United States Seventh Fleet

The Seventh Fleet is a numbered fleet (a military formation) of the United States Navy. It is headquartered at U.S. Fleet Activities Yokosuka, in Yokosuka, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. It is part of the United States Pacific Fleet. At present, it is the largest of the forward-deployed U.S. fleets, with 60 to 70 ships, 300 aircraft and 40,000 Navy and Marine Corps personnel.[1] Its principal responsibilities are to provide joint command in natural disaster or military operations and operational command of all naval forces in the region.

United States Seventh Fleet
United States Seventh Fleet insignia, 2016
Seventh Fleet
Founded1943
Country United States
Branch United States Navy
TypeFleet
Part ofUnited States Pacific Fleet
Garrison/HQUnited States Fleet Activities Yokosuka
Nickname(s)'Tonkin Gulf Yacht Club' (Vietnam War)
Commanders
Current
commander
Vice Adm. Phillip G. Sawyer
Notable
commanders
Admiral Thomas C. Kinkaid

History

World War II

The Seventh Fleet was formed on 15 March 1943 in Brisbane, Australia, during the World War II, under the command of Admiral Arthur S. "Chips" Carpender. It served in the South West Pacific Area (SWPA) under General Douglas MacArthur. The Seventh Fleet commander also served as commander of Allied naval forces in the SWPA.

Most of the ships of the Royal Australian Navy were also part of the fleet from 1943 to 1945 as part of Task Force 74 (formerly the Anzac Squadron). The Seventh Fleet—under Admiral Thomas C. Kinkaid—formed a large part of the Allied forces at the Battle of Leyte Gulf, the largest naval battle in history, in October 1944. The Seventh Fleet fought in two of the Battle Leyte Gulf′s main actions, the Battle of Surigao Strait and the Battle off Samar.

USS Gambier Bay (CVE-73) and escorts making smoke off Samar 1944.jpeg
USS Gambier Bay (CVE-73) and escorts at the Battle off Samar in October 1944.

1945–1950

After the end of the war, the 7th Fleet moved its headquarters to Qingdao, China. As laid out in Operation Plan 13–45 of 26 August 1945, Kinkaid established five major task forces to manage operations in the Western Pacific: Task Force 71, the North China Force with 75 ships; Task Force 72, the Fast Carrier Force, directed to provide air cover to the Marines going ashore and discourage with dramatic aerial flyovers any Communist forces that might oppose the operation; Task Force 73, the Yangtze Patrol Force with another 75 combatants; Task Force 74, the South China Force, ordered to protect the transportation of Japanese and Chinese Nationalist troops from that region; and Task Force 78, the Amphibious Force, charged with the movement of the III Marine Amphibious Corps to China.

After the war, on 1 January 1947, the Fleet's name was changed to Naval Forces Western Pacific. In late 1948, the Fleet moved its principal base of operations to the Philippines, where the Navy, following the war, had developed new facilities at Subic Bay and an airfield at Sangley Point. Peacetime operations of the Seventh Fleet were under the control of Commander in Chief Pacific Fleet, Admiral Arthur W. Radford, but standing orders provided that, when operating in Japanese waters or in the event of an emergency, control would pass to Commander, Naval Forces Far East, a component of General Douglas MacArthur's occupation force.

On 19 August 1949 the force was designated as United States Seventh Task Fleet. On 11 February 1950, just prior to the outbreak of the Korean War, the force assumed the name United States Seventh Fleet, which it holds today.[2]

Korean War

Seventh Fleet units participated in all major operations of the Korean and Vietnamese Wars. The first Navy jet aircraft used in combat was launched from a Task Force 77 (TF 77) aircraft carrier on 3 July 1950. The landings at Inchon, Korea were conducted by Seventh Fleet amphibious ships. The battleships Iowa, New Jersey, Missouri and Wisconsin all served as flagships for Commander, U.S. Seventh Fleet during the Korean War. During the Korean War, the Seventh Fleet consisted of Task Force 70, a maritime patrol force provided by Fleet Air Wing One and Fleet Air Wing Six, Task Force 72, the Formosa Patrol, Task Force 77, and Task Force 79, a service support squadron.

Over the next decade the Seventh Fleet responded to numerous crisis situations including contingency operations conducted in Laos in 1959 and Thailand in 1962. During September 1959, in the autumn of 1960, and again in January 1961, the Seventh Fleet deployed multiship carrier task forces into the South China Sea.[3] Although the Pathet Lao and North Vietnamese supporting forces withdrew in each crisis, in the spring of 1961 their offensive appeared on the verge of overwhelming the pro-American Royal Lao Army.

Once again the fleet moved into Southeast Asian waters. By the end of April 1961, most of the Seventh Fleet was deployed off the Indochinese Peninsula preparing to initiate operations into Laos. The force consisted of the Coral Sea and Midway carrier battle groups, antisubmarine support carrier Kearsarge, one helicopter carrier, three groups of amphibious ships, two submarines, and three Marine battalion landing teams. At the same time, shorebased air patrol squadrons and another three Marine battalion landing teams stood ready in Okinawa and the Philippines to support the afloat force. Although the administration of President John F. Kennedy already had decided against American intervention to rescue the Laotian government, Communist forces halted their advance and agreed to negotiations. The contending Laotian factions concluded a cease-fire on 8 May 1961, but it lasted only a year.

In June 1963 the Seventh Fleet held 'Flagpole '63,' a joint naval exercise with the Republic of Korea.[4]

Vietnam War

Tonkin Gulf Yacht Club
Military humor: Unofficial insignia of the "Tonkin Gulf Yacht Club" – aka U.S. 7th Fleet.

Seventh Fleet represented the first official entrance of the United States into the Vietnam War, with the Gulf of Tonkin incident. Between 1950 and 1970, the U.S. Seventh Fleet was known by the tongue-in-cheek nickname "Tonkin Gulf Yacht Club" since most of the fleet's operations were conducted from the Tonkin Gulf at the time.[5][6]

On 12 February 1965, USS Salisbury Sound (AV-13) became the first U.S. Navy ship to conduct operations inside Vietnam coastal waters.[7] Salisbury Sound set up a seadrome in Da Nang Bay and conducted seaplane patrols in support of Operation Flaming Dart, the bombing of North Vietnamese army camps.

Operating primarily from Yankee Station[8] off the north coast of Vietnam and the aptly-named Dixie Station off the south coast of Vietnam in the South China Sea,Seventh Fleet was organized into a series of task forces, often known by the acronym CTF (Commander Task Force):

In 1975, ships and aircraft of the Fleet evacuated thousands of U.S. citizens and refugees from South Vietnam and Cambodia as those countries fell to opposing forces.

Since the end of the Vietnam War, the Seventh Fleet has participated in a joint/combined exercise called Team Spirit, conducted with the Republic of Korea armed forces. With capability to respond to any contingency, Fleet operations are credited with maintaining security during the Asian Games of 1986 and the Seoul Olympics of 1988. During 1989, Seventh Fleet units participated in a variety of exercises called PACEX, the largest peacetime exercises since World War II.

India-Pakistan War of 1971

See Bangladesh Liberation War

A carrier task force of the Seventh Fleet, Task Force 74 (TF 74), entered the Bay of Bengal at the height of the war in December 1971.[20] It never had a very clear mission. TF 74 comprised the nuclear-powered aircraft carrier Enterprise; the amphibious assault carrier Tripoli; the destroyers Decatur, McKean, and Orleck; the guided-missile escorts Waddell, King, and Parsons; the nuclear-powered attack submarine Gurnard; and supply ship Wichita. On 15 December, a day before the surrender of Pakistan to Indian Army, the task force entered the Bay of Bengal, at a distance of some 1,760 km (950 nmi; 1,090 mi) from Dhaka.

The Soviet Union also dispatched the 10th Operative Battle Group of its Pacific Fleet under the command of Admiral Vladimir Kruglyakov in Vladivostok to the area.[21]

Gulf War and 1990s

SH-3G of COM US 7th Fleet in flight 1990.JPEG
George Washington, Squadron HC-1 during operation "Desert Shield" in 1990, U.S. Seventh Fleet.

In response to the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait on 2 August 1990, General Norman Schwarzkopf (CINCENT) discussed naval command arrangements in his area of responsibility with Commander-in-Chief, Pacific, Admiral Huntington Hardisty.[22] The result was that Commander, U.S. Seventh Fleet was ordered to assume additional responsibilities as Commander, U.S. Naval Forces Central Command. The Fleet Commander departed Yokosuka, Japan immediately, heading for the Persian Gulf, and joined the remainder of his staff aboard the flagship Blue Ridge on 1 September 1990. During Operation Desert Shield and Operation Desert Storm, Naval Forces Central Command exercised command and control of the largest U.S. Navy armada since the Second World War. At the peak of combat operations, over 130 U.S. ships joined more than 50 allied ships to conduct maritime intercept operations, minesweeping and combat strike operations against enemy forces in Iraq and Kuwait.

Naval Forces Central Command included six aircraft carrier battle groups, two battleships (Missouri and Wisconsin), two hospital ships, 31 amphibious assault ships, four minesweeping vessels and numerous combatants in support of allied air and ground forces. After a decisive allied victory in the Gulf War, Commander U.S. Seventh Fleet relinquished control of Naval Forces Central Command to Commander, Middle East Force on 24 April 1991 and returned to Yokosuka, Japan to resume his Asia-Pacific duties.

In 1996, two aircraft carrier battle groups were sent to the Taiwan Straits under Seventh Fleet control to demonstrate U.S. support for Taiwan during the Third Taiwan Strait Crisis. The Nimitz battle group (CCDG 5?) made a high speed transit from the Persian Gulf, while Carrier Group Five, led by Independence, sortied from its Japanese homeports.

Operations

US Navy 101206-N-9626Y-001 Vice Adm. Scott R. Van Buskirk, commander of the U.S. 7th Fleet, addresses the crew of the aircraft carrier USS George W
The then-commander, Vice Admiral Scott R. Van Buskirk in 2010.
USN Fleets (2009)
The Seventh Fleet's area of responsibility, 2009.

Of the 50–60 ships typically assigned to Seventh Fleet, 18 operate from U.S. facilities in Japan and Guam. These forward-deployed units represent the heart of Seventh Fleet, and the centerpieces of American forward presence in Asia. They are 17 steaming days closer to locations in Asia than their counterparts based in the continental United States. It would take three to five times the number of rotationally-based ships in the U.S. to equal the same presence and crisis response capability as these 18 forward deployed ships. On any given day, about 50% of Seventh Fleet forces are deployed at sea throughout the area of responsibility.

Following the end of the Cold War, the two major military scenarios in which the Seventh Fleet would be used would be in case of conflict in Korea or a conflict between People's Republic of China and Taiwan (Republic of China) in the Taiwan Strait.

It was reported on 10 May 2012 that USS Freedom (LCS-1) would be dispatched to Singapore in the northern spring of 2013 for a roughly 10-month deployment.[23] On 2 June 2012 the U.S. and Singaporean Defense Ministers announced that Singapore has agreed 'in principle' to the US request 'to forward deploy up to four littoral combat ships to Singapore on a rotational basis.'[24] Officials stressed however that vessels will not be permanently based there and their crews will live aboard during ship visits.

On 21 August 2017, while on a routine visit to Singapore, Arleigh Burke-class destroyer USS John S. McCain (DDG-56) was involved in a collision with merchant vessel Alnic MC off the coast of Singapore, east of the Strait of Malacca.[25][26] The incident left 10 Navy sailors missing and five injured. The US Navy announced that Commander of the Seventh Fleet Vice Adm. Joseph Aucoin had been dismissed and replaced by Vice Adm. Phillip G. Sawyer, who had already been nominated and confirmed to replace the retiring Aucoin.[27][28]

Fleet organization

The Seventh Fleet is organized into specialized task forces.

US Navy 031130-N-6278K-001 USS George Washington (CVN 73) sails off the coast of Florida
George Washington was flagship of Task Force 70 of the U.S. Seventh Fleet before 2017.

Task Force 70 – TF 70 is the Battle Force of 7th Fleet and is made up of two distinct components: Surface Combatant Force 7th Fleet, composed of cruisers and destroyers, and Carrier Strike Force 7th Fleet, made up of at least one aircraft carrier and its embarked air wing. The Battle Force is currently centered around Carrier Strike Group Five, the carrier USS Ronald Reagan (CVN-76) responsible for unit-level training, integrated training, and material readiness for the group's ships and aviation squadrons. As the only continuously forward deployed carrier strike group, the CSG-5 staff does not stand down when the strike group is in Yokosuka, but instead continues to maintain command responsibilities over deploying Carrier Strike Groups and independently deployed cruisers, destroyers, and frigates that operate in the Seventh Fleet operating area. The commander and staff are also responsible for the higher level Task Force 70 duties throughout the year in addition to the CSG-5 duties. The composition of the strike group in immediate proximity of Ronald Reagan varies throughout the year.[29][30]

The CSG 5 Commander also serves as Battle Force Seventh Fleet and Commander, Task Force (CTF 70) for 7th Fleet. In these responsibilities, CSG 5 serves as the Commander of all surface forces (carrier strike groups, independently deploying cruisers, destroyers and frigates) in the 7th Fleet area of responsibility. CTF 70 also serves as the Theater Surface Warfare Commander (TSUWC) and Theater Integrated Air Missile Defense Commander (TIAMDC) for Seventh Fleet.

During the Korean War, Captain Charles L. Melson was the commanding officer of the flagship of the Seventh Fleet, the battleship USS New Jersey (BB-62) from 20 October 1952. He also served during that time as Commander, Task Group 70.1.

Task Force 71 – TF 71 includes all Naval Special Warfare (NSW) units and Explosive Ordnance Disposal Mobile Units (EODMU) assigned to 7th Fleet. It is based in Guam.

Task Force 72 – TF 72 is the Patrol and Reconnaissance Force, Seventh Fleet. It is located at Naval Air Facility Misawa (Misawa Air Base), Japan. It is mainly composed of anti-submarine warfare (ASW) aircraft and maritime airborne surveillance platforms such as P-3 Orion and Lockheed EP-3 reconnaissance planes operating on land bases. Toward the end of the Korean War, Commander Task Force 72 transferred his flag to USS Pine Island on 7 March and detachments of VP-42 also left USS Salisbury Sound for that seaplane tender. That same day Task Force Seventy-Two was established as the Formosa Patrol Force under Rear Admiral Williamson in Pine Island.[31]

Task Force 73/Commander, Logistics Group Western Pacific – 7th Fleet's Logistics Force composed of supply ships and other fleet support vessels. Headquartered in Singapore.

Task Force 74 – TF 74 was the designation used for the Enterprise battle group in 1971. Today, it is the Fleet Submarine Force responsible for planning and coordinating submarine operations within 7th Fleet's area of operations.

Task Force 75 – Navy Expeditionary Forces Command Pacific is 7th Fleet's primary Expeditionary task force. Located in Camp Covington, Guam, CTF 75 is responsible for the planning and execution of coastal riverine operations, explosive ordnance disposal, diving, engineering and construction, and underwater construction throughout the 7th Fleet area of responsibility.

Task Force 76 – Amphibious assault task force currently headquartered at U.S. Fleet Activities Sasebo, mainly responsible for supporting Marine landing operations. It is composed of units capable of delivering ship-to-shore assault troops, such as Tarawa-class and Wasp-class amphibious assault ships, and landing craft.

Task Force 77 – 7th Fleet Mine Warfare Force composed of mine countermeasure, mine hunter, and mine control ships as well as mine countermeasure helicopters (MH-53). This task force is only activated during specific combat operations and was filled by the Commander of Mine Warfare Command. Mine Warfare Command has now been disestablished and replaced by Navy Mine and Antisubmarine Warfare Command, Naval Base Point Loma, Calif.

Task Force 78 – In 1973, Task Force 78 served as the mine clearance force that cleared Haiphong Harbour in Operation End Sweep. Major elements of the U.S. Navy mine warfare force, including Mobile Mine Command (MOMCOM), Mine Warfare Support Group (MWFSG), and HM-12 were airlifted by C-5A to NAS Cubi Point in the Philippines. These specialists formed the nucleus of Task Force 78, under the command of Rear Admiral Brian McCauley, for Operation End Sweep. Commander, Mine Force, U.S. Atlantic Fleet had reported to Vice Admiral James L. Holloway III, Commander, Seventh Fleet, in September 1972 as Commander Task Force 78. TF 78 was officially activated in November 1972.[32] However, it became clear more helicopters were needed. Responding to a Navy request for assistance, Commanding General, Fleet Marine Force Pacific (CG FMFPAC) directed that HMH-463 deploy from MCAS Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii, to NAS Cubi Point, to join Task Force 78.[33] On 27 November 1972, with the efficient support of Col. Bill Crocker's MAG-24, HM-463 embarked at Pearl Harbor aboard USS Inchon, which was en route from Norfolk to augment Seventh Fleet Amphibious Forces and to participate in End Sweep.

The ceasefire was signed on 23 January 1973, and the day afterwards, major components of TF 78 deployed from Subic Bay to Haiphong. These included four ocean minesweepers (MSO), USS Inchon, and four amphibious ships, including two with docking capabilities to handle the minesweeping sleds towed by the CH-53Ms. During the six months of Operation End Sweep, ten ocean minesweepers, nine amphibious ships, six fleet tugs, three salvage ships, and nineteen destroyers operated in Task Force 78 in the vicinity of Haiphong.'[34]

As of 2010, Commander Naval Forces Korea, an administrative liaison unit between USFK, the ROK Navy, and Seventh Fleet, has been assigned the TF 78 designation. Naval Forces Korea is headquartered at Yongsan and has a base at Chinhae, Commander Fleet Activities Chinhae.

Task Force 79 – The Marine expeditionary unit or Landing Force assigned to the fleet, consisting of at least a reinforced Marine battalion and its equipment. This unit is separate from the Marine Expeditionary Unit (MEU) normally embarked in USS Bonhomme Richard Amphibious Readiness Group (ARG). Marine units serving in 7th Fleet are normally drawn from III Marine Expeditionary Force based in Okinawa, Japan.

Forward-deployed Seventh Fleet ships

U.S. Fleet Activities Yokosuka, Japan

USS City of Corpus Christi (SSN-705)
USS City of Corpus Christi (SSN-705), a forward-deployed nuclear submarine of the 7th Fleet.

U.S. Fleet Activities Sasebo, Japan

Apra Harbor, Guam

Fleet commanders

USS blueridge
The USS Blue Ridge, flagship, U.S. Seventh Fleet.

The Commander of the 7th Fleet is known as COMSEVENTHFLT.[35]

Vice Adm. Arthur S. Carpender 15 March 1943 26 November 1943
Vice Adm. Thomas C. Kinkaid 26 November 1943 20 November 1945
Vice Adm. Daniel E. Barbey 20 November 1945 2 October 1946
Vice Adm. Charles M. Cooke, Jr. 2 October 1946 28 February 1948
Vice Adm. Oscar C. Badger II 28 February 1948 28 August 1949
Vice Adm. Russell S. Berkey 28 August 1949 5 April 1950
Rear Adm. Walter F. Boone 5 April 1950 20 May 1950
Vice Adm. Arthur D. Struble 20 May 1950 28 March 1951
Vice Adm. Harold. M. Martin 28 March 1951 3 March 1952
Vice Adm. Robert P. Briscoe 3 March 1952 20 May 1952
Vice Adm. Joseph. J. Clark 20 May 1952 1 December 1953
Vice Adm. Alfred M. Pride 1 December 1953 9 December 1955
Vice Adm. Stuart H. Ingersoll 19 December 1955 28 January 1957
Vice Adm. Wallace M. Beakley 28 January 1957 30 September 1958
Vice Adm. Frederick N. Kivette 30 September 1958 7 March 1960
Vice Adm. Charles D. Griffin 7 March 1960 28 October 1961
Vice Adm. William A. "Bill" Schoech 28 October 1961 13 October 1962
Vice Adm. Thomas H. Moorer 13 October 1962 15 June 1964
Vice Adm. Roy L. Johnson 15 June 1964 1 March 1965
Vice Adm. Paul P. Blackburn 1 March 1965 9 October 1965
Rear Adm. Joseph W. Williams, Jr. 9 October 1965 13 December 1965
Vice Adm. John J. Hyland 13 December 1965 6 November 1967
Vice Adm. William F. Bringle 6 November 1967 10 March 1970
Vice Adm. Maurice F. Weisner 10 March 1970 18 June 1971
Vice Adm. William P. Mack 18 June 1971 23 May 1972
Vice Adm. James L. Holloway III 23 May 1972 28 July 1973
Vice Adm. George P. Steele 28 July 1973 14 June 1975
Vice Adm. Thomas B. Hayward 14 June 1975 24 July 1976
Vice Adm. Robert B. Baldwin 24 July 1976 31 May 1978
Vice Adm. Sylvester Robert Foley, Jr. 31 May 1978 14 February 1980
Vice Adm. Carlisle A.H. Trost 14 February 1980 15 September 1981
Vice Adm. M. Staser Holcomb 15 September 1981 9 May 1983
Vice Adm. James R. Hogg 9 May 1983 4 March 1985
Vice Adm. Paul F. McCarthy, Jr. 4 March 1985 9 December 1986
Vice Adm. Paul D. Miller 9 December 1986 21 October 1988
Vice Adm. Henry H. Mauz, Jr. 21 October 1988 1 December 1990
Vice Adm. Stanley R. Arthur 1 December 1990 3 July 1992
Vice Adm. Timothy W. Wright 3 July 1992 28 July 1994
Vice Adm. Archie R. Clemins 28 July 1994 13 September 1996
Vice Adm. Robert J. Natter 13 September 1996 12 August 1998
Vice Adm. Walter F. Doran 12 August 1998 12 July 2000
Vice Adm. James W. Metzger 12 July 2000 18 July 2002
Vice Adm. Robert F. Willard 18 July 2002 6 August 2004
Vice Adm. Jonathan W. Greenert 6 August 2004 12 September 2006
Vice Adm. William Douglas Crowder 12 September 2006 12 July 2008
Vice Adm. John M. Bird 12 July 2008 10 September 2010
Vice Adm. Scott R. Van Buskirk 10 September 2010 7 September 2011
Vice Adm. Scott H. Swift 7 September 2011 31 July 2013
Vice Adm. Robert L. Thomas Jr. 31 July 2013 7 September 2015
Vice Adm. Joseph Aucoin 7 September 2015 22 August 2017[36]
Vice Adm. Phillip G. Sawyer 22 August 2017 present[37]

See also

Citations

  1. ^ "U.S. 7th Fleet forces". U.S. Navy, 7th Fleet. 2014. Archived from the original on 8 October 2014. Retrieved 24 September 2014.
  2. ^ "Records of U.S. Seventh Fleet Public Affairs". Naval History & Heritage Command. 29 April 2005. Archived from the original on 2 October 2013. Retrieved 24 September 2014.
  3. ^ Marolda, Edward J. (8 November 1997). "By Sea, Air, and Land". Naval History & Heritage Command. Retrieved 22 April 2017.
  4. ^ Willis, Warren (2009). "USS Bexar APA-237". oldbluejacket.com. Retrieved 24 September 2014.
  5. ^ Melson, Charles D.; Arnold, Curtis G. (1991). The War That Would Not End, 1971–1973. U.S. Marines in Vietnam. United States Marine Corps History and Museums Division. p. 188. LCCN 77604776.
  6. ^ "Narrative History of the USS Enterprise (CVA(N)65) 1 Jan – 31 Dec 66" (PDF). United States Navy. 10 July 1967: 1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 January 2012. The presence of USS Enterprise in the Gulf of Tonkin was well-known around the world by January 1966. Her own prestige as the largest and most powerful warship of the fleet had followed her to Yankee and Dixie Station, and there was more to the emerging legend than this; she and USS Bainbridge, her frigate "smallboy", had put a watershed date in naval history merely by being the first nuclear-powered ships to engage in combat. Their unmatched speed, detection systems, and operational capacity potential were proving their worth far beyond the original estimates during the first weeks "on the line at the Tonki Gulf Yacht Club."
  7. ^ "History of the USS Salisbury Sound (AV-13)". USS Salisbury Sound (AV-13). USS Salisbury Sound Association. Retrieved 19 January 2015.
  8. ^ Cavendish 1989, p. 11.
  9. ^ Holloway, James L. "Tactical Command and Control of Carrier Operations". Naval Historical Foundation. Archived from the original on 30 May 2004.
  10. ^ "Vietnam War: Afloat and Ashore: Operation Sea Dragon". Naval Historical Foundation.
  11. ^ Holloway, James (15 January 2011). Aircraft Carriers at War: A Personal Retrospective of Korea, Vietnam, and the Soviet Confrontation. Naval Institute Press. p. 296. ISBN 978-1-61251-008-8.
  12. ^ Cavendish 1989, pp. 29,46–49.
  13. ^ Perryman, John (10 August 2006). "Towing the line". Navy. 49 (14).
  14. ^ Bonsall, George (1997). "The Impact of Advanced Naval Surface Fire Support on Joint Force Fire Coordination". Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved 24 September 2014.
  15. ^ "U.S. warships begin bombardment of Viet Cong targets – 27 May 1965". This Day in History. 2014. Archived from the original on 5 July 2014. Retrieved 24 September 2014.
  16. ^ Cavendish 1989, pp. 42–45.
  17. ^ Cavendish 1989, pp. 24–40.
  18. ^ Cavendish 1989, pp. 61.
  19. ^ Cavendish 1989, pp. 50–59.
  20. ^ "CIAO". www.ciaonet.org.
  21. ^ Simha, Rakesh Krishnan (31 August 2013). "Sweeping mines, salvaging looted gold after the 1971 War". Russia & India Report. Archived from the original on 29 June 2015. Retrieved 24 September 2014.
  22. ^ Pokrant, Marvin (1999). Desert Storm at Sea: What the Navy Really Did. Greenwood Publishing Group.
  23. ^ Wolf, Jim (10 May 2012). "U.S. plans 10-month warship deployment to Singapore". Reuters. Retrieved 24 September 2014.
  24. ^ "US sailors to stay off-shore in Singapore deal: officials". AsiaOne. 2 June 2012. Retrieved 24 September 2014.
  25. ^ "USS John McCain collides with merchant ship east of Singapore, 10 sailors missing, US Navy says". ABC News (Australia). 21 August 2017. Retrieved 24 August 2017.
  26. ^ Smith, Alexander; Flanagan, Ed (21 August 2017). "U.S. Destroyer Collides With Tanker Off Singapore; 10 Missing". NBC News. Retrieved 24 August 2017.
  27. ^ McKirdy, Euan; Lendon, Brad (23 August 2017). "US Navy 7th Fleet commander dismissed, Navy says". CNN. Retrieved 24 August 2017.
  28. ^ Slavin, Erik (17 May 2017). "Sawyer nominated to head Yokosuka-based 7th Fleet". Stars and Stripes. Retrieved 24 August 2017.
  29. ^ "Carrier Strike Group Five". Navy Data. U.S. Navy Outlets. 2013. Archived from the original on 3 November 2013. Retrieved 30 December 2011.
  30. ^ "The Carrier Strike Group". Navy Data. U.S. Navy. 2013. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
  31. ^ "Korean War Naval Chronology, May–July 1953". Naval History & Heritage Command. 2012. Archived from the original on 4 December 2013. Retrieved 24 September 2014.
  32. ^ Holloway III, James L. (2007). Aircraft carriers at war. Naval Institute Press. p. 328. ISBN 978-1-59114-391-8. Note that Admiral Holloway appears to have made a mistake with the identification of the CH-53M squadron referred to on page 327. The squadron referred to appears to have been HM-12.
  33. ^ Van Nortwick, John. "Operation End Sweep". Marine Corps Gazette (May 1974). Archived from the original on 13 November 2013. Retrieved 24 September 2014.
  34. ^ Holloway III, James L. (2007). Aircraft carriers at war. Naval Institute Press. p. 329. ISBN 978-1-59114-391-8.
  35. ^ "Home". www.c7f.navy.mil. Archived from the original on 29 November 2017. Retrieved 29 November 2017.
  36. ^ Lubold, Gordon (22 August 2017). "U.S. Navy Relieves Admiral of Command After Collisions". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 24 August 2017.
  37. ^ "Commander, U.S. 7th Fleet, Vice Adm. Phillip G. Sawyer". US Navy. Retrieved 24 August 2017.

References

Further reading

External links

Charles M. Cooke Jr.

Admiral Charles Maynard "Savvy" Cooke Jr., USN (19 December 1886 – 24 December 1970), was a United States Navy four star admiral who saw service in World War I and World War II and later served as commander of United States Seventh Fleet (COMSEVENTHFLT) from 1946 to 1947 and commander of U.S. Naval Forces, Western Pacific (COMNAVWESPAC) from 1947 to 1948.

Fat Leonard scandal

The Fat Leonard scandal is a corruption scandal and ongoing investigation within the United States Navy involving ship support contractor Glenn Defense Marine Asia (GDMA), a subsidiary of the Glenn Marine Group. The Washington Post called the scandal "perhaps the worst national-security breach of its kind to hit the Navy since the end of the Cold War." At the heart of the scandal was Glenn Defense Marine Asia, a firm run by Leonard Glenn Francis, a Malaysian national known as "Fat Leonard" for his then over 350 pound weight. Francis provided at least a half million dollars in cash, plus travel expenses, luxury items, and prostitutes to a large number of U.S. uniformed officers of the United States Seventh Fleet, who in turn gave him classified material about the movements of U.S. ships and submarines, confidential contracting information, and information about active law enforcement investigations into Glenn Defense Marine Asia. Francis then "exploited the intelligence for illicit profit, brazenly ordering his moles to redirect aircraft carriers to ports he controlled in Southeast Asia so he could more easily bilk the Navy for fuel, tugboats, barges, food, water and sewage removal." The Navy, through GDMA, even employed divers to search harbors for explosives. He also directed them to author "Bravo Zulu" memos, which is an informal term for a letter of commendation from the Navy given to civilians who have performed outstanding services for the Navy, in order to bolster GDMA's credibility for jobs "well done".The first activities of the conspiracy were confirmed to have existed in 2006 when Francis recruited numerous Navy personnel to engage in corruption, including directing contracts toward his firm, disfavoring competitors, and inhibiting legitimate fiscal and operational oversight. The initial co-conspirators labelled themselves "the cool kids" and "the wolf pack."U.S. federal prosecutors filed criminal charges against 33 people in connection with the Fat Leonard scandal. Of those, 22 pleaded guilty: Francis himself, four of his top aides, and 17 Navy officials (specifically, at least ten commissioned officers, two petty officers, one former NCIS special agent, and two civilian Navy contracting officials). Nine others are awaiting trial in U.S. district court in San Diego. Separately, five Navy officers were charged with crimes under the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ) and have been subject to court-martial proceedings. An additional civilian pleaded guilty to a scandal-related crime in Singapore court.Suffering health problems, Francis was hospitalized and released in March 2018. Rather than returning to the custody of the U.S. Marshals Service, he was granted a medical furlough and allowed to stay in San Diego at a private residence owned by one of his physicians, under 24-hour surveillance for which his family paid. At a deposition taken in 2018 in the David A. Morales case, Francis said he is being treated for kidney cancer.In 1989, when he was 21, Francis had been sentenced to three years in jail in Malaysia for firearms possession.

Joseph Aucoin

Joseph P. Aucoin (born April 25, 1957) is a retired officer of the United States Navy and former commander of the United States Seventh Fleet.

List of U.S. military prisons

This is a list of U.S. military prisons and brigs operated by the federal Department of Defense for prisoners and convicts from the United States military.

List of units of the United States Navy

This article is a list of commands of the United States Navy.

The list is organized along administrative chains of command (CoC), and does not include the CNO's office or shore establishments.

Deployable/operational U.S. Navy units typically have two chains of command – the operational chain and the administrative chains.

Operational CoCs change quite often based on a unit's location and current mission. For example, USS Roosevelt is always administratively assigned to Commander, Naval Air Force, Atlantic Fleet (CNAL). It might also be operationally assigned to CNAL early in its inter-deployment readiness cycle (IDRC). Before 2010, later in the IDRC, it would have been assigned to Commander, Second Fleet, which is responsible for Carrier Strike Group (CSG) training and operations on the east coast.

Once the CSG deploys and crosses over the inter-UCC boundary in the mid-Atlantic, it then reports (is "chopped") to the Sixth Fleet (responsible for European waters and the Mediterranean Sea).

Once the CSG enters the Suez Canal, it "chops" to the Fifth Fleet for operational control.

Operationally, the Roosevelt CSG chain of command is: Commander Fifth Fleet, Commander U.S. Naval Forces Central Command, Commander U.S. Central Command, Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff, United States Secretary of Defense, President of the United States.

M. Staser Holcomb

M. Staser Holcomb (born January 18, 1932) is a retired a vice admiral in the United States Navy. His hometown is Seattle, Washington, where he attended Roosevelt High School. He is a graduate of the United States Naval Academy, class of 1953. During his naval career he served as commander of the USS Guam (LPH-9), Carrier Strike Group One, and the United States Seventh Fleet, from September 15, 1981 to May 9, 1983. He retired in 1985. During his career he also worked in the offices of the Secretary of Defense (as Senior Military Assistant), Secretary of the Navy, and Chief of Naval Operations. From 2001 to 2006, he also served as an advisor to Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld and Harold Brown.He is married to Joanne and resides in Edmonds, Washington.

Robert B. Baldwin

Robert Bemus Baldwin (April 24, 1923 – April 7, 2017) was a vice admiral in the United States Navy. He is a former commander of the United States Seventh Fleet (from July 24, 1976 – May 31, 1978). He also is a former Deputy Chief of Naval Personnel and Commander Naval Air Force, Pacific Fleet. He is a 1944 graduate of the United States Naval Academy. He retired in 1980 and died in 2017.

Roy L. Johnson

Roy Lee Johnson (March 18, 1906 – March 20, 1999) served as Commander-in-Chief, United States Pacific Fleet, from 1965–1967. In his previous post as Commander, United States Seventh Fleet, he gave the orders to the Maddox (DD-731) and Turner Joy (DD-951) to return fire, in what became known as the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. Admiral Johnson was the first captain of the Forrestal (CVA-59) first of the new supercarriers, commissioned in 1955.

Seventh Fleet (disambiguation)

Seventh Fleet or 7th fleet may refer to:

United States Seventh Fleet

7th Fleet (Imperial Japanese Navy)

Task Force 73

Task Force 73/Commander, Logistics Group Western Pacific (CTF 73/CLWP) is a U.S. Navy task force of the United States Seventh Fleet. CTF 73/CLWP is the U.S. 7th Fleet's provider of combat-ready logistics, maintaining and operating government-owned ships and operating government-contracted vessels to sustain combatant ships and units throughout the U.S. 7th Fleet area of operations. CTF 73/CLWP also acts as the Navy Region commander for naval activities in Singapore, with its only subordinate command being the U.S. Navy Region Center Singapore.CTF 73/CLWP is the U.S. 7th Fleet's Theater Security Cooperation agent for South and Southeast Asia, providing persistent engagement with allies and partners across the region through established exercises while forging new maritime partnerships through tailored exchanges, enhanced port visits and expanding repair capabilities at regional shipyards.CTF 73 is headquartered at the Port of Singapore Authority Sembawang Terminal, Singapore, and is commanded by Rear Admiral (Lower Half) Joey Tynch.

Task Force 74

Task Force 74 was a US Navy task force of the United States Seventh Fleet that was deployed to the Bay of Bengal by the Nixon administration in December 1971, at the height of the Bangladesh War of Independence. Led by the Aircraft carrier USS Enterprise, the deployment of the task force was seen as a show of force by the US in support of Pakistan, and was claimed by India as an indication of US "tilt" towards Pakistan at a time that Bangladesh guerilla forces were close to capturing Dhaka. The task force number is now used by the Seventh Fleet's submarine force.

Task Force 75

The Commander, Task Force 75 (CTF 75), properly named Navy Expeditionary Forces Command Pacific; or simply NEFCPAC (pronounced "nef-see-pack"), is a US Navy task force of the United States Seventh Fleet and is 7th Fleet's primary expeditionary task force composed of EOD, Coastal Riverine, and Seabee detachments. CTF 75 is responsible for the planning and execution of coastal riverine operations, explosive ordnance disposal, diving, engineering and construction, and underwater construction. Additionally, it provides direct support to diving and salvage operations and expeditionary intelligence throughout the Indo-Asia-Pacific region as directed by 7th Fleet.

CTF 75 is permanently headquartered at Camp Covington, Guam.

Task Force 76

Expeditionary Strike Group SEVEN/Task Force 76 (Amphibious Force U.S. SEVENTH Fleet) is a United States Navy task force. It is at one and the same time operationally a Task Force of the United States Seventh Fleet and administratively, the USN's only permanently forward-deployed Expeditionary Strike Group. It is based at the White Beach Naval Facility at the end of the Katsuren Peninsula in Uruma City, Okinawa, Japan.

CTF 76 conducts operations throughout the U.S. Seventh Fleet area of operations, which includes the Western Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean.

Task Force 77 (United States Navy)

For decades, Task Force 77 was the aircraft carrier battle/strike force of the United States Seventh Fleet in the United States Navy (USN) since the U.S. Seventh Fleet was formed.

Tonkin Gulf Yacht Club

Tonkin Gulf Yacht Club was a tongue-in-cheek nickname for the United States Seventh Fleet during the Vietnam War. Throughout the War in Vietnam, the Seventh Fleet engaged in combat operations against enemy forces through attack carrier air strikes, naval gunfire support, amphibious operations, patrol and reconnaissance operations and mine warfare.

U.S. Naval Forces Korea

U.S. Naval Forces Korea is a major shore command of the United States Navy that serves as the shore support agency for all U.S. Naval activity in South Korea. Known by the initials "CNFK", an abbreviation of the address format of the unit ("Commander, U.S. Naval Forces Korea"), its headquarters are at Busan Naval Base, Busan.CNFK is jointly under the command of the operational command of United States Seventh Fleet, responsible for the support of all U.S. naval forces on the Korean peninsula, and United States Forces Korea. CNFK is also CNIC's assigned Region Commander with administrative control over what is currently the only naval installation in South Korea, which is Fleet Activity Chinhae. CNFK is commanded by a rear admiral (lower half) who serves as the Navy liaison to the Commander of the United States Forces Korea. In times of war, CNFK becomes a ground-based task force of United States Seventh Fleet.

United States Fleet Activities Yokosuka

United States Fleet Activities Yokosuka (横須賀海軍施設, Yokosuka kaigunshisetsu) or Commander Fleet Activities Yokosuka (司令官艦隊活動横須賀, Shirei-kan kantai katsudō Yokosuka) is a United States Navy base in Yokosuka, Japan. Its mission is to maintain and operate base facilities for the logistic, recreational, administrative support and service of the U.S. Naval Forces Japan, Seventh Fleet and other operating forces assigned in the Western Pacific. CFAY is the largest strategically important U.S. naval installation in the western Pacific.Fleet Activities Yokosuka comprises 2.3 km² (568 acres) and is located at the entrance of Tokyo Bay, 65 km (40 mi) south of Tokyo and approximately 30 km (20 mi) south of Yokohama on the Miura Peninsula in the Kantō region of the Pacific Coast in Central Honshū, Japan.

The 55 tenant commands which make up this installation support U.S. Navy Pacific operating forces, including principal afloat elements of the United States Seventh Fleet, including the only permanently forward-deployed aircraft carrier, USS Ronald Reagan (CVN-76), the group she heads, Carrier Strike Group Five, and Destroyer Squadron 15.

United States Taiwan Defense Command

The United States Taiwan Defense Command (USTDC; Chinese: 美軍協防台灣司令部; pinyin: Měijūn Xié Fáng Táiwān Sīlìng Bù) was a sub-unified command of the United States armed forces. It was originally formed as the Formosa Liaison Center (founded in 1955 after the signature of the Sino-American Mutual Defense Treaty of December 1954 and the first Straits crisis of Sept. 1954). In November 1955, the FLC become the Taiwan Defense Command. The command reported directly to the Commander-in-Chief Pacific (CINCPAC). The command was composed of personnel from all branches of the U.S. armed forces and had its headquarters in Taipei. The first commander of the USTDC was Alfred M. Pride, Commander, U.S. Seventh Fleet.

USTDC was a planning headquarters for the defense of Taiwan and the Pescadores. In the event of hostilities, the USTDC commander would have coordinated with the Government of the Republic of China in the defense of Taiwan and the Pescadores. In the event of such a contingency, three existing service commanders would have reported to the U.S. Taiwan Defense Command commander. The 327th Air Division commander would be the air component commander, the Taiwan Patrol Force commander would be the naval component commander (the Taiwan Patrol Force being drawn from the United States Seventh Fleet), and the Chief of the Military Assistance Advisory Group China (the MAAG) would be the Army component commander. The 3rd Tactical Fighter Wing, Thirteenth Air Force, at Clark Air Base in the Philippines had reinforcement air defence functions for Taiwan for a period.

In May 1967, Carlos Talbott of the U.S. Air Force became chief of staff of the command. From July 1968 – September 1970 the chief of staff was Brigadier General John A. Des Portes, U.S.A.F. In September 1970, Clarence J. Douglas, also of the Air Force, assumed duties as chief of staff.

The Command held its final flag retreat ceremony during the afternoon of 26 April 1979. Rear Admiral James B. Linder was the last USTDC commander to depart Taiwan on 28 April 1979.

The former site of the USTDC headquarters became the Taipei Fine Arts Museum in 1983.

William A. "Bill" Schoech

William Alton "Bill" Schoech (October 17, 1904 – January 26, 1982) was a vice admiral in the United States Navy.

Schoech was born October 17, 1904, near Blakesburg, Iowa. He entered the U. S. Naval Academy in 1924 and graduated with the rank of ensign in 1928.During World War II he served as chief staff officer to Commander Aircraft, US Seventh Fleet.

His commands include the USS Sicily (CVE-118) and the USS Ticonderoga (CV-14). He served as the vice admiral of the United States Seventh Fleet from October 28, 1961, to October 13, 1962. In July 1963 he was appointed to be the Chief of Division of Material and he stayed there until 1965.Schoech died January 26, 1982, in San Diego, California.

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