Universality (philosophy)

In philosophy, universality is the idea that universal facts exist and can be progressively discovered, as opposed to relativism.[1] In certain theologies, universalism is the quality ascribed to an entity whose existence is consistent throughout the universe, whose being is independent of and unconstrained by the events and conditions that compose the universe, such as entropy and physical locality.

This article also discusses Kantian and Platonist notions of "universal", which are considered by most philosophers to be separate notions.

Universality in ethics

When used in the context of ethics, the meaning of universal refers to that which is true for "all similarly situated individuals."[2] Rights, for example in natural rights, or in the 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, for those heavily influenced by the philosophy of the Enlightenment and its conception of a human nature, could be considered universal. The 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights is inspired by such principles.

Universality in logic

In logic, or the consideration of valid arguments, a proposition is said to have universality if it can be conceived as being true in all possible contexts without creating a contradiction. Some philosophers have referred to such propositions as universalizable. A truth is considered to be universal if it is logically valid (logical) in and also beyond all times and places. Hence a universal truth is considered logically to transcend the state of the physical universe, whose order is derived from such truths. In this case, such a truth is seen as eternal or as absolute. The patterns and relations expressed by mathematics in ways that are consistent with the fields of logic and mathematics are typically considered truths of universal scope. This is not to say that universality is limited to mathematics, since it is also used in philosophy, theology, and other pursuits.

The relativist conception denies the existence of some or all universal truths, particularly ethical ones (as moral relativism). Though usage of the word truth has various domains of application, relativism does not necessarily apply to all of them.

Universality in metaphysics

In metaphysics, a universal is a type, a property, or a relation. The noun universal contrasts with individual, while the adjective universal contrasts with particular or sometimes with concrete. The latter meaning, however, may be confusing since Hegelian and neo-Hegelian (e.g. British idealist) philosophies speak of concrete universals.

A universal may have instances, known as its particulars. For example, the type dog (or doghood) is a universal, as are the property red (or redness) and the relation betweenness (or being between). Any particular dog, red thing, or object that is between other things is not a universal, however, but is an instance of a universal. That is, a universal type (doghood), property (redness), or relation (betweenness) inheres a particular object (a specific dog, red thing, or object between other things).

Platonic realism holds universals to be the referents of general terms, i.e. the abstract, nonphysical entities to which words like "doghood", "redness", and "betweenness" refer. By contrast, particulars are the referents of proper names, like "Fido", or of definite descriptions that identify single objects, like the phrase, "that apple on the table". By contrast, other metaphysical theories merely use the terminology of universals to describe physical entities.

The problem of universals is an ancient problem in metaphysics concerning the nature of universals, or whether they exist. Part of the problem involves the implications of language use and the complexity of relating language to ontological theory.

Universal truth is regarded as ontic, i.e. expressing the order of being itself. A universal truth is epistemic only to the extent that its ontic expression is apprehended or discerned in a veridical way, which cannot affect its being in any case. Most ontological frameworks do not consider classes to be universals, although some prominent philosophers, such as John Bigelow, do.

See also

References

  1. ^ Bonnett, A. (2005). Anti-racism. Routledge.
  2. ^ "Philosophical Dictionary: Ubermensch-Utilitarianism". www.philosophypages.com. Archived from the original on 2007-08-20.

External links

Absolute (philosophy)

In philosophy, the concept of The Absolute, also known as The (Unconditioned) Ultimate, The Wholly Other, The Supreme Being, The Absolute/Ultimate Reality, and other names, is the thing, being, entity, power, force, reality, presence, law, principle, etc. that possesses maximal ontological status, existential ranking, existential greatness, or existentiality. In layman's terms, this is the one that is, in one way or another, the greatest, truest, or most real being.

There are many conceptions of The Absolute in various fields and subjects, such as philosophy, religion, spiritual traditions, mathematics, and even natural science. The nature of these conceptions can range from "merely" encompassing all physical existence, nature, or reality, to being completely unconditioned existentially, transcending all concepts, notions, and types, kinds, and categories of being.

The Absolute is often thought of as causing to come into being manifestations that interact with lower or lesser forms of being. This is either done passively, through emanations, or actively, through avatars and incarnations. These existential manifestations, which themselves can possess transcendent attributes, only contain minuscule or infinitesimal portions of the true essence of The Absolute.

The term itself was not in use in ancient or medieval philosophy, but closely related to the description of God as Actus purus (Pure Actuality) in scholasticism. It was introduced in modern philosophy, notably by Hegel, for "the sum of all being, actual and potential".

The term has since also been adopted in perennial philosophy.

Cultural relativism

Cultural relativism is the idea that a person's beliefs, values, and practices should be understood based on that person's own culture, rather than be judged against the criteria of another.

It was established as axiomatic in anthropological research by Franz Boas in the first few decades of the 20th century and later popularized by his students. Boas first articulated the idea in 1887: "civilization is not something absolute, but ... is relative, and ... our ideas and conceptions are true only so far as our civilization goes". However, Boas did not coin the term.

The first use of the term recorded in the Oxford English Dictionary was by philosopher and social theorist Alain Locke in 1924 to describe Robert Lowie's "extreme cultural relativism", found in the latter's 1917 book Culture and Ethnology. The term became common among anthropologists after Boas' death in 1942, to express their synthesis of a number of ideas Boas had developed. Boas believed that the sweep of cultures, to be found in connection with any sub species, is so vast and pervasive that there cannot be a relationship between culture and race. Cultural relativism involves specific epistemological and methodological claims. Whether or not these claims necessitate a specific ethical stance is a matter of debate. This principle should not be confused with moral relativism.

Index of metaphysics articles

Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy that investigates principles of reality transcending those of any particular science. Cosmology and ontology are traditional branches of metaphysics. It is concerned with explaining the fundamental nature of being and the world. Someone who studies metaphysics can be called either a "metaphysician" or a "metaphysicist".

Index of philosophy of religion articles

This is a list of articles in philosophy of religion.

A Grief Observed

A History of God

A Letter Concerning Toleration

A New Model of the Universe

A Secular Humanist Declaration

A. H. Almaas

A.P. Martinich

Abandonment (existentialism)

Abd al-Karīm ibn Hawāzin al-Qushayri

Abhidharma

Abraham Joshua Heschel

Absolute (philosophy)

Absolute atheism

Absolute Infinite

Abstinence

Abu'l Hasan Muhammad Ibn Yusuf al-'Amiri

Abu Sulayman al-Sijistani

Accidentalism

Acosmism

Actus purus

Adevism

Adi Shankara

Adriaan Koerbagh

Afshin Ellian

Afterlife

Age of Enlightenment

Agnostic atheism

Agnostic theism

Agnosticism

Ahimsa

Ahmad Sirhindi

Al-Farabi

Al-Ghazali

Al-Kindi

Al-Shahrastani

Al-Tabarani

Al-Zamakhshari

Albrecht Ritschl

Alice von Hildebrand

All Truth Is God's Truth

Alvin Plantinga

American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly

Amsterdam Declaration

An Intelligent Person's Guide to Atheism

Anāgāmi

Analects

Analytical Thomism

Ananda Coomaraswamy

Anantarika-karma

Anarchism and Islam

Anatta

Anava

Anders Nygren

Anekantavada

Animals in Buddhism

Anselm of Canterbury

Answer to Job

Anthony Kenny

Anthony Thiselton

Anthropopath

Anti-clericalism

Anti-communism

Anti-Supernaturalism

Antihumanism

Antireligion

Antitheism

Anton Kržan

Anton LaVey

Apatheism

Apocalypticism

Apologetics

Argument from a proper basis

Argument from beauty

Argument from consciousness

Argument from degree

Argument from desire

Argument from free will

Argument from inconsistent revelations

Argument from love

Argument from miracles

Argument from morality

Argument from nonbelief

Argument from poor design

Argument from religious experience

Arhat

Aristotelian view of a god

Arya

Ashtamangala

Atheism

Atheist's Wager

Atheist existentialism

Ātman (Buddhism)

Augustine of Hippo

Avadhuta Gita

Averroes

Avidyā (Buddhism)

Avraham son of Rambam

Ayatana

Ayyavazhi phenomenology

Baptists in the history of separation of church and state

Bardo

Basic Points Unifying the Theravāda and the Mahāyāna

Beatific vision

Best of all possible worlds

Beyond Belief: Science, Religion, Reason and Survival

Bhagavad Gita

Bhava

Bhumi (Buddhism)

Biblical literalism

Bilocation

Biosophy

Bodhi

Bodhimandala

Bodhisattva Precepts

Brahmacharya

Brahman

Brahmavihara

Brian Davies (philosopher)

Brights movement

British Humanist Association

Bruno Bauer

Buddha-nature

Buddhism and evolution

Buddhist philosophy

C. S. Lewis

C. S. Lewis bibliography

C. Stephen Evans

Cappadocian Fathers

Catholic guilt

Celsus

Charles Blount (deist)

Chöd

Chovot ha-Levavot

Christian de Quincey

Christian existentialism

Christian humanism

Christian materialism

Christian philosophy

Christian Realism

Christianity and environmentalism

Christological argument

City of God (book)

Classical theism

Clemens Timpler

Clement of Alexandria

Clerical philosophers

Clericalism

Committee for the Scientific Examination of Religion

Confucius

Consciousness-only

Contemporary Islamic philosophy

Continuum of Humanist Education

Contra Celsum

Cosmological argument

Cosmology (metaphysics)

Counter-Enlightenment

Creationism

Credo ut intelligam

Criticism of Christianity

Criticism of Hinduism

Criticism of Islam

Criticism of Jesus

Criticism of Judaism

Criticism of monotheism

Criticism of religion

Criticism of the Bible

Criticism of the Catholic Church

Criticism of the Latter Day Saint movement

Criticism of the Qur'an

Cultural materialism (anthropology)

Cultural materialism (cultural studies)

Curt John Ducasse

Daniel Rynhold

Dariush Shayegan

Darwiniana

David ben Merwan al-Mukkamas

David Braine (philosopher)

David Ray Griffin

David Strauss

De Coelesti Hierarchia

De divisione naturae

De Mysteriis Aegyptiorum

Dean Zimmerman

Death

Decline of Greco-Roman polytheism

Deism

Demiurge

Derech Hashem

Desire realm

Deus

Dharani

Dharma

Dharma transmission

Dharmakāya

Dharmarāja Adhvarin

Diamond Realm

Dietrich von Hildebrand

Dimitrije Mitrinović

Dipolar theism

Direct revelation

Distributism

Divine apathy

Divine command theory

Divine simplicity

Divinity

Dōgen

Dogma

Doomsday argument

Doomsday cult

Doomsday event

Double-mindedness

Dukkha

Dwight H. Terry Lectureship

Dzogchen

E. David Cook

Early Islamic philosophy

Eliminative materialism

Elizabeth Burns

Emergent materialism

Epistemic theory of miracles

Epistle to Yemen

Eranos

Ernesto Buonaiuti

Ernst Ehrlich

Ernst Troeltsch

Eschatology

Essentially contested concept

Eternal Buddha

Eternal return

Eternal return (Eliade)

Ethica thomistica

Ethical will

Ethics in religion

Étienne Tempier

Eugen Rosenstock-Huessy

Euthyphro dilemma

Evolutionary argument against naturalism

Evolutionary Humanism

Exegesis

Existence of God

Extrinsic finality

Faith

Faith and rationality

Faith, Science and Understanding

Faraday Institute for Science and Religion

Fate of the unlearned

Fazang

Fazlur Rahman Malik

Ferdinand Ebner

Fetter (Buddhism)

Fi Zilal al-Qur'an

Fideism

Fiqh

Five hindrances

Four stages of enlightenment

Fourteen unanswerable questions

Francis Schaeffer

Franciszek Krupiński

Françoise Meltzer

Franz Rosenzweig

Frederick Ferré

Freethought

French law on secularity and conspicuous religious symbols in schools

Friedrich Nietzsche and free will

Friedrich von Hügel

Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling

Fujiwara Seika

Fundamentalism

Gary Habermas

Gaudapada

George H. Smith

Gifford Lectures

Giles Fraser

God

God-Building

God in Buddhism

God Is Not Great

God of the gaps

God, A Guide for the Perplexed

Gödel's ontological proof

Good and necessary consequence

Graham Oppy

Great chain of being

Greek hero cult

Gregory of Nyssa

Guru Nanak Dev

Gustav Glogau

Hajime Tanabe

Han Yong-un

Hans Rookmaaker

Haribhadra

Hasidic philosophy

Hayashi Razan

Hayom Yom

Henosis

Henry Corbin

Herbert McCabe

Hermetica

Hermeticism

Hierophany

Hinayana

Hirata Atsutane

Hisbah

Historical materialism

Holy History of Mankind

Homoiousian

Homoousian

Hōnen

Hossein Nasr

Hossein Ziai

Huayan school

Huineng

Human beings in Buddhism

Human extinction

Humanism

Humanism and Its Aspirations

Humanism in France

Humanism in Germany

Humanist Manifesto

Humanist Manifesto I

Humanist Manifesto II

Humanist Movement

Humanist Society Scotland

Humanistic naturalism

Huston Smith

Ian Ramsey

Ibn al-Nafis

Ibn Arabi

Ietsism

Ignosticism

Illtyd Trethowan

Illuminationism

Illuminationist philosophy

Immanence

Immortality

Impermanence

Incarnational humanism

Incompatible-properties argument

Indefinite monism

Indriya

Ineffability

Infinite qualitative distinction

Inka

Institute for the Secularisation of Islamic Society

Integral humanism (India)

Intellectualism

International League of Humanists

Intrinsic finality

Intuition (knowledge)

Invincible error

Invincible ignorance fallacy

Inviolability

Invisible Pink Unicorn

Ippen

Irenaean theodicy

Irreligion

Is God Dead?

Islam and democracy

Islamic fundamentalism in Iran

Islamic philosophy

Ivan Aguéli

Ivan Vyshenskyi

J. J. C. Smart

J. P. Moreland

Jainism

Jakob Guttmann (rabbi)

Jakub of Gostynin

James Gustafson

Jay Newman

Jayarāśi Bhaṭṭa

Jayatirtha

Jean Meslier

Jewish ethics

Jinul

Jiva Goswami

Jizang

Johann Friedrich Flatt

Johann Joachim Lange

Johann Nepomuk Oischinger

Johannes Scotus Eriugena

John Calvin

John E. Hare

John Hick

John of Głogów

Joseph de Torre

Joseph Priestley and Dissent

Joseph Runzo

Kalam cosmological argument

Kalpa (aeon)

Kammaṭṭhāna

Kancha Ilaiah

Kang Youwei

Karl Heinrich Heydenreich

Karl Jaspers

Karma

Karma in Buddhism

Karuṇā

Keith Ward

Kensho

Kersey Graves

Kitaro Nishida

Klaus Klostermaier

Knight of faith

Kol HaTor

Kūkai

Kumārila Bhaṭṭa

Kurt Almqvist

Kuzari

Lazarus Geiger

Lectures on the Philosophy of Religion

Letter to a Christian Nation

Letters to a Philosophical Unbeliever

Lewis's trilemma

Life of Jesus (Hegel)

Likkutei Sichos

Lineage (Buddhism)

Linji school

List of female mystics

List of new religious movements

Logic in Islamic philosophy

Lutheran scholasticism

Macrocosm and microcosm

Madhusūdana Sarasvatī

Madhvacharya

Mahābhūta

Mahamudra

Mahavira

Mahayana

Manas-vijnana

Mandala

Mappō

Martin Luther

Materialism

Maximus the Confessor

Maya (illusion)

Meera Nanda

Meister Eckhart

Melville Y. Stewart

Merit (Buddhism)

Mesillat Yesharim

Metaphysical naturalism

Metempsychosis

Methodios Anthrakites

Michael Gottlieb Birckner

Michael Martin (philosopher)

Michael Oakeshott

Michael Ruse

Middle way

Mind's eye

Mindstream

Miracle of the roses

Mircea Eliade

Mircea Eliade bibliography

Misotheism

Monad (Greek philosophy)

Monism

Monistic idealism

Morality without religion

Muhammad Husayn Tabatabaei

Muhammad ibn Muhammad Tabrizi

Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi

Muhammad Iqbal

Mulla Sadra

Mumbo Jumbo (phrase)

Mystical philosophy of antiquity

Mystical realism

Mystical theology

Mysticism

Myth of Er

Nagarjuna

Namarupa

National Federation of Atheist, Humanist and Secular Student Societies

National Secular Society

Natural theology

Naturalism (philosophy)

Naturalistic pantheism

Nemesius

Neo-Scholasticism

Neo-theocracy

Neoplatonism and Christianity

Neutral monism

New Age

New religious movement

New Thought

Nichiren

Nicholas of Kues

Nick Trakakis

Nikolai Lossky

Nimbarka

Nirvana

Noble Eightfold Path

Nondualism

Nontheism

Nontheist Friend

Norman Geisler

Numenius of Apamea

Nyaya

Obscurantism

Occasion of sin

Occasionalism

Odium theologicum

Of Miracles

Olavo de Carvalho

Omega Point

Omnibenevolence

Omnipotence

Omnipotence paradox

Omnipresence

Omniscience

Omphalos hypothesis

Ontological argument

Ontotheology

Opium of the people

Or Adonai

Orchot Tzaddikim

Orlando J. Smith

Osvaldo Lira

Outline of humanism

Outline of theology

Over-soul

Pandeism

Pantheism

Pantheism controversy

Parallelism (philosophy)

Paramartha

Pāramitā

Pascal's Wager

Patañjali

Paul Draper (philosopher)

Paul Häberlin

Paul J. Griffiths

Perennial philosophy

Personalism

Peter Abelard

Peter Geach

Peter Kreeft

Peter Millican

Peter van Inwagen

Phenomenological definition of God

Phenomenology of religion

Phillip H. Wiebe

Philo's view of God

Philodemus

Philosophical Foundations of Marxist-Leninist Atheism

Philosophical theism

Philosophical theology

Philosophy of religion

Philotheus Boehner

Pierre Cally

Plantinga's free will defense

Political theology

Politics Drawn from the Very Words of Holy Scripture

Postmodern Christianity

Praepositinus

Pragmatism

Pratītyasamutpāda

Pratyekabuddha

Precept

Preformation theory

Preformationism

Primum movens

Prince Shōtoku

Problem of evil

Problem of evil in Hinduism

Problem of Hell

Problem of why there is anything at all

Process theology

Proof of the Truthful

Proslogion

Protestant work ethic

Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite

Pseudo-secularism

Pseudo atheism

Pseudoreligion

Psychoanalysis and Religion

Quantum mysticism

Quietism (Christian philosophy)

Quinque viae

R. De Staningtona

Rabia al-Adawiyya

Rabindranath Tagore

Ralph Tyler Flewelling

Ramanuja

Rational fideism

Rational mysticism

Rational Response Squad

Real atheism

Reality in Buddhism

Rebirth (Buddhism)

Reformational philosophy

Relationship between religion and science

Religion

Religion & Ethics Newsweekly

Religion and abortion

Religion and happiness

Religious communism

Religious democracy

Religious humanism

Religious intellectualism in Iran

Religious interpretation

Religious interpretations of the Big Bang theory

Religious law

Religious naturalism

Religious philosophy

Religious skepticism

Religious views on business ethics

Religious views on suicide

Rémi Brague

Renaissance humanism

René Guénon

Revelation

Richard Carrier

Richard Dawkins

Richard Swinburne

Rigpa

Robert Cummings Neville

Robert Merrihew Adams

Rudolf Otto

Rudolf Seydel

Rule of Three (Wiccan)

Sakadagami

Sam Harris (author)

Sambhogakāya

Saṃsāra

Saṃsāra (Buddhism)

Samuel Maximilian Rieser

Samvriti

Sarah Coakley

Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan

Sathya Sai Baba

Sayyid al-Qimni

Sayyid Qutb

Scandal (theology)

School of Saint Victor

Science and Christian Belief

Scotism

Secular ethics

Secular humanism

Secular saint

Secular theology

Secularism

Secularism in the Middle East

Secularization

Sefer ha-Ikkarim

Sefer ha-Qabbalah

Seiichi Hatano

Self-Indication Assumption Doomsday argument rebuttal

Self-referencing doomsday argument rebuttal

Sentences

Seosan

Seth Material

Seven Factors of Enlightenment

Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi

Sharia

Shem Mishmuel

Shinran

Shoshin

Sin

Skandha

Societas Perfecta

Søren Kierkegaard

Sotāpanna

Soul

Soul dualism

Spirit

Spiritual materialism

Spiritual philosophy

Sri Aurobindo

Stephen Mulhall

Stephen R. L. Clark

Strong agnosticism

Submission (2004 film)

Sufi metaphysics

Sufi philosophy

Summa

Summa contra Gentiles

Summa Theologica

Śūnyatā

Supreme Being

Sureśvara

Suzuki Shōsan

Syed Ali Abbas Jallapuri

Symbolism

Tage Lindbom

Taha Abdurrahman

Tanya

Tao

Taoism

Tathāgata

Tathagatagarbha doctrine

Tathātā/Dharmatā

Tawhid

Teleological argument

Teleology

Ten Commandments

Ten spiritual realms

Tetrad (Greek philosophy)

Thaumaturgy

The Age of Reason

The Case for God

The End of Faith

The Essence of Christianity

The Freethinker (journal)

The God Delusion

The God Makers

The God Makers II

The Guide for the Perplexed

The Incoherence of the Philosophers

The Necessity of Atheism

The Only Possible Argument in Support of a Demonstration of the Existence of God

The Primordial Tradition

The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam

The Teachings of the Mystics

The True Word

Theism

Theistic realism

Theodicy

Theodore Drange

Theognostus of Alexandria

Theological aesthetics

Theological determinism

Theological noncognitivism

Theological veto

Theological virtues

Theologico-Political Treatise

Theology

Theories of religion

Theosophy (history of philosophy)

Theurgy

Thirtha prabandha

Thomas Aquinas

Thomas Aquinas and the Sacraments

Thomas Jefferson

Thomism

Thought of Thomas Aquinas

Thoughtform

Three marks of existence

Threefold Training

Time and Eternity (philosophy book)

Tomer Devorah

Trademark argument

Traditionalist School

Trailokya

Transcendence (religion)

Transcendental argument for the existence of God

Transtheistic

Triad (Greek philosophy)

Trikaya

True-believer syndrome

Turtles all the way down

Twelve Nidānas

Two truths doctrine

Types of Buddha

Ultimate Boeing 747 gambit

Ultimate fate of the universe

Universality (philosophy)

Unmoved mover

Upanishads

Upaya

Upeksa

Vācaspati Miśra

Varadaraja V. Raman

Vasubandhu

Victoria Institute

Vijnanabhiksu

Vincent Miceli

Vipāka

Vipassanā

Vipassana movement

Voluntarism (theology)

Vyasa

Walter of St Victor

Wang Chong

War of Anti-Christ with the Church and Christian Civilization

Watchmaker analogy

Weak agnosticism

What I Believe

Why I Am Not a Christian

Willem B. Drees

William Alston

William F. Vallicella

William James

William L. Rowe

William Lane Craig

Witness argument

Wolfgang Smith

Womb Realm

Wonhyo

Works by Thomas Aquinas

Works of Madhvacharya

Yamazaki Ansai

Yi Hwang

Yunmen Wenyan

Zhentong

Zhu Xi

Zofia Zdybicka

Natural law

Natural law (Latin: ius natural, lex naturalis) is a philosophy asserting that certain rights are inherent by virtue of human nature, endowed by nature—traditionally by God or a transcendent source—and that these can be understood universally through human reason. As determined by nature, the law of nature is implied to be objective and universal; it exists independently of human understanding, and of the positive law of a given state, political order, legislature or society at large.

Historically, natural law refers to the use of reason to analyze human nature to deduce binding rules of moral behavior from nature's or God's creation of reality and mankind. The concept of natural law was documented in ancient Greek philosophy, including Aristotle, and was referred to in Roman philosophy by Cicero. References to natural law are also found in the Old and New Testaments of the Bible, later expounded upon in the Middle Ages by Christian philosophers such as Albert the Great and Thomas Aquinas. The School of Salamanca made notable contributions during the Renaissance. Modern natural law theories were greatly developed in the Age of Enlightenment, combining inspiration from Roman law with philosophies like social contract theory. Key proponents were Alberico Gentili, Francisco Suárez, Richard Hooker, Thomas Hobbes, Hugo Grotius, Samuel von Pufendorf, Matthew Hale, John Locke, Francis Hutcheson, Jean Jacques Burlamaqui, Emmerich de Vattel, Cesare Beccaria and Francesco Mario Pagano. It was used to challenge the divine right of kings, and became an alternative justification for the establishment of a social contract, positive law, and government—and thus legal rights—in the form of classical republicanism. Conversely, the concept of natural rights is used by others to challenge the legitimacy of all such establishments.

Contemporarily, the concept of natural law is closely related to the concept of natural rights. Indeed, many philosophers, jurists and scholars use natural law synonymously with natural rights (Latin: ius naturale), or natural justice. while others distinguish between natural law and natural right.Because of the intersection between natural law and natural rights, natural law has been claimed or attributed as a key component in the United States Declaration of Independence (1776), the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (1789) of France, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) of the United Nations General Assembly, as well as the European Convention on Human Rights (1953) of the European Union.

Problem of universals

In metaphysics, the problem of universals refers to the question of whether properties exist, and if so, what they are. Properties are qualities or relations that two or more entities have in common. The various kinds of properties, such as qualities and relations, are referred to as universals. For instance, one can imagine three cup holders on a table that have in common the quality of being circular or exemplifying circularity, or two daughters that have in common being the female offsprings of Frank. There are many such properties, such as being human, red, male or female, liquid, big or small, taller than, father of, etc. While philosophers agree that human beings talk and think about properties, they disagree on whether these universals exist in reality or merely in thought and speech.

The problem of universals relates to a number of questions in close relation to not only metaphysics but, to logic and epistemology, all in efforts to understand how the thought of universals has a connection to those of singular properties. An example best used to explain this, is the question of the Pythagorean theorem. How does one know that this formula will be true universally at all times for all triangles?

Syed Hassan (educationist)

Dr. Syed Hasan, popularly known as Syed Bhai [translates to Brother Syed in English], is an Indian educationist, humanist and the founder of INSAN Group of Institutions, mostly known for one of its founding organization, INSAN School.

He is known for his pioneering efforts to bring education to Kishanganj, formerly an educationally backward district in the Indian state of Bihar. He was a nominee for the Nobel Peace Prize in 2003. The Government of India awarded him the fourth highest civilian award of the Padma Shri, in 1991.

Universal (metaphysics)

In metaphysics, a universal is what particular things have in common, namely characteristics or qualities. In other words, universals are repeatable or recurrent entities that can be instantiated or exemplified by many particular things. For example, suppose there are two chairs in a room, each of which is green. These two chairs both share the quality of "chairness", as well as greenness or the quality of being green; in other words, they share a "universal". There are three major kinds of qualities or characteristics: types or kinds (e.g. mammal), properties (e.g. short, strong), and relations (e.g. father of, next to). These are all different types of universals.Paradigmatically, universals are abstract (e.g. humanity), whereas particulars are concrete (e.g. the personhood of Socrates). However, universals are not necessarily abstract and particulars are not necessarily concrete. For example, one might hold that numbers are particular yet abstract objects. Likewise, some philosophers, such as D. M. Armstrong, consider universals to be concrete.

Most do not consider classes to be universals, although some prominent philosophers do, such as John Bigelow.

Universal law

In law and ethics, universal law or universal principle refers as concepts of legal legitimacy actions, whereby those principles and rules for governing human beings' conduct which are most universal in their acceptability, their applicability, translation, and philosophical basis, are therefore considered to be most legitimate. One type of Universal Law is the Law of Logic which prohibits logical contradictions known as sophistry. The Law of Logic is based upon the universal idea that logic is defined as that which is not illogical and that which is illogical is that which involves a logical contradiction, such as attempting to assert that an apple and no apple can exist at and in the same time and in the same place, and attempting to assert that A and not A can exist at and in the same time and in the same place.

Universalism (disambiguation)

Universalism refers to religious, theological, and philosophical concepts with universal application or applicability. Universalists may emphasis the universal principles of most religions.

Universalism may also refer to:

In religion:

Christian Universalism is a school of Christian theology which includes the belief in the doctrine of universal reconciliation, the view that all human beings and all fallen creatures will ultimately be restored to right relationship with God in Heaven.

Trinitarian Universalism is a variant of belief in universal reconciliation, the belief that every person will be saved, that also held the Christian belief in Trinitarianism.

In Christian theology, Universal reconciliation is the doctrine that all sinful and alienated human souls—because of divine love and mercy—will ultimately be reconciled to God.

An American denomination than merged into Unitarian Universalism

Universalism, a theological and philosophical concept that some ideas have universal application or applicabilityIn philosophy:

Universality (philosophy)

Moral universalism

Universalizability, philosophy of KantIn politics:

Universal monarchy

a name for secular humanism and progressivism used by the Dark EnlightenmentIn music:

"Universal Religion", a compilation album series within the Armin van Buuren discography

Universality

Universality may refer to:

Universality (dynamical systems)

Universality (philosophy), meaning presence in all places and all times

Universality of the Church, theological concept in Christian ecclesiology Universality principle may refer to:

In statistics, universality principle, a property of systems that can be modeled by random matrices

In law, as a synonym for universal jurisdiction

In moral philosophy, the first formulation of Kant's categorical imperative.Universality may also refer to several concepts that are also known as "universality"

Background independence, a concept of universality in physical science

Turing-complete, a concept of universality in computation

Universal property, a mathematical concept

Universal jurisdiction, in international law

Lepton universality in the Standard Model of particle physics.

Part of a series on Universalism

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.