United States Secretary of Defense

The Secretary of Defense (SecDef) is the leader and chief executive officer of the United States Department of Defense, the executive department of the Armed Forces of the U.S.[5][6][7] The Secretary of Defense's position of command and authority over the U.S. military is second only to that of the President and Congress, respectively.[8] This position corresponds to what is generally known as a Defense Minister in many other countries.[9] The Secretary of Defense is appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate, and is by custom a member of the Cabinet and by law a member of the National Security Council.[10]

Secretary of Defense is a statutory office, and the general provision in 10 U.S.C. § 113 provides that the Secretary of Defense has "authority, direction and control over the Department of Defense", and is further designated by the same statute as "the principal assistant to the President in all matters relating to the Department of Defense".[11] To ensure civilian control of the military, no one may be appointed as Secretary of Defense within seven years of serving as a commissioned officer of a regular (i.e., non-reserve) component of an armed force.[12]

Subject only to the orders of the President, the Secretary of Defense is in the chain of command and exercises command and control, for both operational and administrative purposes, over all Department of Defense forces — the Army, Marine Corps, Navy, and Air Force — as well as the U.S. Coast Guard when its command and control is transferred to the Department of Defense.[13][14][15][16][17] Only the Secretary of Defense (or the president or Congress) can authorize the transfer of operational control of forces between the three Military Departments (the departments of the Army, Navy, and Air Force) and the 10 Combatant Commands (Africa Command, Central Command, European Command, Indo-Pacific Command, Northern Command, Southern Command, Cyber Command, Special Operations Command, Strategic Command, Transportation Command).[13] Because the Office of Secretary of Defense is vested with legal powers which exceed those of any commissioned officer, and is second only to the President in the military hierarchy, its incumbent has sometimes unofficially been referred to as a de facto "deputy commander-in-chief".[18][19][20] (The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is the principal military adviser to the Secretary of Defense and the President, and while the Chairman may assist the Secretary and President in their command functions, the Chairman is not in the chain of command.[21])

The Secretary of Defense, Secretary of State, the Attorney General, and the Secretary of the Treasury are generally regarded as heading the four most important departments.[22]

Since January 1, 2019, the Secretary of Defense has been Deputy Defense Secretary Patrick M. Shanahan, serving in an acting capacity.[23] His predecessor, Jim Mattis, resigned on December 20, 2018, effective February 2019, after failing to persuade President Donald Trump to reconsider a decision to withdraw U.S. troops from Syria.[24][25] A few days later, Trump announced that Mattis would leave at the end of December.[26]

United States Secretary of Defense
United States Department of Defense Seal
Seal of the Department[1]
Flag of the United States Secretary of Defense
Patrick Shanahan (cropped)
Incumbent
Patrick M. Shanahan
Acting

since January 1, 2019
United States Department of Defense
Office of the Secretary of Defense
StyleMr. Secretary
StatusLeader and chief executive
Member ofCabinet
National Security Council
Reports toPresident of the United States
SeatThe Pentagon, Arlington County, Virginia
AppointerThe President
with Senate advice and consent
Term lengthNo fixed term
Constituting instrument10 U.S.C. § 113
50 U.S.C. § 401
FormationSeptember 17, 1947
First holderJames Forrestal
SuccessionSixth[3]
DeputyDeputy Secretary of Defense
SalaryExecutive Schedule, level I[4]
Websitewww.defense.gov

History

National Military Establishment seal 1947-1949
Seal of the National Military Establishment (1947–1949), which was reorganized into the Department of Defense.

An Army, Navy, and Marine Corps were established in 1775, in concurrence with the American Revolution. The War Department, headed by the Secretary of War, was created by Act of Congress in 1789 and was responsible for both the Army and Navy until the founding of a separate Department of the Navy in 1798.

Based on the experiences of World War II, proposals were soon made on how to more effectively manage the large combined military establishment. The Army generally favored centralization while the Navy had institutional preferences for decentralization and the status quo. The resulting National Security Act of 1947 was largely a compromise between these divergent viewpoints. The Act split the Department of War into the Department of the Army and Department of the Navy and established the National Military Establishment (NME), presided over by the Secretary of Defense. The Act also separated the Army Air Forces from the Army to become its own branch of service, the United States Air Force. At first, each of the service secretaries maintained cabinet status. The first Secretary of Defense, James Forrestal, who in his previous capacity as Secretary of the Navy had opposed creation of the new position, found it difficult to exercise authority over the other branches with the limited powers his office had at the time. To address this and other problems, the National Security Act was amended in 1949 to further consolidate the national defense structure in order to reduce interservice rivalry, directly subordinate the Secretaries of the Army, the Navy and the Air Force to the Secretary of Defense in the chain of command, and rename the National Military Establishment as the Department of Defense, making it one Executive Department. The position of the Deputy Secretary of Defense, the number two position in the department, was also created at this time.

The general trend since 1949 has been to further centralize management in the Department of Defense, elevating the status and authorities of civilian OSD appointees and defense-wide organizations at the expense of the military departments and the services within them. The last major revision of the statutory framework concerning the position was done in the Goldwater–Nichols Department of Defense Reorganization Act of 1986. In particular, it elevated the status of joint service for commissioned officers, making it in practice a requirement before appointments to general officer and flag officer grades could be made.

Powers and functions

DoD Organization December 2013
Department of Defense organizational chart (December 2013)

The Secretary of Defense, appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate, is by federal law (10 U.S.C. § 113) the head of the Department of Defense, "the principal assistant to the President in all matters relating to Department of Defense", and has "authority, direction and control over the Department of Defense". Because the Constitution vests all military authority in Congress and the President, the statutory authority of the Secretary of Defense is derived from their constitutional authorities. Since it is impractical for either Congress or the President to participate in every piece of Department of Defense affairs, the Secretary of Defense, and the Secretary's subordinate officials generally exercise military authority.

As the head of DoD, all officials, employees and service members are "under" the Secretary of Defense. Some of those high-ranking officials, civil and military (outside of OSD and the Joint Staff) are: the Secretary of the Army, Secretary of the Navy, and Secretary of the Air Force, Army Chief of Staff, Commandant of the Marine Corps, Chief of Naval Operations, and Air Force Chief of Staff, Chief of the National Guard Bureau and the Combatant Commanders of the Combatant Commands. All of these high-ranking positions, civil and military, require Senate confirmation.

The Department of Defense is composed of the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD), the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) and the Joint Staff (JS), Office of the Inspector General (DODIG), the Combatant Commands, the Military Departments (Department of the Army (DA), Department of the Navy (DON) & Department of the Air Force (DAF)), the Defense Agencies and DoD Field Activities, the National Guard Bureau (NGB), and such other offices, agencies, activities, organizations, and commands established or designated by law, or by the President or by the Secretary of Defense.

Department of Defense Directive 5100.01 describes the organizational relationships within the Department, and is the foundational issuance for delineating the major functions of the Department. The latest version, signed by former Secretary of Defense Robert Gates in December 2010, is the first major re-write since 1987.[27][28]

Office of the Secretary of Defense

The Secretary's principally civilian staff element is called the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) and is composed of the Deputy Secretary of Defense (DEPSECDEF) and five Under Secretaries of Defense in the fields of Acquisition, Technology & Logistics, Comptroller/Chief Financial Officer, Intelligence, Personnel & Readiness, and Policy; several Assistant Secretaries of Defense; other directors and the staffs under them.

The name of the principally military staff organization, organized under the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, is the Joint Staff (JS).

Awards and decorations

The Defense Distinguished Service Medal (DDSM), the Defense Superior Service Medal (DSSM), the Defense Meritorious Service Medal (DMSM), the Joint Service Commendation Medal (JSCM) and the Joint Service Achievement Medal (JSAM) are awarded, to military personnel for service in joint duty assignments, in the name of the Secretary of Defense. In addition, there is the Joint Meritorious Unit Award (JMUA), which is the only ribbon (as in non-medal) and unit award issued to joint DoD activities, also issued in the name of the Secretary of Defense.

The DDSM is analogous to the distinguished services medals issued by the military departments (i.e. Army Distinguished Service Medal, Navy Distinguished Service Medal & Air Force Distinguished Service Medal), the DSSM corresponds to the Legion of Merit, the DMSM to the Meritorious Service Medal, the JSCM to the service commendation medals, and the JSAM to the achievement medals issued by the services. While the approval authority for DSSM, DMSM, JSCM, JSAM and JMUA is delegated to inferior DoD officials: the DDSM can only be awarded by the Secretary of Defense.

Recommendations for the Medal of Honor (MOH), formally endorsed in writing by the Secretary of the Military Department concerned and the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, are processed through the Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness, and such recommendations be must approved by the Secretary of Defense before it can be handed over to the President, who is the final approval authority for the MOH, although it is awarded in the name of Congress.

The Secretary of Defense, with the concurrence of the Secretary of State, is the approval authority for the acceptance and wear of NATO medals issued by the Secretary General of NATO and offered to the U.S. Permanent Representative to NATO in recognition of U.S. Service members who meet the eligibility criteria specified by NATO.[29]

Congressional committees

As the head of the department, the Secretary of Defense is the chief witness for the congressional committees with oversight responsibilities over the Department of Defense. The most important committees, with respect to the entire department, are the two authorizing committees, the Senate Armed Services Committee (SASC) and the House Armed Services Committee (HASC), and the two appropriations committees, the Senate Appropriations Committee and the House Appropriations Committee.

For the DoD intelligence programs the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence and the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence have the principal oversight role.

National Security Council

The Secretary of Defense is a statutory member of the National Security Council.[30] As one of the principals, the Secretary along with the Vice President, Secretary of State and the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs participates in biweekly Principals Committee (PC) meetings, preparing and coordinating issues before they are brought before full NSC sessions chaired by the President.

Role in the military justice system

The Secretary is one of only five or six civilians—the others being the President, the three "service secretaries" (the Secretary of the Army, Secretary of the Navy, and Secretary of the Air Force), and the Secretary of Homeland Security (when the United States Coast Guard is under the United States Department of Homeland Security and has not been transferred to the Department of the Navy under the Department of Defense)—authorized to act as convening authority in the military justice system for General Courts-Martial (10 U.S.C. § 822: article 22, UCMJ), Special Courts-Martial (10 U.S.C. § 823: article 23, UCMJ), and Summary Courts-Martial (10 U.S.C. § 824: article 24 UCMJ).

Amenities

Salary

Secretary of Defense is a Level I position of the Executive Schedule,[4] and thus earns a salary of $210,700 per year as of January 2018.

List of Secretaries of Defense

The longest-serving Secretary of Defense is Robert McNamara, who served for a total of 7 years, 39 days. Combining his two non-sequential services as Secretary of Defense, the second-longest serving is Donald Rumsfeld, who served just ten days fewer than McNamara. The second-longest unbroken tenure was Caspar Weinberger's, at 6 years, 306 days.

The shortest-serving Secretary of Defense is Elliot Richardson, who served 114 days and then was appointed U.S. Attorney General amid the resignations of the Watergate Scandal. (This is not counting Deputy Secretary of Defense William P. Clements and William Howard Taft IV, who each served a few weeks as temporary/acting Secretary of Defense).

Parties

  Democratic   Republican   Political Independent / Unknown

Status
Secretary of Defense Took office Left office Time in office Party State of residence President
serving under
Ref
1
James Forrestal
James Forrestal
(1892–1949)
September 17, 1947March 28, 19491 year, 192 daysDemocraticNew YorkHarry S Truman (Dem)[31]
2
Louis A. Johnson
Louis A. Johnson
(1891–1966)
March 28, 1949September 19, 19501 year, 175 daysDemocraticWest VirginiaHarry S Truman (Dem)[32]
3
George Marshall
George Marshall
(1880–1959)
September 21, 1950September 12, 1951356 daysIndependentPennsylvaniaHarry S Truman (Dem)[33]
4
Robert A. Lovett
Robert A. Lovett
(1895–1986)
September 17, 1951January 20, 19531 year, 125 daysRepublicanNew YorkHarry S Truman (Dem)[34]
5
Charles Erwin Wilson
Charles Erwin Wilson
(1890–1961)
January 28, 1953October 8, 19574 years, 253 daysRepublicanMichiganDwight D. Eisenhower (Rep)[35]
6
Neil H. McElroy
Neil H. McElroy
(1904–1972)
October 9, 1957December 1, 19592 years, 53 daysRepublicanOhioDwight D. Eisenhower (Rep)[36]
7
Thomas S. Gates Jr.
Thomas S. Gates Jr.
(1906–1983)
December 2, 1959January 20, 19611 year, 49 daysRepublicanPennsylvaniaDwight D. Eisenhower (Rep)[37]
8
Robert McNamara
Robert McNamara
(1916–2009)
January 21, 1961February 29, 19687 years, 39 daysRepublicanMichiganJohn F. Kennedy (Dem)
Lyndon B. Johnson (Dem)
[38]
9
Clark Clifford
Clark Clifford
(1906–1998)
March 1, 1968January 20, 1969325 daysDemocraticMarylandLyndon B. Johnson (Dem)[39]
10
Melvin R. Laird
Melvin R. Laird
(1922–2016)
January 22, 1969January 29, 19734 years, 7 daysRepublicanWisconsinRichard Nixon (Rep)[40]
11
Elliot Richardson
Elliot Richardson
(1920–1999)
January 30, 1973May 24, 1973114 daysRepublicanMassachusettsRichard Nixon (Rep)[41]
Bill Clements
Bill Clements
(1917–2011)
Acting
May 24, 1973July 2, 197339 daysRepublicanTexasRichard Nixon (Rep)[42]
12
James R. Schlesinger
James R. Schlesinger
(1929–2014)
July 2, 1973November 19, 19751 year, 38 daysRepublicanVirginiaRichard Nixon (Rep)
Gerald Ford (Rep)
[43]
13
Donald Rumsfeld
Donald Rumsfeld
(born 1932)
November 20, 1975January 20, 19771 year, 61 daysRepublicanIllinoisGerald Ford (Rep)[44]
14
Harold Brown
Harold Brown
(1917–2019)
January 20, 1977January 20, 19814 years, 0 daysIndependentCaliforniaJimmy Carter (Dem)[45]
15
Caspar Weinberger
Caspar Weinberger
(1917–2006)
January 21, 1981November 23, 19876 years, 306 daysRepublicanCaliforniaRonald Reagan (Rep)[46]
16
Frank Carlucci
Frank Carlucci
(1930–2018)
November 23, 1987January 20, 19891 year, 58 daysRepublicanVirginiaRonald Reagan (Rep)[47]
William Howard Taft IV
William Howard Taft IV
(born 1945)
Acting
January 20, 1989March 21, 198960 daysRepublicanOhioGeorge H. W. Bush (Rep)[48]
17
Dick Cheney
Dick Cheney
(born 1941)
March 21, 1989January 20, 19933 years, 305 daysRepublicanWyomingGeorge H. W. Bush (Rep)[49]
18
Leslie Aspin
Leslie Aspin
(1938–1995)
January 20, 1993[50][51]February 3, 19941 year, 14 daysDemocraticWisconsinBill Clinton (Dem)[52]
19
William Perry
William Perry
(born 1927)
February 3, 1994January 23, 1997[53] / January 24, 1997[50][54]2 years, 356 daysIndependentPennsylvaniaBill Clinton (Dem).
20
William Cohen
William Cohen
(born 1940)
January 24, 1997January 20, 20013 years, 362 daysRepublicanMaineBill Clinton (Dem)[55]
21
Donald Rumsfeld
Donald Rumsfeld
(born 1932)
January 20, 2001December 18, 20065 years, 332 days
(7 years, 29 days total)
RepublicanIllinoisGeorge W. Bush (Rep)[56]
22
Robert Gates
Robert Gates
(born 1943)
December 18, 2006June 30, 2011[57] / July 1, 2011[50]4 years, 194 daysRepublicanTexasGeorge W. Bush (Rep)
Barack Obama (Dem)
.
23
Leon Panetta
Leon Panetta
(born 1938)
July 1, 2011February 26, 20131 year, 240 daysDemocraticCaliforniaBarack Obama (Dem)[58]
24
Chuck Hagel
Chuck Hagel
(born 1946)
February 27, 2013February 17, 20151 year, 355 daysRepublicanNebraskaBarack Obama (Dem)[59]
25
Ash Carter
Ash Carter
(born 1954)
February 17, 2015January 19, 20171 year, 337 daysDemocraticMassachusettsBarack Obama (Dem)[60][50]
26
Jim Mattis
Jim Mattis
(born 1950)
January 20, 2017December 31, 20181 year, 345 daysIndependentWashingtonDonald Trump (Rep)[61]
Patrick M. Shanahan
Patrick M. Shanahan
(born 1962)
Acting
January 1, 2019Incumbent112 daysIndependentWashingtonDonald Trump (Rep)[62]

Succession

Presidential succession

The Secretary of Defense is sixth in the presidential line of succession, following the Secretary of the Treasury and preceding the Attorney General.[63]

Secretary of Defense succession

In Executive Order 13533 of March 1, 2010, President Barack Obama modified the line of succession regarding who would act as Secretary of Defense in the event of a vacancy or incapacitation, thus reversing the changes made by President George W. Bush in Executive Order 13394 as to the relative positions of the Secretaries of the Military Departments. All of the officials in the line of succession are civilians appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate:

Executive Order 13533 (March 1, 2010 – present)

# Office
Secretary of Defense
1 Deputy Secretary of Defense
2 Secretary of the Army
3 Secretary of the Navy
4 Secretary of the Air Force
5 Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics
6 Under Secretary of Defense for Policy
7 Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller)
8 Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness
9 Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence
10 Deputy Chief Management Officer of the Department of Defense
11 Principal Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics
12 Principal Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Policy
13 Principal Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller)
14 Principal Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness
15 Principal Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence
16 Director of Defense Research and Engineering
17 General Counsel of the Department of Defense
Assistant Secretaries of Defense
Assistant to the Secretary of Defense for Nuclear and Chemical and Biological Defense Programs
Director of Operational Test and Evaluation
Director of Operational Energy Plans and Programs
and the Director of Cost Assessment and Program Evaluation
18 Under Secretary of the Army
Under Secretary of the Navy
and the Under Secretary of the Air Force
19 Assistant Secretaries of the Army
Assistant Secretaries of the Navy
Assistant Secretaries of the Air Force
General Counsel of the Army
General Counsel of the Navy
and the General Counsel of the Air Force

Executive Order 13394 (December 22, 2005 – March 1, 2010)

# Office
Secretary of Defense
1 Deputy Secretary of Defense
2 Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence
3 Under Secretary of Defense for Policy
4 Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics
5 Secretary of the Army
6 Secretary of the Air Force
7 Secretary of the Navy
8 Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness
and the Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller)
9 Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology
Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Policy
and the Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness
10 General Counsel of the Department of Defense
Assistant Secretaries of Defense
and the Director of Operational Test and Evaluation
11 Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Logistics and Material Readiness
and the Director of Defense Research and Engineering
12 Under Secretary of the Army
Under Secretary of the Navy
and the Under Secretary of the Air Force
13 Assistant Secretaries of the Army
Assistant Secretaries of the Navy
Assistant Secretaries of the Air Force
General Counsel of the Army
General Counsel of the Navy
and the General Counsel of the Air Force

Living former Secretaries of Defense

As of April 2019, there are nine living former Secretaries of Defense, the oldest being William Perry (1994–1997, born 1927). The most recent Secretary of Defense to die was Harold Brown (1977–1981), on January 4, 2019.

Name Term of office Date of birth (and age)
Donald Rumsfeld 1975–1977, 2001–2006 9 July 1932 (age 86)
Dick Cheney 1989–1993 30 January 1941 (age 78)
William Perry 1994–1997 11 October 1927 (age 91)
William Cohen 1997–2001 28 August 1940 (age 78)
Robert Gates 2006–2011 25 September 1943 (age 75)
Leon Panetta 2011–2013 28 June 1938 (age 80)
Chuck Hagel 2013–2015 4 October 1946 (age 72)
Ash Carter 2015–2017 24 September 1954 (age 64)
Jim Mattis 2017–2018 8 September 1950 (age 68)

See also

References

Footnotes

  1. ^ Trask & Goldberg: p. 177.
  2. ^ http://www.tioh.hqda.pentagon.mil/UniformedServices/Flags/Pos_Colors_DoD.aspx Archived May 12, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, accessed on January 4, 2012.
  3. ^ "3 U.S. Code § 19 – Vacancy in offices of both President and Vice President; officers eligible to act".
  4. ^ a b 5 U.S.C. § 5312.
  5. ^ 10 U.S.C. § 113.
  6. ^ DoDD 5100.1: Enclosure 2: a
  7. ^ 5 U.S.C. § 101.
  8. ^ Trask & Goldberg: p.11
  9. ^ "NATO – member countries". NATO. Retrieved January 4, 2012.
  10. ^ 50 U.S.C. § 402.
  11. ^ 10 U.S.C. § 113
  12. ^ The National Security Act of 1947 originally required an interval of ten years after relief from active duty, which was reduced to seven years by Sec. 903(a) of the 2008 National Defense Authorization Act. In 1950 Congress passed special legislation (Pub. Law 81-788) to allow George C. Marshall to serve as Secretary of Defense while remaining a commissioned officer on the active list of the Army (Army regulations kept all five-star generals on active duty for life), but warned:

    It is hereby expressed as the intent of the Congress that the authority granted by this Act is not to be construed as approval by the Congress of continuing appointments of military men to the office of Secretary of Defense in the future. It is hereby expressed as the sense of the Congress that after General Marshall leaves the office of Secretary of Defense, no additional appointments of military men to that office shall be approved.

    Defenselink bio, Retrieved February 8, 2010; and Marshall Foundation bio, Retrieved February 8, 2010.

  13. ^ a b 10 U.S.C. § 162
  14. ^ Joint Publication 1: II-9, II-10 & II-11.
  15. ^ 10 U.S.C. § 3011
  16. ^ 10 U.S.C. § 5011
  17. ^ 10 U.S.C. § 8011
  18. ^ Trask & Goldberg: pp.11 & 52
  19. ^ Cohen: p.231.
  20. ^ Korb, Lawrence J.; Ogden, Pete (October 31, 2006). "Rumsfeld's Management Failures". Center for American Progress. Retrieved January 6, 2012.
  21. ^ 10 U.S.C. § 152
  22. ^ Cabinets and Counselors: The President and the Executive Branch (1997). Congressional Quarterly. p. 87.
  23. ^ "Patrick M. Shanahan – Acting Secretary of Defense". United States Department of Defense. January 1, 2019. Retrieved January 1, 2019.
  24. ^ Cooper, Helene (December 20, 2018). "Jim Mattis, Marine General Turned Defense Secretary, Will Leave Pentagon in February". The New York Times. Retrieved December 20, 2018.
  25. ^ O'Brien, Connor; Bender, Brien (December 20, 2018). "Mattis breaks with Trump in resignation letter". POLITICO. Retrieved December 20, 2018.
  26. ^ Trump, Donald J. (December 23, 2018). "I am pleased to announce that our very talented Deputy Secretary of Defense, Patrick Shanahan, will assume the title of Acting Secretary of Defense starting January 1, 2019. Patrick has a long list of accomplishments while serving as Deputy, & previously Boeing. He will be great!". @realDonaldTrump. Retrieved January 27, 2019.
  27. ^ Department of Defense Directive 5100.01 Functions of the Department of Defense and Its Major Components
  28. ^ DoDD 5100.1: p.1.
  29. ^ DoDM 1348.33, Vol 3: p.39 (Enclosure 3)
  30. ^ 50 U.S.C. § 402
  31. ^ "James V. Forrestal – Harry S. Truman Administration". Office of the Secretary of Defense – Historical Office.
  32. ^ "Louis A. Johnson – Harry S. Truman Administration". Office of the Secretary of Defense – Historical Office.
  33. ^ "George C. Marshall – Harry S. Truman Administration". Office of the Secretary of Defense – Historical Office.
  34. ^ "Robert A. Lovett – Harry S. Truman Administration". Office of the Secretary of Defense – Historical Office.
  35. ^ "Charles E. Wilson – Dwight D. Eisenhower Administration". Office of the Secretary of Defense – Historical Office.
  36. ^ "Neil H. McElroy -Dwight D. Eisenhower Administration". Office of the Secretary of Defense – Historical Office.
  37. ^ "Thomas S. Gates, Jr. – Dwight D. Eisenhower Administration". Office of the Secretary of Defense – Historical Office.
  38. ^ "Robert S. McNamara – John F. Kennedy / Lyndon Johnson Administration". Office of the Secretary of Defense – Historical Office.
  39. ^ "Clark M. Gifford – Lyndon Johnson Administration". Office of the Secretary of Defense – Historical Office.
  40. ^ "Melvin R. Laird – Richard Nixon Administration". Office of the Secretary of Defense – Historical Office.
  41. ^ "Elliot L. Richardson – Richard Nixon Administration". Office of the Secretary of Defense – Historical Office.
  42. ^ Cantwell, Gerald T. Citizen Airmen: A History of the Air Force Reserve 1946–1994. DIANE Publishing. p. 252. In June 1973, Representative O. C. Fisher complained to William P. Clements, Jr., acting Secretary of Defense, that the authority, responsibility, and, consequently, effectiveness of the chiefs of the various reserve components seemed to be eroding.
  43. ^ "James R. Schlesinger – Richard Nixon / Gerald Ford Administration". Office of the Secretary of Defense – Historical Office.
  44. ^ "Donald H. Rumsfeld – Gerald Ford Administration". Office of the Secretary of Defense – Historical Office.
  45. ^ "Harold Brown – James Carter Administration". Office of the Secretary of Defense – Historical Office.
  46. ^ "Caspar W. Weinberger – Ronald Reagan Administration". Office of the Secretary of Defense – Historical Office.
  47. ^ "Frank C. Carlucci – Ronald Reagan Administration". Office of the Secretary of Defense – Historical Office.
  48. ^ "II. Secretaries of Defense" (PDF). Washington Headquarters Services – Pentagon Digital Library. p. 9. (Deputy Secretary of Defense William H. Taft served as acting secretary of defense from 20 January 1989 until 21 March 1989).
  49. ^ "Richard B. Cheney – George H.W. Bush Administration". Office of the Secretary of Defense – Historical Office.
  50. ^ a b c d Department of Defense Key Officials September 1947 – February 2019
  51. ^ "Les Aspin Serves One Year As Defense Secretary".
  52. ^ "Leslie Aspin – William J. Clinton Administration". Office of the Secretary of Defense – Historical Office.
  53. ^ "William J. Perry – William J. Clinton Administration". Office of the Secretary of Defense – Historical Office.
  54. ^ "II. Secretaries of Defense" (PDF). Washington Headquarters Services – Pentagon Digital Library. p. 10. Sworn in as secretary of defense on 3 February 1994 and served until 24 January 1997.
  55. ^ "William S. Cohen – William J. Clinton Administration". Office of the Secretary of Defense – Historical Office.
  56. ^ "Donald H. Rumsfeld – George W. Bush Administration". Office of the Secretary of Defense – Historical Office.
  57. ^ "Robert M. Gates – George W. Bush / Barack Obama Administration". Office of the Secretary of Defense – Historical Office.
  58. ^ "Leon E. Panetta – Barack Obama Administration". Office of the Secretary of Defense – Historical Office.
  59. ^ "Chuck Hagel – Barack Obama Administration". Office of the Secretary of Defense – Historical Office.
  60. ^ "Ashton B. Carter – Barack Obama Administration". Office of the Secretary of Defense – Historical Office.
  61. ^ "James N. Mattis – Donald Trump Administration". Office of the Secretary of Defense – Historical Office.
  62. ^ "PN583 — Patrick M. Shanahan — Department of Defense". United States Congress. July 18, 2017. Retrieved January 1, 2019.
  63. ^ 3 U.S.C. § 19.

Sources

Federal law

Directives, regulations and manuals

Further reading

Primary historical sources

Online sources

External links

U.S. order of precedence (ceremonial)
Preceded by
Steve Mnuchin
as Secretary of the Treasury
Order of Precedence of the United States
as Secretary of Defense
Succeeded by
William Barr
as Attorney General
U.S. presidential line of succession
Preceded by
Secretary of the Treasury
Steve Mnuchin
6th in line Succeeded by
Secretary of the Interior
David Bernhardt
2005 Pepsi 400

The 2005 Pepsi 400 was a NASCAR Nextel Cup Series event held on July 2, 2005, at Daytona International Speedway in Daytona Beach, Florida. Contested over 160 laps, Tony Stewart, driver of the No. 20 Joe Gibbs Racing Chevrolet, won the race from the pole position, and led the most laps. Former United States Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld was the grand marshal.This was the last Pepsi 400 to be broadcast on NBC until 2015.

Center for International Security and Cooperation

Formerly the Center for International Security and Arms Control, co-founded by physicist Sidney Drell and political scientist John Lewis, CISAC now stands for the Center for International Security and Cooperation. CISAC is a research center at Stanford University that studies a range of international and domestic security and cooperation issues, including nuclear proliferation, counter-terrorism and homeland security, conflict resolution, and governance problems affecting security. The Center has particular strength on issues involving arms control as well as governance and security, and has a long history of encouraging collaboration between social and natural scientists. CISAC scholars have also made important contributions to the study of ethnic conflict, global governance, organizations, and homeland security. It is a part of the Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies.

Among its most distinguished current and former members are William J. Perry, 19th United States Secretary of Defense; George Bunn, first general counsel for the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency; Michael May, former Director of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (1965-1971); astronaut Sally Ride; Condoleezza Rice, former United States Secretary of State; Mariano-Florentino Cuéllar, a Stanford law professor and Justice of the Supreme Court of California; Siegfried Hecker, Director emeritus of Los Alamos National Laboratory (1985-1997) and winner of the 2009 Enrico Fermi Award; and Whitfield Diffie, an American cryptographer and one of the pioneers of public-key cryptography.

Church Report

This article is about Admiral Albert T. Church's 2004 Report on allegations of abuse of extrajudicial detainees at the Guantanamo Bay Naval Base. See also the report of the 1975 Report of the US Senate Church Committee that recommended reform of the US Intelligence establishment.The Church Report, officially Review of Department of Defense Detention Operations and Detainee Interrogation Techniques, is a report into allegations of the abuse of extrajudicial detainees at the Guantanamo Bay Naval Base, Cuba, Admiral Albert T. Church III.

United States Secretary of Defense appointed Church to investigate the abuse allegations on May 25, 2004.The Executive Summary was published on March 11, 2005. While the full report remains classified, a heavily redacted copy of it was obtained by the ACLU who, on February 11, 2009, published an excerpt allegedly proving illegal abuses of power had resulted in the death of several individuals.

Original 2005 Church Report redacted release

Part 1

Part 2

Part 3

Further Church Report material released in litigation

Report p.281, released April 2008

Report pp. 353-365, released April 2008

Report pp.235 & 242, released January 2009

David Norquist

David L. Norquist is an American financial management professional and government official. Norquist was nominated in March 2017 by President Trump to be Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller)/Chief Financial Officer (CFO) in the United States Department of Defense. He was confirmed by the U.S. Senate on May 25, 2017 by unanimous consent. On January 1, 2019, while remaining Comptroller and CFO, Norquist began performing the duties of the United States Deputy Secretary of Defense in place of Patrick M. Shanahan who, on the same date, began serving as the Acting United States Secretary of Defense.

Earl Ravenal

Earl Cedric Ravenal (born 1931) is an American foreign policy analyst, academic, and writer. He is a former distinguished senior fellow in foreign policy studies at the Cato Institute and professor emeritus of the Georgetown University School of Foreign Service.

Ravenal served as a division director in the Office of United States Secretary of Defense from 1967 to 1969, under Secretaries of Defense Robert McNamara and Clark Clifford.He was a candidate for the Libertarian Party's presidential nomination in the 1984 election, and he finished second to the party's eventual nominee, David Bergland.

Electoral history of Dick Cheney

Electoral history of Dick Cheney, 46th Vice President of the United States (2001–2009), 17th United States Secretary of Defense (1989–1993), United States Representative from Wyoming (1979–1989, including Minority Whip, 1989) and White House Chief of Staff (1975–1977)

Wyoming's At-large congressional district, 1978 (Republican primary):

Wyoming's At-large congressional district, 1978:

Wyoming's At-large congressional district, 1980:

Wyoming's At-large congressional district, 1982:

Wyoming's At-large congressional district, 1984:

Wyoming's At-large congressional district, 1986:

Wyoming's At-large congressional district, 1988

United States Secretary of Defense, 1989 (Confirmation in the United States Senate):

Yea – 92

Nay – 0

Not voting – 82000 Republican National Convention (Vice Presidential tally):

Dick Cheney – 2,066 (100.00%)United States presidential election, 2000:

George W. Bush/Dick Cheney (R) – 50,460,110 (47.9%) and 271 electoral votes (30 states carried)

Al Gore/Joe Lieberman (D) – 51,003,926 (48.4%) and 266 electoral votes (20 states and D.C. carried)

Abstaining – 1 electoral vote (Washington, D.C. faithless elector)

Ralph Nader/Winona LaDuke (Green) – 2,883,105 (2.7%)

Pat Buchanan/Ezola Foster (Reform) – 449,225 (0.4%)

Harry Browne/Art Olivier (Libertarian) – 384,516 (0.4%)

Howard Phillips/Curtis Frazier (Constitution) – 98,022 (0.1%)

John Hagelin/Nat Goldhaber (Natural Law) – 83,702 (0.1%)

Others – 54,652 (0.1%)2004 Republican National Convention (Vice Presidential tally):

Dick Cheney – unamiouslyUnited States presidential election, 2004:

George W. Bush/Dick Cheney (R) (inc.) – 62,040,610 (50.73%) and 286 electoral votes (31 states carried)

John Kerry/John Edwards (D) – 59,028,444 (48.27%) and 251 electoral votes (19 states and D.C. carried)

John Edwards (D) – 1 electoral vote (Minnesota faithless elector)

Ralph Nader/Peter Camejo (I) – 465,650 (0.38%)

Michael Badnarik/Richard Campagna (Libertarian) – 397,265 (0.32%)

Michael Peroutka/Chuck Baldwin (Constitution) – 143,630 (0.12%)

David Cobb/Pat LaMarche (Green) – 119,859 (0.096%)

Formerly Used Defense Sites

Formerly Used Defense Sites (FUDS) are properties that were owned by, leased to, or otherwise possessed by the United States and under the jurisdiction of the United States Secretary of Defense. The term also refers to the U.S. military program created in 1986 for assessment and environmental restoration, if any, led by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.

Frank Carlucci

Frank Charles Carlucci III (October 18, 1930 – June 3, 2018) was an American politician and diplomat who served as the United States Secretary of Defense from 1987 to 1989 in the administration of President Ronald Reagan.Carlucci served in a variety of senior-level governmental positions, including Director of the Office of Economic Opportunity in the Richard Nixon administration, Deputy Director of the CIA in the Jimmy Carter administration, and Deputy Secretary of Defense and National Security Advisor in the Reagan administration.

John M. Richardson (admiral)

John Michael Richardson (born April 8, 1960) is a four-star admiral in the United States Navy who currently serves as the 31st Chief of Naval Operations. He previously served as the Director of the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program from November 2, 2012 to August 14, 2015. While serving as Director of Naval Nuclear Propulsion (itself a joint Department of Energy and Department of Navy organization), Richardson was responsible for the command and safe, reliable operation of the United States Navy's nuclear propulsion program and for all the current United States naval reactors deployed for usage as well as all facilities needed to ensure safe operations. On May 13, 2015, United States Secretary of Defense, Ashton Carter, announced Richardson's nomination to succeed Admiral Jonathan Greenert as Chief of Naval Operations.

Richardson began serving as the 31st Chief of Naval Operations on September 18, 2015.

Key West Agreement

The Key West Agreement is the colloquial name for the policy paper Function of the Armed Forces and the Joint Chiefs of Staff drafted by James V. Forrestal, the first United States Secretary of Defense. Its most prominent feature was an outline for the division of air assets between the Army, Navy, and the newly created Air Force which, with modifications, continues to provide the basis for the division of these assets in the U.S. military today.

The basic outline for the document was agreed to at a meeting of the United States service chiefs that took place from March 11 to March 14, 1948 in Key West, Florida, and was finalized after subsequent meetings in Washington, D.C. President Harry S. Truman approved the agreement on April 21, 1948, which was revised in 1954 by the Dwight D. Eisenhower administration.

Louis Johnson

Louis Johnson or Lou Johnson may refer to:

Lou Johnson (pitcher) (1869–1941), baseball player

Louis A. Johnson (1891–1966), second United States Secretary of Defense

Louis Johnson (boxer) (born 1938), American Olympic boxer

Louis Johnson (poet) (1924–1988), New Zealand poet

Lou Johnson or Louis Brown Johnson (born 1932), Major League Baseball player

Louis Johnson (politician) (born 1937), American politician

Lou Johnson (singer) (born 1941), American soul singer

Louis Johnson (bassist) (1955–2015), electric bassist

Louis Dicta Johnson

McNamara fallacy

The McNamara fallacy (also known as quantitative fallacy), named for Robert McNamara, the United States Secretary of Defense from 1961 to 1968, involves making a decision based solely on quantitative observations (or metrics) and ignoring all others. The reason given is often that these other observations cannot be proven.

The first step is to measure whatever can be easily measured. This is OK as far as it goes. The second step is to disregard that which can't be easily measured or to give it an arbitrary quantitative value. This is artificial and misleading. The third step is to presume that what can't be measured easily really isn't important. This is blindness. The fourth step is to say that what can't be easily measured really doesn't exist. This is suicide.

The fallacy refers to McNamara's belief as to what led the United States to defeat in the Vietnam War—specifically, his quantification of success in the war (e.g. in terms of enemy body count), ignoring other variables.

Patrick M. Shanahan

Patrick Michael Shanahan (born June 27, 1962) is an American government official serving as acting United States Secretary of Defense since 2019. President Donald Trump appointed Shanahan to the role after the resignation of Retired General James N. Mattis. Shanahan served as Deputy Secretary of Defense from 2017 to 2019. He previously spent 30 years at Boeing in a variety of roles.

Robert A. Lovett

Robert Abercrombie Lovett (September 14, 1895 – May 7, 1986) was the fourth United States Secretary of Defense, having been promoted to this position from Deputy Secretary of Defense. He served in the cabinet of President Harry S. Truman from 1951 to 1953 and in this capacity, directed the Korean War.Lovett was a core member of the group of foreign policy elders known as "The Wise Men", and was deemed an "architect of the cold war" by social scientist G. William Domhoff, in his 1970 book, The Higher Circles: The Governing Class in America.

Rumsfeld Doctrine

The "Rumsfeld Doctrine", named after former United States Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, is a neologism created by journalists concerned with the perceived transformation of the military of the United States. It would be considered Rumsfeld's own take on RMA (Revolution in Military Affairs). It seeks to increase force readiness and decrease the amount of supply required to maintain forces, by reducing the number in a theater. This is done mainly by using LAVs (Light Armoured Vehicles) to scout for enemies who are then destroyed via airstrikes. The basic tenets of this military strategy are:

High-technology combat systems;

Reliance on air forces;

Small, nimble ground forces.The early phases of the Afghanistan and Iraq wars are considered the two closest implementations of this doctrine.

Sharable Content Object Reference Model

Shareable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM) is a collection of standards and specifications for web-based electronic educational technology (also called e-learning). It defines communications between client side content and a host system (called "the run-time environment"), which is commonly supported by a learning management system. SCORM also defines how content may be packaged into a transferable ZIP file called "Package Interchange Format."SCORM is a specification of the Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL) Initiative from the Office of the United States Secretary of Defense.

SCORM 2004 introduced a complex idea called sequencing, which is a set of rules that specifies the order in which a learner may experience content objects. In simple terms, they constrain a learner to a fixed set of paths through the training material, permit the learner to "bookmark" their progress when taking breaks, and assure the acceptability of test scores achieved by the learner. The standard uses XML, and it is based on the results of work done by AICC, IMS Global, IEEE, and Ariadne.

Thomas Sovereign Gates

Thomas Sovereign Gates (March 21, 1873 – April 8, 1948) was an American investment banker and educator. He was the first president of the University of Pennsylvania from 6 October 1930 until 1944, and was the father of United States Secretary of Defense Thomas S. Gates, Jr.

United States Deputy Secretary of Defense

The Deputy Secretary of Defense (acronym: DEPSECDEF) is a statutory office (10 U.S.C. § 132) and the second-highest-ranking official in the Department of Defense of the United States of America.

The deputy secretary is the principal civilian deputy to the Secretary of Defense, and is appointed by the President, with the advice and consent of the Senate. The deputy secretary, by statute, is designated as the DoD Chief Management Officer and must be a civilian, at least seven years removed from service as a commissioned officer on active-duty at the date of appointment.The Deputy Secretary of Defense position is currently held by Patrick M. Shanahan. Effective January 1, 2019, Shanahan became the Acting Secretary of Defense upon Jim Mattis's resignation from that office. While Shanahan serves in that role, he has selected David Norquist to perform the duties of Deputy Secretary of Defense, effective January 1, 2019.

Weapons Systems Evaluation Group

The Weapons Systems Evaluation Group (abbreviated WSEG) was formed in 1949 to carry out Operational Research work for the Joint Chiefs of Staff of the United States Army and the United States Secretary of Defense. The group oversaw the appraisal of weapons used during the Korean War. The group collaborated with Israel in evaluating the effectiveness of Soviet weapons during the Cold War.

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