the Jussieu Campus, in the 5th arrondissement, the university moved to a new campus in the 13th arrondissement, in the Paris Rive Gauche neighbourhood. The first buildings were brought into use in 2006. The university has many facilities in Paris and two in other places of the general area. In 2012, the university completed its move in its new ultramodern campus.

Paris Nanterre University

Paris Nanterre University (French: Université Paris Nanterre), formerly called "Paris X Nanterre" and more recently "Université Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense", is a French university in the Academy of Versailles. It is one of the most prestigious French universities, mainly in the areas of law, humanities, political science, social and natural sciences and economics. It is one of the thirteen successor universities of the University of Paris. It is located in the western suburb of Nanterre, in the La Défense area, the business district of Paris. The university is commonly referred to as Nanterre.

Pierre Curie

Pierre Curie (; French: [kyʁi]; 15 May 1859 – 19 April 1906) was a French physicist, a pioneer in crystallography, magnetism, piezoelectricity and radioactivity. In 1903, he received the Nobel Prize in Physics with his wife, Marie Skłodowska-Curie, and Henri Becquerel, "in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel".

Pierre and Marie Curie University

Pierre and Marie Curie University (French: Université Pierre-et-Marie-Curie), titled as UPMC from 2007–2017 and also known as Paris 6, was a public research university in Paris, France from 1971 to 2017. The university is located on the Jussieu Campus in the Latin Quarter of the 5th arrondissement of Paris, France.

In 2010, the Sorbonne University group of cooperating institutions was created, with UPMC as a member. UPMC merged with Paris-Sorbonne University, a fellow Sorbonne group member, into a new combined Sorbonne University on 1 January 2018.

Ruth Westheimer

Ruth Westheimer (born June 4, 1928), better known as Dr. Ruth, is a German-American sex therapist, media personality, and author. Her media career began in 1980 with the radio show, Sexually Speaking, which continued until 1990. She also hosted at least five television shows on the Lifetime and other cable television from 1984 to 1993. She is also the author of approximately 40 books on a variety of topics about sex and sexuality.

Sam Trammell

Sam Trammell (born January 29, 1969) is an American actor, known for his role as Sam Merlotte on the HBO fantasy drama series True Blood. He was nominated for the Tony Award for Best Featured Actor in a Play for his performance as Richard Miller in Ah, Wilderness!.


The Sorbonne (UK: , also US: , French: [sɔʁbɔn]) is a building in the Latin Quarter of Paris which was the historical house of the former University of Paris. Today, it houses part or all of several higher education and research institutions such as Panthéon-Sorbonne University, Sorbonne Nouvelle University, Paris Descartes University, École pratique des hautes études, and Sorbonne University.

University of Paris-Sud

Paris-Sud University (French: Université Paris-Sud), also known as University of Paris — XI, is a French university distributed among several campuses in the southern suburbs of Paris including Orsay, Cachan, Châtenay-Malabry, Sceaux and Kremlin-Bicêtre campuses. The main campus is located in Orsay (48.699890°N 2.173309°E / 48.699890; 2.173309). This university is a member of the UniverSud Paris and a constituent university of the federal University of Paris-Saclay.

Paris-Sud is one of the largest and most renowned French universities, particularly in science and mathematics.

Four Fields Medalists and two Nobel Prize Winners have been affiliated to the university.The current president of the University is Sylvie Retailleau.

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