A United States military occupation code, or a military occupational specialty code (MOS code), is a nine-character code used in the United States Army and United States Marine Corps to identify a specific job. In the United States Air Force, a system of Air Force Specialty Codes (AFSC) is used. In the United States Navy, a system of naval ratings and designators are used along with the Navy Enlisted Classification (NEC) system. A system of ratings are also used in the United States Coast Guard.
Since an individual can obtain multiple job specialties, a duty military occupational specialty (DMOS) is used to identify what their primary job function is at any given time. An individual must complete and pass all required training for their military occupational specialty qualification (MOSQ).
Originally, the 4-digit MOS code mostly listed the recruit's civilian profession. This was to aid in classifying what military job they could be assigned. With so many recruits being processed, identifying any semi-skilled or skilled civilian tradesmen made it easier to match them with the right military job. There was an additional list of military trades and trainings added so a trained soldier could be assigned to the right unit. There were no grouping of similar trades together, making it hard for someone to know the meaning of an MOS code without a manual.
The MOS system now had three to five digits. The first four-digit code number indicated the soldier's job; the first two digits were the field code, the third digit was the sub-specialty and the fourth code number (separated by a period) was the job title. A fifth code digit was for the soldier's special qualification identifier (SQI) digit, which indicated what specialized training the soldier had. If the soldier did not have an SQI, the digit was listed as "0" or was omitted. The codes for the civilian trades were removed as unnecessary.
In 1965 the system was revamped. There were completely different codes for enlisted / non-commissioned officers, warrant officers, and commissioned officers.
Enlisted and NCO personnel had a five-symbol code. The first four code symbols were made up of a two-digit code for the career field, a letter code for the field specialty, and a number code (1 to 5) indicating level of instruction in their field specialty. The fifth code symbol was an SQI code letter indicating training in a special skill (the letter "O" indicating that the soldier had no SQI). An exception to the 5-symbol rule was made for an SQI which indicated language fluency. In this case, 7 symbols were used, with "L" as the language qualification indicator, followed by two characters indicating the specific language.
Warrant officers also had a five-symbol code but it was different. The first three numbers were the career field, then a letter code for the field specialty, and ended in the SQI code letter.
Officers had a four-digit code number for their career field and specialty. Officers with a special qualification also had an SQI code number prefix to their MOS rather than a code letter suffix. Officers without a special qualification had no prefix number.
In 1983, there was a reform of this system. Some of the field code numbers were changed and the MOS codes were streamlined.
Warrant officers and officers received the same career field codes as enlisted and NCO personnel and ended in the same SQI letter codes. Warrant officers received a five-symbol MOS consisting of a four-symbol field specialty code consisting of the two-digit field code, a one-digit sub-field code number (usually "0"), the field specialty code letter, and followed by the SQI code letter. Officers now had a four-symbol alphanumeric MOS. It consisted of the three-symbol field specialty code of two numbers and a specialty code letter and ended in the SQI letter code.
The field code "18" was created for US Army Special Forces, which are now considered part of the regular US Army. Previously they had been considered a layer between the intelligence services and the army. The 18A was for special forces officers and 180A was for special forces warrant officers. The 18X was for special forces candidates who had not yet passed the "Q" course. The "A" team leaders had to be captains instead of lieutenants and were rotated to conventional postings.
Certain field specialty code letters were reserved. The "X" was for recruits or candidates who have pre-selected a career field but had not graduated from AIT. The "Z" is for senior NCOs of E8 or E9 grade. The "A" is for officers and warrant officers in a general capacity. Specialist officers and warrant officers have other field code letters reserved for them.
The MOS code (MOSC), consisting of nine characters, provides more information than a soldier's MOS. It is used by automated management systems and reports. The MOSC is used with active and reserve records, reports, authorization documents, and other personnel management systems.
The elements of the MOSC are as follows:
When an enlisted soldier is promoted from sergeant first class to master sergeant in most career types, that soldier will be reclassified administratively to the "senior sergeant" of their career management field. For example, a combat engineer (MOS 12B, part of CMF 12) is promoted from sergeant first class to master sergeant. That soldier is reclassified administratively from MOS 12B to MOS 12Z "senior engineer sergeant"). An example of when this conversion occurs at the MSG to SGM level is the 68 (formerly the 91) CMF. In this case, the soldier becomes a 68Z at the SGM level, not the MSG level. When promoted from master sergeant or first sergeant or sergeant major to command sergeant major, that soldier will be reclassified administratively from their previous "senior sergeant" MOS to the MOS 00Z (zero-zero-zulu), "command sergeant major". Some MOS do not change though, for example 25U starts out as 25U10 (E1-E4), 25U20, (E5/SGT), 25U30 (E6/SSG), 25U40 (E7/SFC), 25U50 (E8, E9/MSG, 1SG, SGM, CSM)
Warrant officers are sometimes specialized technicians and systems managers, and were not originally assigned to traditional arms or services of the Army. Approximately 50% of warrant officers are aviators (aircraft pilots, rotary wing and fixed wing), and can be appointed directly from civilian life or within the service, regardless of previous enlisted MOS. The remaining 50% are technicians appointed from experienced enlisted soldiers and NCOs in a "feeder" MOS directly related to the warrant officer MOS.
During 2004, all army warrant officers began wearing the insignia of their specialty's proponent branch rather than the 83-year-old "Eagle Rising" distinctive warrant officer insignia. The following year, a revision of commissioned officer professional development and career management integrated warrant officer career development with the officer career development model. In practice, warrant officer MOSC are very similar to enlisted codes except they begin with three digits instead of two before the first letter, and do not have a "skill level" identifier. They are then followed by the SQI, ASI, and SLI as an enlisted MOS would be.
Commissioned officers' occupational codes are structured somewhat differently. A newly commissioned army officer first receives a "career branch". This is similar to the career management field of the enlisted personnel. Career branch numbers range from 11 to 92. For example: 13 for field artillery, 19 for armor/armored cavalry and 92 for quartermaster. Within each occupational field, there are usually several codes available. Within armor (branch 19) there are three specialties available: 19A (armor, general), 19B (armor), and 19C (cavalry). After an officer's fifth or sixth year of service, he or she may receive a "functional area" designation. More specific than a career branch, this is a specific skill set in which the officer is proficient. For example, an artillery officer who has had schooling in communications and public speaking could end up with a functional area in public affairs (FA46).
The U.S. Marine Corps begins by separating all jobs into "occupational fields" (OccFld), in which no distinction is made between officers and enlisted marines. The fields are numbered from 01 to 99 and include general categories (intelligence, infantry, logistics, public affairs, ordnance, etc.) under which specific jobs fall.
Each field contains multiple MOSes, each designated by a four-digit numerical indicator and a job title. For example, the infantry field (03) has ten enlisted classifications: rifleman (MOS 0311), riverine assault craft Marine (MOS 0312), light armored vehicle Marine (MOS 0313), scout sniper (MOS 0317), reconnaissance Marine (MOS 0321), machine gunner (MOS 0331), mortarman (MOS 0341), infantry assault Marine (MOS 0351), antitank missile gunner (MOS 0352), and infantry unit leader (MOS 0369).
Each of the jobs have authorized ranks associated with them. For example, anyone ranking from private to sergeant can be a rifleman (0311), but only marines ranking from staff sergeant to master gunnery sergeant can be an infantry unit leader (0369).
Duties and tasks are identified by rank because the marine corps MOS system is designed around the belief that increased duties and tasks accompany promotions. The first two digits designate the field and, the last two digits identify the promotional channel and specialty.
For example, the MOS 0311 indicates that it is in occupational field 03 (infantry) and designates the "rifleman" (11) MOS. For warrant officers, the MOS 2305 indicates that it is in occupational field 23 (ammunition and explosive ordnance disposal) and designates the "explosive ordnance disposal officer" (05) MOS. For officers, the MOS 0802 indicates that it is in occupational field 08 (field artillery) and designates the "field artillery officer" (02) MOS.
On September 29, 2016, the Navy announced it will "modernize" all rating titles for Sailors with a new classification system that will move towards occupational specialty codes similar to how the other services operate.
Former Master Chief Petty Officer of the Navy Michael Stevens led the controversial review earlier this year for the Secretary of the Navy on behalf of Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral John Richardson.
Initially, the Navy Rating Modernization System eliminated all rating titles. The former Master Chief Petty Officer of the Navy, Steven S. Giordano, said:
"Sailors would no longer be called, 'Yeoman Second Class' or YN2, for example," he said. "Instead they will be 'Second Class Petty Officer, or 'Petty Officer.' However, Sailors' rates will not change: an E-7 will remain a Chief Petty Officer and an E-3 will remain a Seaman. Additionally, there will no longer be a distinction between 'airman, fireman and seaman.'"
The fleet at large did not respond to this favorably. As a result, Admiral Richardson rescinded this change on December, 21, 2016, restoring all rating titles.
However, the plan retains the goal of producing sailors with more than one NOS, which might give them a broader range of professional experience and expertise and will be grouped under career fields that will enable flexibility to move between occupational specialties within the fields and will be tied to training and qualifications.
The transformation will occur in phases over a multi-year period and the Chief of Naval Personnel will lead the implementation efforts
The United States Navy has not released its NOS details yet and has not changed "designators" for officers.
The Navy indicates its "ratings" by a two or three character code based on the actual name of the rating. These range from ABE (aviation boatswain's mate - equipment) to YN (Yeoman). Each sailor and Chief Petty Officer wears a rating badge indicating their rating as part of their rate (rank) insignia on full dress and service dress uniforms.
The navy officer "designator" is similar to an MOS but is less complicated and has fewer categories. For example, a surface warfare officer with a regular commission has a designator of 1110; a reserve officer has an 1115 designator. A reserve surface warfare officer specializing in nuclear training (i.e., engineer on a carrier) has a designator of 1165N. Navy officers also have one or more three-character additional qualification designators (AQD) that reflect completion of requirements qualifying them in a specific warfare area or other specialization. In some senses this functions more like the MOS in other services. An officer with the naval aviator designator of 1310 might have an AQD of DV3, SH-60F carrier anti-submarine warfare helicopter pilot, or DB4, F-14 fighter pilot. An officer designated 2100, medical corps officer (physician) may hold an AQD of 6CM, trauma surgeon, or 6AE, flight surgeon who is also a naval aviator. Some AQDs may be possessed by officers in any designator, such as BT2, freefall parachutist, or BS1, shipboard Tomahawk strike officer. Navy officer designators and AQD codes may be found in NAVPERS 15839I, The Manual of Navy Officer Manpower and Personnel Classification.ip
The United States Coast Guard does not use the military occupational specialty concept either, instead dividing their occupational specialties into groups such as aviation, administrative and scientific, deck and weapons, and engineering and hull. Their rating system is very similar to the Navy's (e.g. BM, boatswain's mate).
The Coast Guard indicates its "ratings" by a two or three character code based on the actual name of the rating. These range from AMT (aviation maintenance technician) to YN (yeoman). Coast Guardsmen wear a rating badge indicating their rating as part of their rate (rank) insignia on full dress and service dress uniforms.
The air force utilizes a similar system, but titled "Air Force Specialty Code" (AFSC). Enlisted airmen have a five digit code, and officers have a four digit code.
Camp Ashland, Nebraska is an Army National Guard facility located near Ashland, Nebraska, along the Platte River. The camp has been in use by the Nebraska National Guard for more than 100 years. It was first established in 1906 after the Spanish-American War as a rifle range, in order for Nebraska Soldiers to have score their target practice. At the time, the owner of the land rented part of her farm to the state of Nebraska for $994.05. The state constructed ranges and conducted "encampments" (now known as annual training) at the site and renewed the lease option. The Federal government purchased the land in 1916.When troops from Nebraska returned home from World War I in 1919, the camp had fallen into disrepair. Repairs were conducted using Federal funds, and in 1923 annual trainings once again occurred at Camp Ashland. During this time frame, the camp developed rapidly. An administration building was constructed, along with a wooden boxing ring. In 1930, Memorial Hall was dedicated, and served as the Camp's primary administration building for decades (currently known as Building 50). During the 1930s the boxing ring was rebuilt by the Works Progress Administration (WPA) into a concrete arena with a 3,000 person capacity. Eventually, the firing-range operations were moved to a location 130 miles southwest, currently known as Greenlief Training Site, near Hastings, Nebraska.It is currently home to the 209th Regional Training Institute (RTI), which consists of Headquarters (HQ), 209th RTI, 1/209th RTI (NCO Academy), 2/209th RTI (OCS/WOCS), 3/209th RTI (88M), and Camp Ashland Training Site Command (CATS). Year-round training is conducted at Camp Ashland, and it is considered one of the midwest's most important military training centers, with 80,000 to 100,000 service members training at the camp every year. Each weekend can see anywhere from 300 to 1000 troops at the camp, above and beyond the service members attending schools there. Access to the camp is restricted to the public and only authorized personnel and those with United States Department of Defense (DOD) identification are allowed to enter. Camp Ashland has remained a primary training site for the Nebraska National Guard throughout its history, and has also been used by other branches of the active United States military, other state National Guard units, and for military joint force training exercises with units from other countries. The camp has been used by many other groups, such as the Civil Air Patrol, JROTC, and Boy Scouts.United States military occupation
United States military occupation may refer to:
A state or period of occupation by the United States military, such as those listed at List of military occupations
A pejorative term for any activity during the military history of the United States which involved troops in other countries
A job in the United States Armed Forces, as designated by its United States military occupation codeWilliam C. Chasey
William Carman "Bill" Chasey (February 11, 1940 - May 23, 2015) was the founder and president of the Foundation for Corporate Social Responsibility (FCSR) in Warsaw, Poland. He was an educator, author, research scientist, inventor, and served as a senior campaign advisor to President Ronald Reagan.
The mission of the FCSR is to mentor senior corporate leaders, giving them skills for developing corporate social responsibility values in their firms. The primary focus of the FCSR is to serve needy Polish children. The FCSR's 90 members include CEOs of some of the world's largest and most well-regarded corporations from a diverse and broad range of industry sectors. To date, the FCSR has fed over 5 million meals to needy Polish children, and presently feeds 60,000 meals each month to 3,000 kids in 13 Polish schools.
Chasey founded 6 international MBA programs on behalf of City University of Seattle, and one on behalf of National University in California. He has advised over 150 multi-national companies in international business and corporate philanthropy. Chasey served as an adjunct professor during his years living in Europe, and taught undergraduate and graduate courses in entrepreneurship at Kozminski University in Warsaw, Poland, the Polish Open University in Warsaw, Poland the Warsaw School of Economics in Warsaw, Poland, and the American University in Bulgaria in Sofia, Bulgaria.
Chasey was founder and president of the William Chasey Organization a Washington, D.C. lobbying firm for over twenty-five years. During his lobbying career, Chasey represented some of the world's most prestigious business clients and 23 foreign governments before the United States Congress. He was a Registered Lobbyist with both the Clerk of the United States House of Representatives and the Secretary of the United States Senate as required by the Lobbying Disclosure Act. He was a Registered Foreign Agent, United States Department of Justice. (RFA Number 4221) as required by the Foreign Agents Registration Act. Chasey's professional lobbying ability was captured on film during two episodes of Michael Moore's TV Nation television series in 1994. Because of Chasey's lobbying talents, TV Nation was recognized by the United States Congress by passing Resolution H.J. 365, which declared August 16, 1994 as "TV Nation Day." TV Guide named TV Nation one of the ten best television shows of 1995.Chasey held the John F. Kennedy Professorship at the Peabody College of Education and Human Development of Vanderbilt University, (Named Academic Professorship funded by the Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr. Foundation, Washington, D.C.) Chasey was a research scientist in the Convulsive Disorders Clinic of the Vanderbilt University School of Medicine. He served as a senior scientist in the Institute on Mental Retardation and Intellectual Development (IMRID), and as a senior scientist in the Laboratory of Intrinsic Motivation, and as chairman of the Research Ethics Committee at the Peabody College of Education and Human Development of Vanderbilt University 1972–1975.
Chasey is the author of over 100 research investigations and publications in the field of mental retardation. He invented 3 research instruments to measure psychomotor learning of mentally retarded children.
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