United States federal civil service

The United States federal civil service is the civilian workforce (i.e., non-elected and non-military public sector employees) of the United States federal government's departments and agencies. The federal civil service was established in 1871 (5 U.S.C. § 2101).[1] U.S. state and local government entities often have comparable civil service systems that are modeled on the national system, in varying degrees.

According to the Office of Personnel Management, as of December 2011, there were approximately 2.79 million civil servants employed by the U.S. government.[2][3][4] This includes employees in the departments and agencies run by any of the three branches of government (the executive branch, legislative branch, and judicial branch), such as over 600,000 employees in the U.S. Postal Service.

Informal Remarks At Union Station Plaza, Washington, D.C - NARA - 198093
Remarks by FDR in 1944 at Union Station, thanking government workers for helping win the war

Types of employees

There are three categories of U.S. federal employees:[5]

  • The competitive service includes the majority of civil service positions, meaning employees are selected based on merit after a competitive hiring process for positions that are open to all applicants.
  • The Senior Executive Service (SES) is the classification for non-competitive, senior leadership positions filled by career employees or political appointments (e.g., Cabinet members, ambassadors, etc.).
  • The excepted service (also known as unclassified service) includes non-competitive jobs in certain federal agencies with security and intelligence functions (e.g., the CIA, FBI, State Department, etc.) that are authorized to create their own hiring policies and are not subject to most appointment, pay, and classification laws.

Hiring authorities

A hiring authority is the law, executive order, or regulation that allows an agency to hire a person into the federal civil service. In fiscal year 2014, there were 105 hiring authorities in use. The following were the top 20 hiring authorities used that year, which accounted for 91% of new appointments:[6]

Pay systems

The pay system of the United States government civil service has evolved into a complex set of pay systems that include principally the General Schedule (GS) for white-collar employees, Federal Wage System (FWS) for blue-collar employees, Senior Executive System (SES) for Executive-level employees, Foreign Service Schedule (FS) for members of the Foreign Service and more than twelve alternate pay systems that are referred to as alternate or experimental pay systems such as the first experimental system China Lake Demonstration Project. The current system began as the Classification Act of 1923[7] and was refined into law with the Classification Act of 1949. These acts that provide the foundation of the current system have been amended through executive orders and through published amendments in the Federal Register that sets for approved changes in the regulatory structure of the federal pay system. The common goal among all pay systems is to achieve the goal of paying equitable salaries to all involved workers regardless of system, group or classification. This is referred to as pay equity or ("equal pay for equal work"). Select careers in high demand may be subject to a special rate table,[8] which can pay above the standard GS tables. These careers include certain engineering disciplines and patent examiners.[9][10]

The General Schedule (GS) includes white collar workers at levels 1 through 15, most professional, technical, administrative, and clerical positions in the federal civil service. The Federal Wage System or Wage Grade (WG) schedule includes most federal blue-collar workers. As of September 2004, 71% of federal civilian employees were paid under the GS; the remaining 29% were paid under other systems such as the Federal Wage System for federal blue-collar civilian employees, the Senior Executive Service/Senior Level and the Executive Schedule for high-ranking federal employees, and the pay schedules for the United States Postal Service and the Foreign Service. In addition, some federal agencies—such as the United States Securities and Exchange Commission, the Federal Reserve System, and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation—have their own unique pay schedules.

All federal employees in the GS system receive a base pay that is adjusted for locality. Locality pay varies, but is at least 10% of base salary in all parts of the United States. The following salary ranges represent the lowest and highest possible amounts a person can earn in base salary, without earning over-time pay or receiving a merit-based bonus. Actual salary ranges differ adjusted for increased locality pay (for instance a GS-9, step 1 in rural Arkansas may start at $50,598[11] versus $61,084[12] in San Jose, California), but all base salaries lie within the parameters of the following ranges (effective January, 2018):[13]

Pay grade GS-1 GS-2 GS-3 GS-4 GS-5 GS-6 GS-7 GS-8 GS-9 GS-10 GS-11 GS-12 GS-13 GS-14 GS-15
Lowest step (1) $ 18,785 $ 21,121 $ 23,045 $ 25,871 $ 28,945 $ 32,264 $ 35,854 $ 39,707 $ 43,857 $ 48,297 $ 53,062 $ 63,600 $ 75,628 $ 89,370 $ 105,123
Highest step (10) $ 23,502 $ 26,585 $ 29,957 $ 33,629 $ 37,630 $ 41,939 $ 46,609 $ 51,623 $ 57,015 $ 62,787 $ 68,983 $ 78,355 $ 98,317 $116,181 $136,659
Source: U.S. Office of Personnel Management, 2018.[14]

Nineteen percent of federal employees earned salaries of $100,000 or more in 2009. The average federal worker's pay was $71,208 compared with $40,331 in the private sector, although under Office of Management and Budget Circular A-76, most menial or lower paying jobs have been outsourced to private contractors.[15] In 2010, there were 82,034 workers, 3.9% of the federal workforce, making more than $150,000 annually, compared to 7,240 in 2005.[16] GS salaries are capped by law so that they do not exceed the salary for Executive Schedule IV positions.[17] The increase in civil servants making more than $150,000 resulted mainly from an increase in Executive Schedule salary approved during the Administration of George W. Bush, which raised the salary cap for senior GS employees slightly above the $150,000 threshold.[18]

Basic pay rates for Senior Executive Service (i.e. non-Presidentially appointed civil servants above GS-15) will range from $119,554 to $179,700 in 2012.

Federal agencies

Employees in the civil services work under one of the independent agencies or one of the 15 executive departments.

In addition to departments, there are a number of staff organizations grouped into the Executive Office of the President. These include the White House staff, the National Security Council, the Office of Management and Budget, the Council of Economic Advisers, the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative, the Office of National Drug Control Policy and the Office of Science and Technology Policy.

There are also independent agencies such as the United States Postal Service, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). In addition, there are government-owned corporations such as the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) and the National Railroad Passenger Corporation.[19]

There were 456 federal agencies in 2009.[20]

Employment by agency

As of January 2009, the Federal Government, excluding the Postal Service and soldiers, employed about 2 million civilian workers.

The Federal Government is the nation's single largest employer. Although most federal agencies are based in the Washington, D.C. region, only about 16% (or about 288,000) of the federal government workforce is employed in this region.[22]


In the early 19th century, positions in the federal government were held at the pleasure of the president—a person could be fired at any time. The spoils system meant that jobs were used to support the American political parties, though this was gradually changed by the Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act of 1883 and subsequent laws. By 1909, almost two-thirds of the U.S. federal workforce was appointed based on merit, that is, qualifications measured by tests. Certain senior civil service positions, including some heads of diplomatic missions and executive agencies, are filled by political appointees. Under the Hatch Act of 1939, civil servants are not allowed to engage in political activities while performing their duties.[23] In some cases, an outgoing administration will give its political appointees positions with civil service protection in order to prevent them from being fired by the new administration; this is called "burrowing" in civil service jargon.[24]

U.S. Civil Service Commission

Public support in the United States for civil service reform strengthened following the assassination of President James Garfield.[25] The United States Civil Service Commission was created by the Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act, which was passed into law on January 16, 1883. The commission was created to administer the civil service of the United States federal government. The law required federal government employees to be selected through competitive exams and basis of merit;[25] it also prevented elected officials and political appointees from firing civil servants, removing civil servants from the influences of political patronage and partisan behavior.[25][26] However, the law did not apply to state and municipal governments.

Effective January 1, 1978, the commission was renamed the Office of Personnel Management under the provisions of Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1978 (43 F.R. 36037, 92 Stat. 3783) and the Civil Service Reform Act of 1978.

The United States Civil service exams have since been abolished for many positions, since statistics show that they do not accurately allow hiring of minorities according to the affirmative action guidelines.[27]

Civil Service Reform Act of 1978

This act abolished the United States Civil Service Commission and created the U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM), the Federal Labor Relations Authority (FLRA) and the U.S. Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB). OPM primarily provides management guidance to the various agencies of the executive branch and issues regulations that control federal human resources. FLRA oversees the rights of federal employees to form collective bargaining units (unions) and to engage in collective bargaining with agencies. MSPB conducts studies of the federal civil service and mainly hears the appeals of federal employees who are disciplined or otherwise separated from their positions. This act was an effort to replace incompetent officials.[28][29]

Reforms under the Trump administration

President Donald Trump signed three executive orders designed to enforce merit-system principles in the civil service and intended to improve efficiency, transparency, and accountability in the federal government.[30][31] U.S. District Court Judge Ketanji Brown Jackson struck down the majority of Trump's executive orders, ruling they were a violation of federal law.[32]

Civil servants in literature

  • Mumms, Hardee (1977). Federal Triangle. New York: Dutton. ISBN 978-0-525-10425-4. Humorous novel of 1970s federal employees in Washington, DC[33]
  • Philipson, Morris H (1983). Secret understandings: A novel. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-671-46619-0. Novel about the wife of a federal judge
  • Bromell, Henry (2001). Little America: A Novel. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 978-0-525-10425-4. A State Department employee's son reconstructs a childhood in a fictional Middle Eastern country
  • Costello, Mark (2002). Big If. New York: W.W. Norton & Co. ISBN 978-0-393-05116-2. A novel of life in the Secret Service
  • Keeley, Edmund (1985). A Wilderness Called Peace. New York: Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-0-671-47416-4. A novel of a diplomat's son in Cambodia
  • Bushell, Agnes (1997). The enumerator. London: Serpent's Tail. ISBN 978-1-85242-554-8. A novel about a public health contractor in San Francisco
  • White, Stewart Edward (1910). The Rules of the Game. New York: Doubleday. ISBN 978-1-4432-2300-3. A novel of the Forest Service[34]

See also


  1. ^ "The Federal Civil Service". DOI University, National Business Center, U.S. Department of the Interior (Revised 11/10/98). Archived from the original on 2009-10-18. Retrieved 2009-08-31.
  2. ^ "Total Government Employment Since 1962". Opm.gov. Retrieved 2013-02-05.
  3. ^ O'Keefe, Ed. "Federal Eye – How many federal workers are there?". Voices.washingtonpost.com. Retrieved 2013-02-05.
  4. ^ "December 2011". Opm.gov. 2012-01-01. Retrieved 2013-02-05.
  5. ^ "Help Center: Entering Federal Service". USAJOBS. United States Office of Personnel Management. Retrieved January 25, 2017.
  6. ^ a b "Federal Hiring: OPM Needs to Improve Management and Oversight of Hiring Authorities". U. S. Government Accountability Office. 2016-09-01. pp. 0, 9–11.
  7. ^ Pub. Law no. 516, Ch. 265, 42 Stat. 1488 (March 4, 1923).
  8. ^ "U.S. Office of Personnel Management".
  9. ^ http://nasajobs.nasa.gov/benefits/pay.htm
  10. ^ "Federal pay and the General Schedule (GS)".
  11. ^ "OPM SALARY TABLE FOR THE REST OF U.S." (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2018-01-20. Retrieved 2018-01-18.
  12. ^ "OPM SALARY TABLE FOR THE LOCALITY PAY AREA OF SAN JOSE" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2018-01-20. Retrieved 2018-01-18.
  13. ^ "Office of Personnel Management, Salary Tables, 2018" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2018-01-20. Retrieved 2018-01-19.
  14. ^ "2018 General Schedule (GS) Locality Pay Tables". Office of Personnel Management. 2012. Archived from the original on 2018-01-09. Retrieved 2018-01-18.
  15. ^ Cauchon, Dennis (11 December 2009). "Richest of federal workers get richer". Melbourne, Florida: Florida Today. pp. 1A.
  16. ^ Cauchon, Dennis (10 November 2010). "More fed workers' pay tops $150K". Melbourne, Florida: Florida Today. pp. 4A.
  17. ^ "Congressional Research Service Report for Congress: The Executive Schedule IV Pay Cap on General Schedule Compensation" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-01-19. Retrieved 2011-12-22.
  18. ^ "January 2009 Pay Adjustments". United States Office of Personnel Management. 18 December 2008. Retrieved 2011-12-22.
  19. ^ "Circular NO. A–11 PT. 7 Planning, Budgeting, Acquisition, and Management of Capital Assets" (PDF). OMB Circular No. A–11 (2008). Executive Office of the President Office of Management and Budget. June 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-07-26. Retrieved 2008-07-28.
  20. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-10-14. Retrieved 2013-10-13.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  21. ^ "FedScope Federal Human Resources Data". U.S. Office of Personnel Management. Retrieved 2017-02-07.
  22. ^ "Federal Government, Excluding the Postal Service". US Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. 2008-03-12. Archived from the original on 2009-01-14. Retrieved 2008-07-28., Section: Employment. Note: Because data on employment in certain agencies cannot be released to the public for national security reasons, this total does not include employment for the Central Intelligence Agency, National Security Agency, Defense Intelligence Agency, and National Imagery and Mapping Agency.
  23. ^ "Political Activity (Hatch Act)". Osc.gov. Archived from the original on 2011-05-20. Retrieved 2011-05-25.
  24. ^ Eilperin, Juliet (November 18, 2008). "Administration Moves to Protect Key Appointees". Washington Post.
  25. ^ a b c Digital History, Steven Mintz. "Digital History". Digitalhistory.uh.edu. Archived from the original on 2011-10-01. Retrieved 2011-05-25.
  26. ^ Creating America: A History of the United States, Rand McNally, p. 238 (2003).
  27. ^ E. Chemerinsky, "Making Sense of the Affirmative Action Debate", (1996)
  28. ^ Ingraham, Patricia W.; Donald P. Moynihan (2000). The Future of Merit. p. 103.
  29. ^ Roberge, Ellen (2011). SNAFU, A Hysterical Memoir About Why the Government Doesn't Work. Orlando, FL: Createspace/BureauRat Publishing. p. 119. ISBN 978-0615610290.
  30. ^ Eaton, Sabrina. "President Trump signs three executive orders in attempted crackdown on federal unions". The Plain Dealer. Cleveland.com. Retrieved 3 December 2018.
  31. ^ Korte, Gregory. "Trump signs executive orders aimed at loosening clout of federal labor unions". USA TODAY. Retrieved 3 December 2018.
  32. ^ Korte, Gregory. "Judge rules against Trump's attempt to weaken federal unions". USA TODAY. Retrieved 3 December 2018.
  33. ^ "The Press: Soap Operas Come to Print". TIME. August 8, 1977. Retrieved February 27, 2010.
  34. ^ "The Rules of the Game". 5 March 1911. Retrieved 19 March 2018 – via NYTimes.com.

External links

Excepted service

The excepted service is the part of the United States federal civil service that is not part of either the competitive service or the Senior Executive Service. It provides streamlined hiring processes to be used under certain circumstances.

Government employees in the United States

Government employees in the United States includes the United States federal civil service, employees of the state governments of the United States, and employees of local government in the United States.

Government employees are not necessarily the same as civil servants, as some jurisdictions specifically define which employees are civil servants; for example, it often excludes military employees.The federal government is the nation's single largest employer, although it employs only about 12% of all government employees, compared to 24% at the state level and 63% at the local level.

H. R. Crawford

Hazle Reid "H. R." Crawford (January 18, 1939 – February 10, 2017) was a real estate developer and former Democratic politician in Washington, D.C..

List of Vassar College people

This is a partial list of notable faculty and alumni of Vassar College.

Lois Lerner

Lois Gail Lerner (born October 12, 1950) is an American attorney and former United States federal civil service employee. Lerner became director of the Exempt Organizations Unit of the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) in 2005, and subsequently became the central figure in the 2013 IRS targeting controversy in the targeting of conservative groups, either denying them tax-exempt status outright or delaying that status until they could no longer take effective part in the 2012 election. conservative groups were scrutinized. Only three groups - all branches of the Democratic group Emerge America - had tax exemptions revoked. Lerner resigned over the controversy. The Obama Administration attempted to clear itself of wrongdoing in a 2015 investigation that claimed to find "substantial evidence of mismanagement, poor judgment and institutional inertia" but "no evidence that any IRS official acted based on political, discriminatory, corrupt, or other inappropriate motives that would support a criminal prosecution."

Lot Dean Lockwood

Lot Dean Lockwood (L. D. Lockwood, February 20, 1879 – September 26, 1960) was an American businessman, attorney-at-law, educator, Philippine Government Official and Republican Delegate for the Philippines.

Born in Brownsville, California, L. D. Lockwood studied at local California schools ultimately studying law at Stanford University. He was a member of the Bar associations of the Philippines and California, as well as a member of the Bar of the Supreme Court of the United States. In 1903 he was commission by the United States Federal Civil Service to serve as an educator in the Philippines. While in the Philippines, he became a supervisor for the public school system and held several governmental positions including treasurer and district auditor of several provinces. In 1926 he developed a well-known law practice in the Philippines becoming widely known as Judge Lockwood and as prominent member of the American Chamber of Commerce of the Philippines. He started and lead several businesses including the Pampanga Bus Company, Inc, the Northern Luzon Transportation Company, Inc., and the Motor Service Company, Inc. Lot Dean Lockwood represented the Philippines as a delegate to the Republican National Convention in Kansas City in 1928 (Convention Vice President) and again in Philadelphia in 1940. Lockwood worked with US Government officials to help the Philippines develop legal and financial independence which involved him working personally with Dwight D. Eisenhower. Lockwood chronicled the history of law in the Philippines during and after World War II Japanese occupation of the Philippines in a 1950 Stanford Law Review article entitled "The Philippine Supreme Court and Postwar Problems of International Law"Lockwood nearly died in the Agusan River while traveling between provinces as district auditor. Lockwood was married to Goldie Elizabeth Donham, who died not long after childbirth in Manila due to preeclampsia. His only daughter, Martha Elizabeth Lockwood-Laederich, survived. Lockwood remarried the socialite Bertha Gardner of San Francisco.

Mary F. Hoyt

Mary Francis Hoyt (also Mary Francis Moses; June 17, 1858 – October 19, 1958), a Vassar College graduate, was the first woman to receive a position in the United States federal civil service which was followed by hundreds of thousands of women filling these government positions. She was a centenarian.

Salt Wells Pilot Plant

The Salt Wells Pilot Plant was a facility established by the Manhattan Project at the Naval Ordnance Test Station (NOTS) at Inyokern, California, where non-nuclear explosive components of nuclear weapons were manufactured. The first explosives were melted, mixed and poured on 25 July 1945. Between 1945 and 1954, it manufactured explosive components of the Fat Man, Mark 4, Mark 5 and Mark 12 nuclear bombs. The Salt Wells Pilot Plant also helped design, equip, and train workers for the Burlington AEC Plant in Iowa and the Pantex Plant in Texas. The Salt Wells Pilot Plant closed on 30 June 1954.

Title 42 appointment

A Title 42 appointment is an excepted service employment category in the United States federal civil service. It allows scientists and special consultants to be hired as part of the Public Health Service or Environmental Protection Agency under a streamlined process "without regard to the civil-service laws". Courts have ruled that, although Title 42 appointments are exempt from hiring and compensation provisions of civil service laws, they are still entitled to protections relating to termination, including appeals to the Merit Systems Protection Board.

Title 42 hiring authority was first enacted in 1944 as part of the Public Health Service Act, and was extended to the Environmental Protection Agency on a limited basis in 2005. It is named after Title 42 of the United States Code, which contains its legal basis, and is contrasted with Title 5 employees which are normal civil service appointments.

Women Airforce Service Pilots

The Women Airforce Service Pilots (WASP), (also Women's Army Service Pilots or Women's Auxiliary Service Pilots) was a civilian women pilots' organization, whose members were United States federal civil service employees. Members of WASP became trained pilots who tested aircraft, ferried aircraft and trained other pilots. Their purpose was to free male pilots for combat roles during World War II. Despite various members of the armed forces being involved in the creation of the program, the WASP and its members had no military standing.

WASP was preceded by the Women's Flying Training Detachment (WFTD) and the Women's Auxiliary Ferrying Squadron (WAFS). Both were organized separately in September 1942. They were pioneering organizations of civilian women pilots, who were attached to the United States Army Air Forces to fly military aircraft during World War II. On August 5, 1943, the WFTD and WAFS merged to create the WASP organization.

The WASP arrangement with the US Army Air Forces ended on December 20, 1944. During its period of operation, each member's service had freed a male pilot for military combat or other duties. They flew over 60 million miles; transported every type of military aircraft; towed targets for live anti-aircraft gun practice; simulated strafing missions and transported cargo. Thirty-eight WASP members lost their lives and one disappeared while on a ferry mission, her fate still unknown as of 2018. In 1977, for their World War II service, the members were granted veteran status, and in 2009 awarded the Congressional Gold Medal.

Description of the 20 Hiring Authorities Most Used in Fiscal Year 2014[6]
Hiring Authority Service type Number Description
Competitive Examining Competitive 44,612 Vacancies open to the public and posted on USAJobs. Applicants ranked and selections made by category rating. Veterans’ preference applies
Department of Veterans Affairs, Title 38 Excepted 30,240 Exclusively for Veterans Affairs to hire certain medical occupations.
Schedule A: Agency-specific Authority Excepted 11,220 Allows agencies to meet a hiring need that has not been remedied by using competitive examining, with justification and OPM approval.
Defense National Guard Technician Excepted 11,143 Unique non-Title 5 hiring authority used strictly for appointment of National Guard technicians. Appointees maintain a dual status as both a federal employee and state national guard member.
Veterans Employment Opportunities Act Competitive 11,011 Allows eligible veterans to apply for positions announced under merit promotion procedures when an agency accepts applications from outside its own workforce.
Other law, executive order, or regulation Both 10,745 Authorities granted by law, executive order, or regulation for which no specific OPM-designated hiring authority code exists.
Pathways Internship Excepted 8,862 Targets students at qualifying educational institutions. Interns eligible to be noncompetitively converted to competitive service under specified conditions.
Temporary Appointment, based on prior temporary federal service Competitive 8,344 Allows agencies to noncompetitively reappoint former temporary employees (who have not already served the maximum time allowed) and noncompetitively appoint others eligible for certain career conditional appointments.
Veterans Recruitment Appointment Excepted 7,733 Allows agencies to appoint eligible veterans up to the GS-11 or equivalent level without regard to competitive examining procedures. Appointees are converted to competitive service appointments after 2 years of satisfactory service.
Alternative Personnel System, Department of Agriculture Competitive 6,630 Provides hiring flexibility exclusively to the Forest Service and the Agricultural Research Service.
Transportation Security Administration Excepted 4,540 Provides hiring flexibility exclusively to the Transportation Security Administration.
Government-wide Direct Hire Authority Competitive 4,449 Allows agencies to fill positions OPM has determined have a severe candidate shortage or a critical hiring need. Public notice is required but not the application of veterans’ preference or applicant rating and ranking.
Reinstatement Competitive 3,624 Allows former eligible federal employees to reenter the competitive service without competing with the public.
Pathways Recent Graduates Excepted 2,845 Targets individuals who have recently received a degree or certificate from a qualifying institution. After completion, eligible for non-competitive conversions to competitive service under specified conditions.
Federal Aviation Administration Excepted 2,676 Provides hiring flexibility exclusively to the Federal Aviation Administration.
Schedule A: Severe Physical Disabilities Excepted 2,204 Allows agencies to appoint persons with severe physicaldisabilities. Allows for non-competitive conversion to competitive service after 2 years of satisfactory service.
Department of Defense Expedited Hiring Authority Competitive 2,080 Allows DOD to hire qualified candidates for certain acquisition and health care occupations using direct-hire procedures where DOD has determined a shortage of candidates or critical hiring needs.
Demonstration Project, Defense Lab Both 2,032 Allows DOD to hire science and technology personnel at Research Labs with modification or waiver of some Title 5 provisions.
Schedule A: Temporary, less-than-full time positions, critical need Excepted 1,688 Allows managers to meet a short-term critical hiring need to fulfill the mission of an agency for up to 30-days with one 30-day extension.
Schedule A, Attorneys Excepted 1,627 Enables agencies to hire attorneys because OPM cannot develop qualification standards or examine for attorney positions by law.
Federal Government executive branch civilian employment,
except U.S. Postal Service, fiscal year 2016[21]
(Employment in thousands)
Worldwide D.C.
Combined Total 2,096 173
Executive departments 1,923 132
Defense, total 738 16.5
Army 251 2
Navy 207 12
Air Force 169 0.5
Other defense 80 2
Veterans Affairs 373 8
Homeland Security 192 24
Treasury 92 9
Justice 117
Agriculture 97 7
Interior 71 4
Health/Human Services (HHS) 87 4
Transportation 55 8
Commerce 46 3
Labor 16 5
Energy 15 5
State 13 10
Housing/Urban Dev (HUD) 8 3
Education 4 3
Selected independent agencies 173 41
Social Security Administration 64 0.2
NASA 17 1
Environmental Protection Agency 16 4
Securities and Exchange Commission 5 3
General Services Administration 12 4
Small Business Administration 4 0.8
Office of Personnel Management 5 2
By country

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