University of California

Coordinates: 37°48′08″N 122°16′17″W / 37.802168°N 122.271281°W

University of California
The University of California 1868
MottoFiat lux (Latin)
Motto in English
Let there be light
TypePublic university system
EstablishedMarch 23, 1868
EndowmentUS$12.3 billion (2018)[1]
BudgetUS$34.3 billion (2017)[2]
PresidentJanet Napolitano
Academic staff
21,200 (October 2016)[3]
Administrative staff
144,000 (October 2016)[3]
Students251,700 (October 2016)[3]
Undergraduates198,800 (October 2016)[3]
Postgraduates52,800 (October 2016)[3]
Location, ,
U.S.
Campus10 campuses under direct control (nine with undergraduate and graduate schools, one professional/graduate only), one affiliated law school, one national laboratory
ColorsBlue & Gold[4]
         
Websiteuniversityofcalifornia.edu
University of California logo

The University of California (UC) is a public university system in the U.S. state of California. Under the California Master Plan for Higher Education, the University of California is a part of the state's three-system public higher education plan, which also includes the California State University system and the California Community Colleges System.

The University of California was founded on March 23, 1868, and operated temporarily in Oakland before moving to its new campus in Berkeley in 1873.[5][6] In March 1951, the University of California began to reorganize itself into something distinct from its first campus at Berkeley, with Robert Gordon Sproul remaining in place as the first systemwide President and Clark Kerr becoming the first Chancellor of UC Berkeley.[7][8][9][10] However, the 1951 reorganization was stalled by resistance from Sproul and his allies,[11] and it was not until Kerr succeeded Sproul as President that UC was able to evolve into a true university system from 1957 to 1960.[12]

In the 21st century, the University of California has 10 campuses, a combined student body of 251,700 students, 21,200 faculty members, 144,000 staff members and over 1.86 million living alumni, as governed by a semi-autonomous Board of Regents.[3] Its tenth and newest campus in Merced opened in fall 2005. Nine campuses enroll both undergraduate and graduate students; one campus, UC San Francisco, enrolls only graduate and professional students in the medical and health sciences. In addition, the UC Hastings College of Law, located in San Francisco, is legally affiliated with UC, but other than sharing its name is entirely autonomous from the rest of the system.

The University of California also manages or co-manages three national laboratories for the U.S. Department of Energy: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).[13]

Collectively, the colleges, institutions, and alumni of the University of California make it the most comprehensive and advanced postsecondary educational system in the world, responsible for nearly $50 billion per year of economic impact.[14] UC campuses have large numbers of distinguished faculty in almost every academic discipline, with UC faculty and researchers having won at least 62 Nobel Prizes as of 2017.[15]

History

University of California Office of the President
Office of the President in Oakland

In 1849, the state of California ratified its first constitution, which contained the express objective of creating a complete educational system including a state university. Taking advantage of the Morrill Land-Grant Acts, the California Legislature established an Agricultural, Mining, and Mechanical Arts College in 1866.[16][17] However, it existed only on paper, as a placeholder to secure federal land-grant funds.[17]

Meanwhile, Congregational minister Henry Durant, an alumnus of Yale, had established the private Contra Costa Academy, on June 20, 1853, in Oakland, California.[16] The initial site was bounded by Twelfth and Fourteenth Streets and Harrison and Franklin Streets in downtown Oakland[16] (and is marked today by State Historical Plaque No. 45 at the northeast corner of Thirteenth and Franklin). In turn, the Academy's trustees were granted a charter in 1855 for a College of California, though the College continued to operate as a college preparatory school until it added college-level courses in 1860.[16][17] The College's trustees, educators, and supporters believed in the importance of a liberal arts education (especially the study of the Greek and Roman classics), but ran into a lack of interest in liberal arts colleges on the American frontier (as a true college, the College was graduating only three or four students per year).[17]

In November 1857, the College's trustees began to acquire various parcels of land facing the Golden Gate in what is now Berkeley for a future planned campus outside of Oakland.[16] But first, they needed to secure the College's water rights by buying a large farm to the east.[16] In 1864, they organized the College Homestead Association, which borrowed $35,000 to purchase the land, plus another $33,000 to purchase 160 acres (650,000 m²) of land to the south of the future campus.[18] The Association subdivided the latter parcel and started selling lots with the hope it could raise enough money to repay its lenders and also create a new college town.[16] But sales of new homesteads fell short.[16]

Governor Frederick Low favored the establishment of a state university based upon the University of Michigan plan, and thus in one sense may be regarded as the founder of the University of California.[16][17] At the College of California's 1867 commencement exercises, where Low was present, Benjamin Silliman, Jr. criticized Californians for creating a state polytechnic school instead of a real university.[16][17] That same day, Low reportedly first suggested a merger of the already-functional College of California (which had land, buildings, faculty, and students, but not enough money) with the nonfunctional state college (which had money and nothing else), and went on to participate in the ensuing negotiations.[16][17] On October 9, 1867, the College's trustees reluctantly agreed to join forces with the state college to their mutual advantage, but under one condition—that there not be simply an "Agricultural, Mining, and Mechanical Arts College", but a complete university, within which the assets of the College of California would be used to create a College of Letters (now known as the College of Letters and Science).[16][17][19] Accordingly, the Organic Act, establishing the University of California, was introduced as a bill by Assemblyman John W. Dwinelle on March 5, 1868, and after it was duly passed by both houses of the state legislature, it was signed into state law by Governor Henry H. Haight (Low's successor) on March 23, 1868.[16][17][20] However, as legally constituted, the new University was not an actual merger of the two colleges, but was an entirely new institution which merely inherited certain objectives and assets from each of them.[16]

The University of California's second president, Daniel Coit Gilman, opened its new campus in Berkeley in September 1873.[21] Earlier that year, Toland Medical College in San Francisco (founded in 1864) had agreed to become the University's "Medical Department"; it later evolved into UCSF. In 1878, the University established Hastings College of the Law in San Francisco as its first law school. The California Constitution was amended to designate Hastings as the "Law Department" of the University of California in consideration of a $100,000 gift from Serranus Clinton Hastings (though this was later transferred to statutory law during the shortening of what had become an extraordinarily long constitution by the 1960s). Hastings is the only UC campus not governed by the Regents of the University of California,[22] as required as a condition of Hastings' gift.

In August 1882, the California State Normal School (whose original normal school in San Jose is now San Jose State University) opened a second school in Los Angeles to train teachers for the growing population of Southern California.[23] In 1887, the Los Angeles school was granted its own board of trustees independent of the San Jose school, and in 1919, the state legislature transferred it to UC control and renamed it the Southern Branch of the University of California.[24] In 1927, it became the University of California at Los Angeles; the "at" would be replaced with a comma in 1958.[25]

Meanwhile, Los Angeles had already surpassed San Francisco in the 1920 census to become the preeminent metropolis on the West Coast, and its residents sought more prestige and autonomy for their campus. UCLA became the first UC site outside of Berkeley to achieve de jure coequal status with the Berkeley campus in March 1951, when the Regents approved a reorganization plan under which both the Berkeley and Los Angeles campuses would be supervised by chancellors reporting to the UC President.[7][8][9][26][27] However, the 1951 plan was severely flawed; it was overly vague about how the chancellors were to become the "executive heads" of their campuses. Due to stubborn resistance from President Sproul and several vice presidents and deans—who simply carried on as before—the chancellors ended up as glorified provosts with limited control over academic affairs while the President and the Regents retained de facto control over everything else.[11] Upon becoming President in October 1957, Clark Kerr supervised UC's rapid transformation into a true public university system through a series of proposals adopted unanimously by the Regents from 1957 to 1960.[12] Kerr's reforms included expressly granting all campus chancellors the full range of executive powers, privileges, and responsibilities which Sproul had denied to Kerr himself, as well as the radical decentralization of a tightly-knit bureaucracy in which all lines of authority had always run directly to the President at Berkeley or to the Regents themselves.[12][26][27]

During the 20th century, UC acquired additional satellite locations which, like Los Angeles, were all subordinate to administrators at the Berkeley campus. California farmers lobbied for UC to perform applied research responsive to their immediate needs; in 1905, the Legislature established a "University Farm School" at Davis and in 1907 a "Citrus Experiment Station" at Riverside as adjuncts to the College of Agriculture at Berkeley. In 1912, UC acquired a private oceanography laboratory in San Diego, which had been founded nine years earlier by local business promoters working with a Berkeley professor. In 1944, UC acquired Santa Barbara State College from the California State Colleges, the descendants of the State Normal Schools.[28] After losing a second campus to UC, the state colleges' supporters arranged for the state constitution to be amended in 1946 to prevent it from happening again.[28] Starting in 1956, the Regents began to promote its various locations to the rank of general campus and granted each the right to have their own chancellors. After granting UCLA coequal status in 1951, the process continued with the creation of UCSB (1958), UC Davis (1959), UC Riverside (1959), UC San Diego (1960), and UCSF (1964).[29][30] In response to the state's continued population growth, UC decided to establish two additional general campuses in 1965, with UC Irvine in Irvine and UC Santa Cruz in Santa Cruz.[29] The youngest university, UC Merced opened in fall 2005 to serve the San Joaquin Valley.

In 1932, Will Keith Kellogg donated his Arabian horse ranch in Pomona, California, to the University of California system.[31] However, the land remained largely unused and ownership was transferred to the California State University system in 1949. Kellogg's old ranch became the California State Polytechnic University, Pomona.[32]

The California Master Plan for Higher Education of 1960 established that UC must admit undergraduates from the top 12.5% (one-eighth) of graduating high school seniors in California. Prior to the promulgation of the Master Plan, UC was to admit undergraduates from the top 15%. UC does not currently adhere to all tenets of the original Master Plan, such as the directives that no campus was to exceed total enrollment of 27,500 students (in order to ensure quality) and that public higher education should be tuition-free for California residents. Five campuses, Berkeley, Davis, Irvine, Los Angeles, and San Diego each have current total enrollment at over 30,000.

After the state electorate severely limited long-term property tax revenue by enacting Proposition 13 in 1978, UC was forced to make up for the resulting collapse in state financial support by imposing a variety of fees which were tuition in all but name.[33][34][35] On November 18, 2010, the Regents finally gave up on the longstanding legal fiction that UC does not charge tuition by renaming the Educational Fee to "Tuition."[36] As part of its search for funds during the 2000s and 2010s, UC quietly began to admit higher percentages of highly accomplished (and more lucrative) students from other states and countries, but was forced to reverse course in 2015 in response to the inevitable public outcry and start admitting more California residents.[37][38]

Academics

In 2016, UC researchers and faculty were responsible for 1,745 inventions, and UC controls over 12,200 active patents.[3] On average, UC researchers create five new inventions per day.[3]

Six of UC's ten campuses, (UC Berkeley, UC Davis, UC Irvine, UCLA, UCSB, UC San Diego) are members of the prestigious Association of American Universities (AAU).[3] Collectively, the system counts among its faculty (as of 2002):

Nobel Prize winners

As of October 2018, the following data are taken from List of Nobel laureates by university affiliation and are not the official count from University of California.

Campus Nr. of winners Nr. of winners world rank Age of school
Berkeley 107 3 150
San Diego 27 26 58
Los Angeles 24 31 99
Santa Barbara 14 56 74
San Francisco 9 >73 143
Irvine 7 >73 51
Davis 3 >73 59
Riverside 3 >73 64
Santa Cruz 0 >73 53
Merced 0 >73 13

Academic calendar

Eight campuses operate on the quarter system, while Berkeley and Merced are on the semester system. However, the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA and all UC law schools operate on the semester system.

UC Libraries

At 34 million items,[39] the University of California library system contains one of the largest collections in the world. Each campus maintains its own library catalog and also participates in the systemwide union catalog, MELVYL. Besides on-campus libraries, the UC system also maintains two regional library facilities (one each for Northern and Southern California), which each accept older items from all UC campus libraries in their respective region. As of 2007, Northern Regional Library Facility is home to 4.7 million volumes, while Southern Regional Library Facilityis home to 5.7 million.

Research

Six of the campuses are members of the Association of American Universities, a collection of the top 62 research schools in North America. In 2006 the Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC) awarded the University of California the SPARC Innovator Award for its "extraordinarily effective institution-wide vision and efforts to move scholarly communication forward", including the 1997 founding (under then UC President Richard C. Atkinson) of the California Digital Library (CDL) and its 2002 launching of CDL's eScholarship, an institutional repository. The award also specifically cited the widely influential 2005 academic journal publishing reform efforts of UC faculty and librarians in "altering the marketplace" by publicly negotiating contracts with publishers, as well as their 2006 proposal to amend UC's copyright policy to allow open access to UC faculty research.[40] On July 24, 2013 the UC Academic Senate adopted an Open Access Policy, mandating that all UC faculty produced research with a publication agreement signed after that date be first deposited in UC's eScholarship open access repository.[41]

University of California systemwide research on the SAT exam found that, after controlling for familial income and parental education, so-called achievement tests known as the SAT II had 10 times more predictive ability of college aptitude than the SAT I (AKA the SAT math and verbal sections).[42]

Governance

All University of California campuses except Hastings College of the Law are governed by the Regents of the University of California as required by the Constitution of the State of California. Eighteen regents are appointed by the governor for 12-year terms. One member is a student appointed for a one-year term. There are also seven ex officio members—the governor, lieutenant governor, speaker of the State Assembly, State Superintendent of Public Instruction, president and vice president of the Alumni Associations of UC, and the UC president. The Academic Senate, made up of faculty members, is empowered by the Regents to set academic policies. In addition, the system-wide faculty chair and vice-chair sit on the Board of Regents as non-voting members.

Originally, the President was directly in charge of the first campus, Berkeley. In turn, other UC locations (with the exception of Hastings College of the Law) were treated as off-site departments of the Berkeley campus. In March 1951, the Regents reorganized the university so that day-to-day "chief executive officer" functions for the Berkeley and Los Angeles campuses were transferred in 1952 to chancellors who were entrusted with a high degree of autonomy.[7][8][9][27] As noted above, the Regents promoted five additional UC locations to campuses and allowed them to have Chancellors of their own in a series of decisions from 1958 to 1964,[29] and the three campuses added since then have also been run by Chancellors. In turn, all Chancellors (again, with the exception of Hastings) report as equals to the UC President. Today, the UC Office of the President (UCOP) and the Office of the Secretary of the Regents of the University of California share an office building in downtown Oakland that serves as the UC system's headquarters.

UC presidents

On August 13, 2007, President Dynes announced that he would step down effective June 2008, or until his replacement was selected. However, he also announced that Provost Wyatt (Rory) Hume would take over as the system's chief operating officer, effective immediately. Three state lawmakers had publicly demanded his resignation for his handling of the executive pay compensation scandal that stemmed from UC system Provost M. R. C. Greenwood's violation of UC conflict-of-interest rules. (She had created a management job at UC headquarters for a friend with whom she owned rental property, and a subordinate, Winston Doby, improperly helped create a year-long internship for her son at UC Merced.)[43][44][45]

Incoming President Mark Yudof took over on June 16, 2008.[46] Yudof was succeeded by Homeland Security Secretary and former Governor of Arizona Janet Napolitano, the first woman to hold the office of UC President.[47]

Finances

The State of California currently (2015–2016) spends nearly $3 billion on the UC system, funding approximately 43.3% of the system. In 1980, the state funded 86.8% of the UC budget.[48] While state funding has somewhat recovered, as of 2019 state support still lags behind even recent historic levels (e.g. 2001) when adjusted for inflation.[48][49]

In May 2004, UC President Robert C. Dynes and CSU Chancellor Charles B. Reed struck a private deal, called the "Higher Education Compact", with Governor Schwarzenegger. They agreed to slash spending by about a billion dollars (about a third of the University's core budget for academic operations) in exchange for a funding formula lasting until 2011. The agreement calls for modest annual increases in state funds (but not enough to replace the loss in state funds Dynes and Schwarzenegger agreed to), private fundraising to help pay for basic programs, and large student fee hikes, especially for graduate and professional students. A detailed analysis of the Compact by the Academic Senate "Futures Report" indicated, despite the large fee increases, the University core budget did not recover to 2000 levels.[50] Undergraduate student fees have risen 90% from 2003 to 2007.[51] In 2011, for the first time in UC's history, student fees exceeded contributions from the State of California.[52]

The First District Court of Appeal in San Francisco ruled in 2007 that the University of California owed nearly $40 million in refunds to about 40,000 students who were promised that their tuition fees would remain steady, but were hit with increases when the state ran short of money in 2003.[53]

Faculty pay

Faculty compensation is comparable with institutions of similar academic ranking[54] but slightly higher than in the California State University system. According to the 2015–2016 payscale, the following pay ranges apply per academic year:[55][56]

Position Salary range
Lecturer $48,948–$132,204
Senior lecturer $87,528–$132,204
Assistant professor $59,500–$77,200
Associate professor $73,800–$93,300
Full professor $86,800–$158,400

Note that the distinction between "academic year" and "fiscal year" salaries is important. Academic year salaries are for those whose work covers a standard 9-month academic calendar; fiscal year salaries (not listed here) are extrapolations of the academic year salary to cover the entire fiscal year (11 months, since the last month is considered usable as vacation) for those who provide full-year service. Fiscal year salaries are computed by using the monthly rate of the academic year salary and multiplying by 11.

The UC system provides for merit pay higher than the nominal maximum of a salary range. However, once pay achieves a high threshold (varies by category, at least $300,000 in 2016), it requires either presidential or regental approval.

Criticism and controversies

The members of the UC governing structure have been criticized for confusion about their roles and responsibilities and for enjoying controversial perks.

In 2008, the Western Association of Schools and Colleges, the regional accreditor of the UC schools, criticized the UC system for "significant problems in governance, leadership and decision making" and "confusion about the roles and responsibilities of the university president, the regents and the 10 campus chancellors with no clear lines of authority and boundaries".[57]

Besides substantial six-figure incomes, the UC President and all UC chancellors enjoy controversial perks such as free housing in the form of university-maintained mansions.[58] In 1962, Anson Blake's will donated his 10-acre (40,000 m2) estate (Blake Garden) and mansion (Blake House) in Kensington to the University of California's Department of Landscape Architecture. In 1968, the Regents decided to make Blake House the official residence of the UC President. As of 2005, it cost around $300,000 per year to maintain Blake Garden and Blake House; the latter, built in 1926, is a 13,239-square-foot (1,229.9 m2) mansion with a view of San Francisco Bay.[58]

All UC chancellors traditionally live for free in a mansion on or near campus that is usually known as University House, where they host social functions attended by guests and donors.[59] UC San Diego's University House was closed from 2004 to 2014 for $10.5 million in renovations paid for by private donors, which were so expensive because the 12,000-square-foot structure sits on top of a sacred Native American cemetery and next to an unstable coastal bluff.[60][61]

In 2016, university system officials admitted that they monitored all e-mails sent to and from their servers.[62]

In many recent years, the University of California System has faced increased and growing criticism for its high admittance of out-of-state or international students as opposed to in-state, Californian students. In particular, UC Berkeley and UC Los Angeles have been heavily criticized for this phenomenon due to their extraordinarily low acceptance rates compared to other universities in the system.[63] At a Board of Regents meeting in 2015, California Governor Jerry Brown reportedly said on the problem of the UC's relationship with a Californian applicants, “And so you got your foreign students and you got your 4.0 folks, but just the kind of ordinary, normal students, you know, that got good grades but weren’t at the top of the heap there – they’re getting frozen out.”[64]

Campuses

The ten UC campuses

At present, the UC system officially describes itself as a "ten campus" system consisting of the campuses listed below.[65] These campuses are under the direct control of the Regents and President.[66] Only ten campuses are listed on the official UC letterhead.[67]

Although it shares the name and public status of the UC system, the Hastings College of the Law is not controlled by the Regents or President; it has a separate board of directors and must seek funding directly from the Legislature. However, under the California Education Code, the Juris Doctor from Hastings is awarded in the name of the Regents and bears the signature of the President.[68] Furthermore, Education Code section 92201 states that Hastings "is affiliated with the University of California, and is the law department thereof".[69]

Annually, UC campuses are ranked highly by various publications. Six UC campuses rank in the top 50 U.S. National Universities of 2019 by U.S. News & World Report, with UCLA, UC Berkeley, UC Santa Barbara, UC Irvine, UC Davis, and UC San Diego respectively ranked 19th, 22nd, 30th, 33rd, 38th and 41st. All of the UC campuses listed above are considered Public Ivies.[70] Four UC campuses ranked in the top 20 in the U.S. News & World Report Best Global Universities Rankings in 2019, with Berkeley, UCLA, UCSF, and UCSD ranked 4th, 13th, 15th, and 17th respectively.[71]

UC San Francisco is ranked as one of the top universities in biomedicine, both in the country and around the world[72][73][74][75][76][77] and the UCSF School of Medicine is ranked 3rd among research-oriented medical schools in the United States and ranked 3rd for primary care by U.S. News and World Report, making it the only medical school to achieve a top-5 ranking in both categories.[78] The UCSF Medical Center is the nation's 5th-ranked hospital and 1st-ranked hospital in California according to U.S. News & World Report.[79]

Campus Founded Enrollment[80] Endowment[81] Athletics Rankings
Affiliation Nickname ARWU National Ranking[82] ARWU World Ranking[82] CWUR[83] Forbes[84] THE World University Rankings[85] QS World University Rankings[86] U.S. News & World Report National Ranking[87] U.S. News & World Report World Ranking[88]
Berkeley 1868 40,173 $4.64 billion NCAA Div I
Pac-12
Golden Bears 4 5 6 14 15 27 22 4
Davis 1908 37,397 $1.40 billion NCAA Div I
Big West
Aggies 45 96 42 94 54 118 38 60
Irvine 1965 33,467 $951 million NCAA Div I
Big West
Anteaters 40 83 59 96 99 164 33 78
Los Angeles 1919 44,947 $5.00 billion NCAA Div I
Pac-12
Bruins 9 11 15 46 18 33 19 13
Merced 2005 7,336 $52.4 million NAIA
CalPac
Golden Bobcats 601-700 879 136 644
Riverside 1954 22,990 $251 million NCAA Div I
Big West
Highlanders 59-69 151–200 245 204 198 323 85 151
San Diego 1960 35,816 $1.61 billion NCAA Div II
CCAA[a]
Tritons 13 15 20 81 30 38 41 17
San Francisco 1864 4,857
(Graduate only)
$3.49 billion N/A N/A 17 21 22 N/A N/A N/A N/A 15
Santa Barbara 1909 24,346 $357 million NCAA Div I
Big West
Gauchos 29 46 70 85 53 134 30 37
Santa Cruz 1965 18,783 $207 million NCAA Div III
Independent
Banana Slugs 47-58 101-150 111 185 162 301 70 58

Student profile

Percentage of students and comparisons statewide-nationwide
Campuses[89] California[90] United States[91]
Asian
(including South and East Asians)
30% 15% 6%
Black 4% 7% 13%
Hispanic
(of any race; including Chicanos and White Hispanics)
21% 39% 18%
Non-Hispanic White 25% 38% 61%
Native American (<1%) 2% 1%
International student 16% N/A N/A
Other 3% N/A N/A

Labor unions

There are a total of about 180,000 employees in the UC system.[92] Most UC employees besides faculty and administration are represented by labor unions. Unions in the UC system include:[93]

Admissions

Each UC school handles admissions separately, but a student wishing to apply for an undergraduate or transfer admission uses one application for all UCs. Graduate and professional school admissions are handled directly by each department or program to which one applies.

Freshmen

Before 1986, students who wanted to apply to UC for undergraduate study could only apply to one campus. Students who were rejected at that campus that otherwise met the UC minimum eligibility requirements were redirected to another campus with available space. Students who didn't want to be redirected were refunded their application fees. In 1986, that system changed to the current "multiple filing" system, in which students can apply to as many or as few UC campuses as they want on one application, paying a fee for each campus. This significantly increased the number of applications to the Berkeley and Los Angeles campuses, since students could choose a campus to attend after they received acceptance letters, without fear of being redirected to a campus they did not want to attend.[96]

The University of California accepts fully eligible students from among the top one-eighth (1/8) of California public high school graduates through regular statewide admission, or the top 9% of any given high school class through Eligibility in the Local Context (see below). Part of the eligibility process is completion of the A-G requirements in high school. All eligible California high school students who apply are accepted to the University, though not necessarily to the campus of choice.[97][98] Eligible students who are not accepted to the campus(es) of their choice are placed in the "referral pool", where campuses with open space may offer admission to those students; in 2003, 10% of students who received an offer through this referral process accepted it.[99] In 2007, about 4,100 UC-eligible students who were not offered admission to their campus of choice were referred to UC Riverside or the system's newest campus, UC Merced.[100] In 2015, all UC-eligible students rejected by their campus of choice were redirected to UC Merced, which is now the only campus that has space for all qualified applicants.[101]

The old undergraduate admissions were conducted on a two-phase basis. In the first phase, students were admitted based solely on academic achievement. This accounted for between 50 and 75% of the admissions. In the second phase, the university conducted a "comprehensive review" of the student's achievements, including extracurricular activities, essay, family history, and life challenges, to admit the remainder. Students who did not qualify for regular admission were "admitted by exception"; in 2002, approximately 2% of newly admitted undergraduates were admitted by exception.[102]

The process for determining admissions varies. At some campuses, such as Santa Barbara and Santa Cruz, a point system is used to weight grade point average, SAT Reasoning or ACT scores, and SAT Subject scores, while at San Diego, Berkeley, and Los Angeles, academic achievement is examined in the context of the school and the surrounding community, known as a holistic review.

Race, gender, national origin, and ethnicity have not been used as UC admission criteria since the passing of Proposition 209. However, this information is collected for statistical purposes.

Eligibility in the Local Context

Eligibility in the Local Context, commonly referred to as ELC, is met by applicants ranked in the top 9% of their high school class in terms of performance on an 11-unit pattern of UC-approved high school courses. Beginning with fall 2007 applicants, ELC also requires a UC-calculated GPA of at least 3.0. Fully eligible ELC students are guaranteed a spot at one of UC's undergraduate campuses, though not necessarily at their first-choice campus or even to a campus to which they applied.[97]

Early Academic Outreach Program

The Early Academic Outreach Program (EAOP) was established in 1976 by University of California (UC) in response to the State Legislature's recommendation to expand post-secondary opportunities to all of California's students including those who are first-generation, socioeconomically disadvantaged, and English-language learners.[103] As UC's largest academic preparation program, EAOP assists middle and high school students with academic preparation, admissions requirements, and financial aid requirements for higher education.[104] The program designs and provides services to foster students’ academic development, and delivers those services in partnership with other academic preparation programs, schools, other higher education institutions and community/industry partners.[105]

Fall of 2018 admitted freshmen

Campus SAT composite

(25–75th percentile)

SAT reading

(25–75th percentile)

SAT math

(25–75th percentile)

SAT writing

(25–75th percentile)

GPA

(25–75th percentile)

ACT

(25–75th percentile)

Applicants Admits Admit rate California
residents
References
Berkeley 1340–1540 660 – 750 680–790 16 – 20 4.16 – 4.30 30–35 89,614 13,333 14.9% 65.8% [106]
Davis 1220–1480 600 – 700 620–780 15 – 18 3.97 – 4.25 26–33 78,024 32,179 41.2% 60.4% [107]
Irvine 1230–1490 600 – 710 630–780 15 – 18 4.00 – 4.26 26–33 95,062 27,334 28.8% 65.5% [108]
Los Angeles 1360–1540 670 – 750 690–790 16 – 20 4.16 – 4.31 31–35 113,748 16,020 14.1% 54.5% [109]
Merced 1020–1230 510 – 610 510–620 13 – 17 3.40 – 3.91 20–27 22,583 15,804 70.0% 94.3% [110]
Riverside 1130–1380 570 - 670 560 - 710 14 - 17 3.66 - 4.09 22 - 30 49,079 24,993 50.9% 88.9% [111]
San Diego 1300–1520 640 – 730 660–790 16 – 19 4.02 – 4.28 28–34 97,899 29,577 30.2% 59.1% [112]
Santa Barbara 1270–1500 630 – 720 640–780 15 – 18 4.00 – 4.26 28–34 92,305 29,782 32.3% 66.2% [113]
Santa Cruz 1170–1380 580 – 670 590–710 14 – 18 3.70 – 4.13 26–31 52,974 27,216 51.4% 70.8% [114]

Transfer students

The University of California admits a significant number of transfer students primarily from the California Community Colleges System.[115] Approximately one out of three UC students begin at a community college before graduating.[115] In evaluating a transfer student's application the universities conduct a "comprehensive review" process that includes consideration of grade point averages of the generally required, transferable and or related courses for the intended major. The review may also include consideration of an applicant's enrollment in selective honor courses or programs, extracurricular activities, essay, family history, life challenges, and the location of the student's residence. Different universities emphasize different factors in their evaluations.[116]

Fall of 2018 admitted transfer students

Campus Applicants Admits Admit rate California
residents
References
Berkeley 19,212 4,483 23% 95% [117]
Davis 17,672 9,767 55% 95% [118]
Irvine 21,526 8,816 41% 95% [119]
Los Angeles 23,741 5,591 24% 94% [120]
Merced 3,688 2,030 55% 97% [121]
Riverside 12,291 8,225 67% 96% [122]
San Diego 18,889 9,349 49% 94% [123]
Santa Barbara 17,904 10,139 57% 94% [124]
Santa Cruz 11,824 7,930 67% 95% [125]

Athletics

For each athletic program see: California Golden Bears (UC Berkeley), UC Davis Aggies, UC Irvine Anteaters, UCLA Bruins, UC Merced Golden Bobcats, UC Riverside Highlanders, UC San Diego Tritons, UC Santa Barbara Gauchos, UC Santa Cruz Banana Slugs.

Peripheral enterprises

The University of California has a long tradition of involvement in many enterprises that are often geographically or organizationally separate from its general campuses, including national laboratories, observatories, hospitals, continuing education programs, hotels, conference centers, an airport, a seaport, and an art institute.

National laboratories

UC campuses and labs
This map shows the locations of the ten UC campuses and the national laboratories associated with UC. A third national laboratory associated with UC is in Los Alamos, New Mexico.

The University of California directly manages and operates one United States Department of Energy National Laboratory:[126]

UC is a limited partner in two separate private limited liability companies that manage and operate two other Department of Energy national laboratories:

Laboratory missions

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory conducts unclassified research across a wide range of scientific disciplines with key efforts focused on fundamental studies of the universe, quantitative biology, nanoscience, new energy systems and environmental solutions, and the use of integrated computing as a tool for discovery.

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory uses advanced science and technology to ensure that U.S. nuclear weapons remain reliable. LLNL also has major research programs in supercomputing and predictive modeling, energy and environment, bioscience and biotechnology, basic science and applied technology, counter-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, and homeland security. It is also home to the most powerful supercomputers in the world.

Los Alamos National Laboratory focuses most of its work on ensuring the reliability of U.S. nuclear weapons. Other work at LANL involves research programs into preventing the spread of weapons of mass destruction and US national security, such as protection of the US homeland from terrorist attack.

The UC system's ties to the three laboratories have occasionally sparked controversy and protest, because all three laboratories have been intimately linked with the development of nuclear weapons. During the World War II Manhattan Project, Lawrence Berkeley Lab developed the electromagnetic method for separation of uranium isotopes used to develop the first atomic bombs. The Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore labs have been involved in designing U.S. nuclear weapons from their inception until the shift into stockpile stewardship after the end of the Cold War.

Historically the two national laboratories in Berkeley and Livermore named after Ernest O. Lawrence, have had very close relationships on research projects, as well as sharing some business operations and staff. In fact, LLNL was not officially severed administratively from LBNL until the early 1970s. They also have much deeper ties to the university than the Los Alamos Lab, a fact seen in their respective original names; the University of California Berkeley Radiation Laboratory and the University of California Radiation Laboratory at Livermore.

Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore

The UC system's ties to the labs have so far outlasted all periods of internal controversy. However, in 2003, the U.S. Department of Energy for the first time opened the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) contract for bidding by other vendors. UC entered into a partnership with Bechtel Corporation, BWXT, and the Washington Group International, and together they created a private company called Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS). The only other bidder on the LANL contract was a Lockheed Martin Corporation-created company that included, among others, the University of Texas System. In December 2005, a seven-year contract to manage the laboratory was awarded to the Los Alamos National Security, LLC.[127]

On June 1, 2006, the University of California ended its direct involvement in operating Los Alamos National Laboratory. Management of the laboratory was taken over by Los Alamos National Security, LLC. Approximately 95% of the former 10,000 UC employees at LANL were rehired by LANS to continue working at LANL.

On October 1, 2007, the University of California ended its direct involvement in operating the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Management of the laboratory was taken over by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, a limited liability company whose members are Bechtel National, the University of California, Babcock & Wilcox, the Washington Division of URS Corporation, Battelle Memorial Institute, and The Texas A&M University System.

Other than UC appointing three members to the two separate boards of directors (each with eleven members) that oversee LANS and LLNS, UC now has virtually no responsibility for or direct involvement in either LANL or LLNL. UC policies and regulations that apply to UC campuses and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in California no longer apply to LANL and LLNL, and the LANL and LLNL directors no longer report to the UC Regents or UC Office of the President.

High-performance networking

The University of California is a founding and charter member of the Corporation for Education Network Initiatives in California, a nonprofit organization that provides high-performance Internet-based networking to California's K-20 research and education community.

Other national research centers

From September 2003 to July 2016, UC managed a contract valued at more than $330 million to establish and operate a University Affiliated Research Center (UARC) at the NASA Ames Research Center at Moffett Federal Airfield —the largest grant ever awarded the University. UC Santa Cruz managed the UARC for the University of California, with the goal of increasing the science output, safety, and effectiveness of NASA's missions through new technologies and scientific techniques.

Since 2002, the NSF-funded San Diego Supercomputer Center at UC San Diego has been managed by the University of California, which took over from the previous manager, General Atomics.

Observatories

The University of California manages two observatories as a multi-campus research unit headquartered at UC Santa Cruz.

The Astronomy Department at the Berkeley campus manages the Hat Creek Radio Observatory in Shasta County.

UC Davis Medical Center
UC Davis Medical Center
Ucirvinemedicalcenter
UC Irvine Medical Center
UCLA Reagan Medical Center
Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center
UCSD Medical Center Hillcrest
UC San Diego Medical Center, Hillcrest
UCSF Medical Center and Sutro Tower in 2008
UCSF Medical Center

Medical centers and schools

The University of California operates five medical centers throughout the state:

Each medical center serves as the primary teaching site for that campus's medical school. UCSF is perennially among the top five programs in both research and primary care, and both UCLA and UC San Diego consistently rank among the top fifteen research schools, according to annual rankings published by U.S. News and World Report.[128] The teaching hospitals affiliated with each school are also highly regarded - the UCSF Medical Center was ranked the number one hospital in California and number 5 in the country by U.S. News and World Report's 2017 Honor Roll for Best Hospitals in the United States.[129] UC also has a sixth medical school—UC Riverside School of Medicine, the only one in the UC system without its own hospital.

In the latter half of the 20th century, the UC hospitals became the cores of full-fledged regional health systems; they were gradually supplemented by many outpatient clinics, offices, and institutes. Three UC hospitals are actually county hospitals that were sold to UC, which means that UC currently plays a major role in providing healthcare to the indigent. The medical hospitals operated by UC Irvine (acquired in 1976), UC Davis (acquired in 1978), and UC San Diego (acquired in 1984), each began as the respective county hospitals of Orange County, Sacramento County, and San Diego County. As of 2016, UC medical centers handle each year about 4.5 million outpatient visits, 356,000 emergency room visits, and 165,000 inpatient admissions.[3]

There are two medical centers that bear the UCLA name, but are not operated by UCLA: Harbor–UCLA Medical Center and Olive View – UCLA Medical Center. They are actually Los Angeles County-operated facilities that UCLA uses as teaching hospitals.

UC Extension

For over a century, the University has operated a continuing education program for working adults and professionals. At present, UC Extension enrolls over 500,000 students each year in over 17,000 courses. One of the reasons for its large size is that UC Extension is a dominant provider of Continuing Legal Education and Continuing Medical Education in California. For example, the systemwide portion of UC Extension (directly controlled by the UC Office of the President) operates Continuing Education of the Bar under a joint venture agreement with the State Bar of California.

UC Agriculture and Natural Resources

The University of California division of Agriculture and Natural Resources plays an important role in the State's agriculture industry, as mandated by the UC's legacy as a land-grant institution. In addition to conducting agriculture and Youth development research, every county in the state has a cooperative extension office with county farm advisors. The county offices also support 4-H programs and have nutrition, family and consumer sciences advisors who assist local government. Currently, the division's University of California 4-H Youth Development Program[130] is a national leader in studying thriving in the field of youth development.

UC Natural Reserve System

The NRS was established in January 1965 to provide UC faculty with large areas of land where they could conduct long-term ecosystem research without having to worry about outside disturbances like tourists. Today, the NRS manages 39 reserves that total more than 756,000 acres (3,060 km2).

Travel and conference facilities

  • UC Berkeley operates the Richard B. Gump South Pacific Research Station in Mo'orea, French Polynesia on land donated in 1981 by the heir to the founder of the Gump's home furnishings store.[131]
  • UC Berkeley's Cal Alumni Association operates travel excursions for alumni (and their families) under its "Cal Discoveries Travel" brand (formerly BearTreks); many of the tour guides are Berkeley professors. CAA also operates the oldest and largest alumni association-run family camp in the world, the Lair of the Golden Bear. Located at an altitude of 5600 feet in Pinecrest, California, the Lair is a home-away-from-home for almost 10,000 campers annually. Its attendees are largely Cal alumni and their families, but the Lair is open to everyone.
  • Berkeley Lab operates its own hotel, the Berkeley Lab Guest House, available to persons with business at the Lab itself or UC Berkeley.
  • UCLA Housing & Hospitality Services operates two on-campus hotels, the 61-room Guest House and the 254-room Meyer & Renee Luskin Conference Center, and a lavish off-campus conference center at Lake Arrowhead (with a mix of chalet-like condominiums, lodge rooms, and stand-alone cottages). During the summer, the Lake Arrowhead conference center hosts the Bruin Woods vacation programs for UCLA alumni and their families.
  • Separately, UCLA Health operates the 100-room Tiverton House just south of the UCLA campus to serve its patients and their families.
  • UC Santa Cruz leased the University Inn and Conference Center in downtown Santa Cruz from 2001 to 2011 for use as off-campus student housing.
  • The UC Office of the President's Education Abroad Program operates two mini-campuses that support UC students, faculty, and alumni overseas: California House in London and La Casa de la Universidad de California in Mexico City. UC Davis's UC Center Sacramento supports students interning with the California state government. None of these facilities have on-site housing, but there is also a UC Washington Center in Washington, D.C. with a dormitory for students interning with the federal government.

University Airport

UC Davis operates the University Airport as a utility airport for air shuttle service in the contractual transportation of university employees and agricultural samples. It is also a public general aviation airport. University Airport's ICAO identifier is KEDU.

Seaport

UC San Diego's Scripps Institution of Oceanography owns a seaport, the Nimitz Marine Facility, which is just south of Shelter Island on Point Loma, San Diego. The port is used as an operating base for all of its oceanographic vessels and platforms.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Future conference, starting Fall 2020: Big West

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Further reading

  • Douglass, John Aubrey (2000). The California Idea and American Higher Education: 1850 to the 1960 Master Plan. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. ISBN 9780804731898.
  • Johnson, Dean C. (1996). The University of California: History and Achievements. Berkeley: University of California Printing Department.
  • Stadtman, Verne A. (1970). The University of California 1868–1968. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co.
  • Stadtman, Verne A., editor (1967). The Centennial Record of the University of California. Berkeley: University of California Printing Department.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)

External links

Daniel Coit Gilman

Daniel Coit Gilman (; July 6, 1831 – October 13, 1908) was an American educator and academic. Gilman was instrumental in founding the Sheffield Scientific School at Yale College, and subsequently served as the third president of the University of California, as the first president of Johns Hopkins University, and as founding president of the Carnegie Institution. He was also co-founder of the Russell Trust Association, which administers the business affairs of Yale's Skull and Bones society. Gilman served for twenty five years as president of Johns Hopkins; his inauguration in 1876 has been said to mark "the starting point of postgraduate education in the U.S."

Janet Napolitano

Janet Ann Napolitano (; born November 29, 1957) is an American politician, lawyer, and university administrator who served as the 21st Governor of Arizona from 2003 to 2009 and the United States Secretary of Homeland Security from 2009 to 2013, under President Barack Obama. She has been president of the University of California system since September 2013, shortly after she resigned as Secretary of Homeland Security.

Prior to her election as governor, she served as Attorney General of Arizona from 1999 to 2003. She was the first woman and the 23rd person to serve in that office. Napolitano is the 1977 Truman Scholar from New Mexico.

She has been the first woman to serve in several offices, including Attorney General of Arizona, Secretary of Homeland Security, and president of the University of California.

Forbes ranked her as the world's ninth most powerful woman in 2012. In 2008, she was cited by The New York Times to be among the women most likely to become the first female President of the United States. Some political commentators had suggested a possible candidacy in the 2016 election.

She was elected to the American Philosophical Society in 2018.

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), commonly referred to as Berkeley Lab, is a United States national laboratory that conducts scientific research on behalf of the United States Department of Energy (DOE). It is located in the Berkeley Hills near Berkeley, California, overlooking the main campus of the University of California, Berkeley. It is managed and operated by the University of California.

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is a federal research facility in Livermore, California, United States, founded by the University of California, Berkeley in 1952. A Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC), it is primarily funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and managed and operated by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (LLNS), a partnership of the University of California, Bechtel, BWX Technologies, AECOM, and Battelle Memorial Institute in affiliation with the Texas A&M University System. In 2012, the laboratory had the synthetic chemical element livermorium named after it.

Priscilla Chan

Priscilla Chan (born February 24, 1985) is an American pediatrician and philanthropist. She and her husband Mark Zuckerberg, the co-founder and CEO of Facebook, established the Chan Zuckerberg Initiative in December 2015, with a pledge to donate 99 percent of their Facebook shares, then valued at $45 billion. She is a graduate of Harvard University and received her medical degree from the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF).

Regents of the Univ. of Cal. v. Bakke

Regents of the University of California v. Bakke, 438 U.S. 265 (1978), was a landmark decision by the Supreme Court of the United States. It upheld affirmative action, allowing race to be one of several factors in college admission policy. However, the court ruled that specific racial quotas, such as the 16 out of 100 seats set aside for minority students by the University of California, Davis School of Medicine, were impermissible.

Although the Supreme Court had outlawed segregation in schools, and had even ordered school districts to take steps to assure integration, the question of the legality of voluntary affirmative action programs initiated by universities remained unresolved. Proponents deemed such programs necessary to make up for past discrimination, while opponents believed they were illegal and a violation of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. An earlier case that the Supreme Court had taken in an attempt to address the issue, DeFunis v. Odegaard (1974), was dismissed on procedural grounds.

Allan P. Bakke (), an engineer and former United States Marine Corps officer, sought admission to medical school, but was rejected for admission by several due in part to his age. Bakke was in his early 30s while applying, and therefore considered too old by at least two institutions. After twice being rejected by the University of California, Davis, he brought suit in state court challenging the constitutionality of the school's affirmative action program. The California Supreme Court struck down the program as violative of the rights of white applicants and ordered Bakke admitted. The U.S. Supreme Court accepted the case amid wide public attention.

The case fractured the court; the nine justices issued a total of six opinions. The judgment of the court was written by Justice Lewis F. Powell Jr.; two different blocs of four justices joined various parts of Powell's opinion. Finding diversity in the classroom to be a compelling state interest, Powell opined that affirmative action in general was allowed under the Constitution and the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Nevertheless, UC Davis's program went too far for a majority of justices, and it was struck down and Bakke admitted. The practical effect of Bakke was that most affirmative action programs continued without change. Questions about whether the Bakke case was merely a plurality opinion or binding precedent were answered in 2003 when the court upheld Powell's position in a majority opinion in Grutter v. Bollinger.

UC Berkeley School of Law

The University of California, Berkeley, School of Law (commonly known as Boalt Hall, Berkeley Law, or UC Berkeley School of Law) is one of 14 schools and colleges at the University of California, Berkeley. Berkeley Law is consistently ranked as one of the top public law schools in the United States and one of the top law schools in the world. The law school has produced leaders in law, government, and society, including Chief Justice of the United States Earl Warren, United States Secretary of State Dean Rusk, United States Attorney General Edwin Meese, United States Secretary of the Treasury and Chairman of the Federal Reserve G. William Miller, Solicitor General of the United States Theodore Olson, and lead litigator of the Korematsu v. United States civil rights case, Dale Minami.

University of California, Berkeley

The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public research university in Berkeley, California. It was founded in 1868 and serves as the flagship institution of the ten research universities affiliated with the University of California system. Berkeley has since grown to instruct over 40,000 students in approximately 350 undergraduate and graduate degree programs covering numerous disciplines.Berkeley is one of the 14 founding members of the Association of American Universities, with $789 million in R&D expenditures in the fiscal year ending June 30, 2015. Today, Berkeley maintains close relationships with three United States Department of Energy National Laboratories—Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory—and is home to many institutes, including the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute and the Space Sciences Laboratory. Through its partner institution University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), Berkeley also offers a joint medical program at the UCSF Medical Center.As of October 2018, Berkeley alumni, faculty members and researchers include 107 Nobel laureates, 25 Turing Award winners, and 14 Fields Medalists. They have also won 9 Wolf Prizes, 45 MacArthur Fellowships, 20 Academy Awards, 14 Pulitzer Prizes and 207 Olympic medals (117 gold, 51 silver and 39 bronze). In 1930, Ernest Lawrence invented the cyclotron at Berkeley, based on which UC Berkeley researchers along with Berkeley Lab have discovered or co-discovered 16 chemical elements of the periodic table – more than any other university in the world. During the 1940s, Berkeley physicist J. R. Oppenheimer, the "Father of the Atomic Bomb," led the Manhattan project to create the first atomic bomb. In the 1960s, Berkeley was particularly noted for the Free Speech Movement as well as the Anti-Vietnam War Movement led by its students. In the 21st century, Berkeley has become one of the leading universities in producing entrepreneurs and its alumni have founded a large number of companies worldwide.Berkeley is ranked among the top 20 universities in the world by the Academic Ranking of World Universities, the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, and the U.S. News & World Report Global University Rankings. It is considered one of the "Public Ivies", meaning that it is a public university thought to offer a quality of education comparable to that of the Ivy League.

University of California, Davis

The University of California, Davis (also referred to as UC Davis), is a public research university and land-grant university adjacent to Davis, California. It is part of the University of California (UC) system and has the third-largest enrollment in the UC System after UCLA and UC Berkeley. The institution was founded as a branch in 1909 and became its own separate entity in 1959. It has been labeled one of the "Public Ivies", a publicly funded university considered to provide a quality of education comparable to those of the Ivy League.The Carnegie Foundation classifies UC Davis as a comprehensive doctoral research university with a medical program, and very high research activity. The UC Davis faculty includes 23 members of the National Academy of Sciences, 30 members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 17 members of the American Law Institute, 14 members of the Institute of Medicine, and 14 members of the National Academy of Engineering. Among other honors, university faculty, alumni, and researchers have won the Nobel Peace Prize, Presidential Medal of Freedom, Pulitzer Prize, MacArthur Fellowship, National Medal of Science, Blue Planet Prize, and Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers.Founded as primarily an agricultural campus, the university has expanded over the past century to include graduate and professional programs in medicine (which includes the UC Davis Medical Center), law, veterinary medicine, education, nursing, and business management, in addition to 90 research programs offered by UC Davis Graduate Studies. The UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine is the largest in the United States and has been ranked first in the world for four consecutive years, 2015, 2016, 2017, and 2018.The UC Davis Aggies athletic teams compete in the NCAA Division I level, primarily in the Big West Conference as well as the Big Sky Conference (football only) and the Mountain Pacific Sports Federation. In its first year of full Division I status, 11 UC Davis teams qualified for NCAA post-season competition.

UC Davis was ranked as the 29th best national university, and as the 42nd best world university according to the 2018-2019 CWUR rankings. Also, UC Davis was named the 5th best public university in the nation according to Times/WSJ in the 2019 version.

University of California, Hastings College of the Law

The University of California, Hastings College of the Law (known less formally as Hastings) is a public law school located in the Civic Center area of San Francisco. Although affiliated with the University of California, Hastings is not directly governed by the Regents of the University of California. The one other UC campus that provides only postgraduate education is the University of California, San Francisco.

Founded in 1878 by Serranus Clinton Hastings, the first Chief Justice of California, it was the first law school of the University of California and was one of the first law schools established in the Western United States. It is also one of the few university-affiliated law schools in the United States that does not share a campus with the university's undergraduates or other postgraduate programs.

University of California, Irvine

The University of California, Irvine (UCI or UC Irvine) is a public research university located in Irvine, California. It is one of the 10 campuses in the University of California (UC) system. UC Irvine offers 80 undergraduate degrees and 98 graduate and professional degrees. The university is classified as a Research I university and in fiscal year 2013 had $348 million in research and development expenditures according to the National Science Foundation. UC Irvine became a member of the Association of American Universities in 1996 and is the youngest university to hold membership. It is considered to be one of the "Public Ivies", meaning that it is among those publicly funded universities thought to provide a quality of education comparable to that of the Ivy League.The university also administers the UC Irvine Medical Center, a large teaching hospital in Orange, and its affiliated health sciences system; the University of California, Irvine, Arboretum; and a portion of the University of California Natural Reserve System. UC Irvine set up the first Earth System Science Department in the United States.UCI was one of three new UC campuses established in the 1960s to accommodate growing enrollments across the UC system. A site in Orange County was identified in 1959, and in the following year the Irvine Company sold the University of California 1,000 acres (400 ha) of land for one dollar to establish the new campus. President Lyndon B. Johnson dedicated the campus in 1964, a fact which was commemorated with the delivery of a commencement speech by President Barack Obama exactly fifty years later.A total of seven Nobel Prize laureates have been affiliated with UCI. The university is also associated with a total of seven Pulitzer Prize winners, including three faculty members and four alumni.The UC Irvine Anteaters compete in the NCAA Division I as members of the Big West Conference. The Anteaters have won 28 national championships in nine different team sports, 64 Anteaters have won individual national championships, and 53 Anteaters have competed in the Olympics.

University of California, Los Angeles

The University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) is a public research university in Los Angeles. It became the Southern Branch of the University of California in 1919, making it the third-oldest (after UC Berkeley and UC Davis) undergraduate campus of the 10-campus University of California system. It offers 337 undergraduate and graduate degree programs in a wide range of disciplines. UCLA enrolls about 31,000 undergraduate and 13,000 graduate students and had 119,000 applicants for Fall 2016, including transfer applicants, making the school the most applied-to of any American university.The university is organized into six undergraduate colleges, seven professional schools, and four professional health science schools. The undergraduate colleges are the College of Letters and Science; Samueli School of Engineering; School of the Arts and Architecture; Herb Alpert School of Music; School of Theater, Film and Television; and School of Nursing.

As of 2017, 24 Nobel laureates, three Fields Medalists, and five Turing Award winners, and two Chief Scientists of the U.S. Air Force have been affiliated with UCLA as faculty, researchers, or alumni. Among the current faculty members, 55 have been elected to the National Academy of Sciences, 28 to the National Academy of Engineering, 39 to the Institute of Medicine, and 124 to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. The university was elected to the Association of American Universities in 1974.UCLA is considered one of the country's Public Ivies, meaning that it is a public university thought to provide a quality of education comparable with that of the Ivy League. In 2018, US News & World Report named UCLA the best public university in the United States.UCLA student-athletes compete as the Bruins in the Pac-12 Conference. The Bruins have won 126 national championships, including 116 NCAA team championships, more than any other university except Stanford, who has won 117. UCLA student-athletes, coaches and staff won 251 Olympic medals: 126 gold, 65 silver, and 60 bronze. UCLA student-athletes competed in every Olympics since 1920 with one exception (1924) and won a gold medal in every Olympics the U.S. participated in since 1932.

University of California, Merced

The University of California, Merced (UC Merced or UCM), is the tenth and newest of the University of California campuses. The public research university is located in the San Joaquin Valley in Merced County, California, just northeast of the city of Merced, and between Modesto, California and Fresno, California. Most UC Merced students are from California with enrollment nearly evenly divided between Southern California, the Central Valley, and Northern California.UC Merced claims to be the only institution in the United States to have all of its buildings on campus to be LEED certified. Its Triple Net Zero Commitment is expected to create zero net landfill waste and zero net greenhouse gas emissions by the year 2020.

University of California, Riverside

The University of California, Riverside (UCR or UC Riverside), is a public research university in Riverside, California. It is one of the 10 general campuses of the University of California system. The main campus sits on 1,900 acres (769 ha) in a suburban district of Riverside with a branch campus of 20 acres (8 ha) in Palm Desert. In 1907 the predecessor to UCR was founded as the UC Citrus Experiment Station, Riverside which pioneered research in biological pest control and the use of growth regulators responsible for extending the citrus growing season in California from four to nine months. Some of the world's most important research collections on citrus diversity and entomology, as well as science fiction and photography, are located at Riverside.

UCR's undergraduate College of Letters and Science opened in 1954. The Regents of the University of California declared UCR a general campus of the system in 1959, and graduate students were admitted in 1961. To accommodate an enrollment of 21,000 students by 2015, more than $730 million has been invested in new construction projects since 1999. Preliminary accreditation of the UC Riverside School of Medicine granted in October 2012 and the first class of 50 students was enrolled in August 2013. It is the first new research-based public medical school in 40 years.UCR is consistently ranked as one of the most ethnically and economically diverse universities in the United States. The 2019 U.S. News & World Report Best Colleges rankings places UCR tied for 35th among top public universities and ranks 85th nationwide. Over 27 of UCR's academic programs, including the Graduate School of Education and the Bourns College of Engineering, are highly ranked nationally based on peer assessment, student selectivity, financial resources, and other factors. Washington Monthly ranked UCR 2nd in the United States in terms of social mobility, research and community service, while U.S. News ranks UCR as the fifth most ethnically diverse and, by the number of undergraduates receiving Pell Grants (42 percent), the 15th most economically diverse student body in the nation. Over 70% of all UCR students graduate within six years without regard to economic disparity. UCR's extensive outreach and retention programs have contributed to its reputation as a "university of choice" for minority students. In 2005, UCR became the first public university campus in the nation to offer a gender-neutral housing option.UCR's sports teams are known as the Highlanders and play in the Big West Conference of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I. Their nickname was inspired by the high altitude of the campus, which lies on the foothills of Box Springs Mountain. The UCR women's basketball team won back-to-back Big West championships in 2006 and 2007. In 2007, the men's baseball team won its first conference championship and advanced to the regionals for the second time since the university moved to Division I in 2001.

University of California, San Diego

The University of California, San Diego (UC San Diego, or colloquially, UCSD) is a public research university located in the La Jolla neighborhood of San Diego, California, in the United States. The university occupies 2,141 acres (866 ha) near the coast of the Pacific Ocean, with the main campus resting on approximately 1,152 acres (466 ha). Established in 1960 near the pre-existing Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UC San Diego is the seventh-oldest of the 10 University of California campuses and offers over 200 undergraduate and graduate degree programs, enrolling approximately 30,000 undergraduate and 8,500 graduate students.

UC San Diego is organized into six undergraduate residential colleges (Revelle, John Muir, Thurgood Marshall, Earl Warren, Eleanor Roosevelt, and Sixth), five academic divisions (Arts and Humanities, Biological Sciences, Jacobs School of Engineering, Physical Sciences, and Social Sciences), and five graduate and professional schools (Rady School of Management, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, School of Global Policy and Strategy, School of Medicine, and Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences). A proposed School of Public Health is in the planning stages. UC San Diego Health, the region's only academic health system, provides patient care, conducts medical research and educates future health care professionals at the UC San Diego Medical Center, Hillcrest and Jacobs Medical Center.

The university operates 19 organized research units (ORUs), including the Center for Energy Research, Qualcomm Institute (a branch of the California Institute for Telecommunications and Information Technology), San Diego Supercomputer Center and the Kavli Institute for Brain and Mind, as well as eight School of Medicine research units, six research centers at Scripps Institution of Oceanography and two multi-campus initiatives, including the Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation. UC San Diego is also closely affiliated with several regional research centers, such as the Salk Institute, the Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute, the Sanford Consortium for Regenerative Medicine and the Scripps Research Institute. According to the National Science Foundation, UC San Diego spent $1.133 billion on research and development in fiscal year 2017, ranking it 7th in the nation.As of August 2018, UC San Diego faculty, researchers and alumni have won 27 Nobel Prizes and 3 Fields Medals, eight National Medals of Science, eight MacArthur Fellowships, and two Pulitzer Prizes. Additionally, of the current faculty, 29 have been elected to the National Academy of Engineering, 70 to the National Academy of Sciences, 45 to the Institute of Medicine and 110 to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

University of California, San Francisco

The University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) is a public research university in San Francisco, California. It is part of the University of California system and it is dedicated entirely to health science. It is a major center of medical and biological research and teaching.UCSF was founded as Toland Medical College in 1864, and in 1873 it affiliated itself with the University of California, becoming its Medical Department. In the same it incorporated the California College of Pharmacy and in 1881 it established a dentistry school. In 1964 it gained full administrative independence as a campus of the UC system headed by a chancellor, and in 1970 it gained its current name. Historically based at Parnassus Heights and several other locations throughout the city, in the early 2000s it developed a second major campus in the newly redeveloped Mission Bay. As of October 2018, nine Nobel laureates have been affiliated with UCSF as faculty members or researchers, and the University has been the site of many scientific breakthroughs.The UCSF School of Medicine, the oldest medical school in the Western United States, is the top recipient of NIH funding as of 2017. U.S. News & World Report ranks it #5 on their "Best Medical Schools: Research" and #2 on their " "Best Medical Schools: Primary Care." The UCSF Schools of Dentistry, Nursing, and Pharmacy have the highest NIH funding in their respective fields. The UCSF Graduate Division offers 19 PhD programs, 11 MS programs, two certificates and a physical therapy program.

The UCSF Medical Center is the nation's 6th-ranked hospital and California's highest-ranked hospital according to U.S. News & World Report. With 25,398 employees, UCSF is the second largest public agency employer in the San Francisco Bay Area. UCSF faculty have treated patients and trained residents since 1873 at the San Francisco General Hospital and for over 50 years at the San Francisco VA Medical Center.

University of California, Santa Barbara

The University of California, Santa Barbara (commonly referred to as UC Santa Barbara or UCSB) is a public research university in Santa Barbara, California. It is one of the 10 campuses of the University of California system. Tracing its roots back to 1891 as an independent teachers' college, UCSB joined the University of California system in 1944 and is the third-oldest general-education campus in the system.

UCSB is one of America's Public Ivy universities, a designation that recognizes top public research universities in the U.S. The university is a comprehensive doctoral university, and is organized into five colleges and schools offering 87 undergraduate degrees and 55 graduate degrees. UCSB was ranked 30th among "National Universities", fifth among U.S. public universities, and 37th among Best Global Universities by U.S. News & World Report's 2019 rankings. The university was also ranked 48th worldwide for 2016–17 by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, and 45th worldwide by the Academic Ranking of World Universities in 2017.UC Santa Barbara is a high-activity research university with 10 national research centers, including the renowned Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics and the Center for Control, Dynamical-Systems and Computation. Current UCSB faculty includes six Nobel Prize laureates, one Fields Medalist, 39 members of the National Academy of Sciences, 27 members of the National Academy of Engineering, and 34 members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. UCSB was the No. 3 host on the ARPAnet and was elected to the Association of American Universities in 1995. The world-class faculty also includes two Academy and Emmy Award winners, and recipients of a Millennium Technology Prize, an IEEE Medal of Honor, a National Medal of Technology and Innovation and a Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental Physics.

The UC Santa Barbara Gauchos compete in the Big West Conference of the NCAA Division I. The Gauchos have won NCAA national championships in men's soccer and men's water polo.

University of California, Santa Cruz

The University of California, Santa Cruz (also known as UC Santa Cruz or UCSC) is a public research university in Santa Cruz, California. It is one of 10 campuses in the University of California system. Located 75 miles (120 km) south of San Francisco at the edge of the coastal community of Santa Cruz, the campus lies on 2,001 acres (810 ha) of rolling, forested hills overlooking the Pacific Ocean and Monterey Bay.

Founded in 1965, UC Santa Cruz began as a showcase for progressive, cross-disciplinary undergraduate education, innovative teaching methods and contemporary architecture. While still retaining its reputation for strong undergraduate support and student political activism, it has since evolved into a modern research university with a wide variety of both undergraduate and graduate programs. The residential college system, which consists of ten small colleges, is intended to combine the student support of a small college with the resources of a major university.

University of California Press

University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing. It was founded in 1893 to publish books and papers for the faculty of the University of California, established 25 years earlier in 1868. Its headquarters are located in Oakland, California.

The University of California Press currently publishes in the following general subject areas: anthropology, art, ancient world/classical studies, California and the West, cinema & media studies, criminology, environmental studies, food and wine, history, music, politics, psychology, public health and medicine, religion, and sociology.

It is a non-profit publishing arm of the University of California. Of its authors 25% are affiliated with the University of California. It publishes on average 175 new books and 30 multi-issue journals in the humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences. It maintains approximately 4,000 book titles in print. It is also the publisher of Collabra and Luminos open access (OA) initiatives.

The Press commissioned as its corporate typeface University of California Old Style from type designer Frederic Goudy from 1936-1938, although it no longer always uses the design.

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