The Secretary of Defense (SecDef) is the leader and chief executive officer of the United States Department of Defense, the executive department of the Armed Forces of the U.S. The Secretary of Defense's position of command and authority over the U.S. military is second only to that of the President and Congress, respectively. This position corresponds to what is generally known as a Defense Minister in many other countries. The Secretary of Defense is appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate, and is by custom a member of the Cabinet and by law a member of the National Security Council.
Secretary of Defense is a statutory office, and the general provision in 10 U.S.C. § 113 provides that the Secretary of Defense has "authority, direction and control over the Department of Defense", and is further designated by the same statute as "the principal assistant to the President in all matters relating to the Department of Defense". To ensure civilian control of the military, no one may be appointed as Secretary of Defense within seven years of serving as a commissioned officer of a regular (i.e., non-reserve) component of an armed force.
Subject only to the orders of the President, the Secretary of Defense is in the chain of command and exercises command and control, for both operational and administrative purposes, over all Department of Defense forces — the Army, Marine Corps, Navy, and Air Force — as well as the U.S. Coast Guard when its command and control is transferred to the Department of Defense. Only the Secretary of Defense (or the president or Congress) can authorize the transfer of operational control of forces between the three Military Departments (the departments of the Army, Navy, and Air Force) and the 10 Combatant Commands (Africa Command, Central Command, European Command, Indo-Pacific Command, Northern Command, Southern Command, Cyber Command, Special Operations Command, Strategic Command, Transportation Command). Because the Office of Secretary of Defense is vested with legal powers which exceed those of any commissioned officer, and is second only to the President in the military hierarchy, its incumbent has sometimes unofficially been referred to as a de facto "deputy commander-in-chief". (The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is the principal military adviser to the Secretary of Defense and the President, and while the Chairman may assist the Secretary and President in their command functions, the Chairman is not in the chain of command.)
Since January 1, 2019, the Secretary of Defense has been Deputy Defense Secretary Patrick M. Shanahan, serving in an acting capacity. His predecessor, Jim Mattis, resigned on December 20, 2018, effective February 2019, after failing to persuade President Donald Trump to reconsider a decision to withdraw U.S. troops from Syria. A few days later, Trump announced that Mattis would leave at the end of December.
|United States Secretary of Defense|
Seal of the Department
|United States Department of Defense|
Office of the Secretary of Defense
|Status||Leader and chief executive|
National Security Council
|Reports to||President of the United States|
|Seat||The Pentagon, Arlington County, Virginia|
with Senate advice and consent
|Term length||No fixed term|
|Constituting instrument||10 U.S.C. § 113|
50 U.S.C. § 401
|Formation||September 17, 1947|
|First holder||James Forrestal|
|Deputy||Deputy Secretary of Defense|
|Salary||Executive Schedule, level I|
An Army, Navy, and Marine Corps were established in 1775, in concurrence with the American Revolution. The War Department, headed by the Secretary of War, was created by Act of Congress in 1789 and was responsible for both the Army and Navy until the founding of a separate Department of the Navy in 1798.
Based on the experiences of World War II, proposals were soon made on how to more effectively manage the large combined military establishment. The Army generally favored centralization while the Navy had institutional preferences for decentralization and the status quo. The resulting National Security Act of 1947 was largely a compromise between these divergent viewpoints. The Act split the Department of War into the Department of the Army and Department of the Navy and established the National Military Establishment (NME), presided over by the Secretary of Defense. The Act also separated the Army Air Forces from the Army to become its own branch of service, the United States Air Force. At first, each of the service secretaries maintained cabinet status. The first Secretary of Defense, James Forrestal, who in his previous capacity as Secretary of the Navy had opposed creation of the new position, found it difficult to exercise authority over the other branches with the limited powers his office had at the time. To address this and other problems, the National Security Act was amended in 1949 to further consolidate the national defense structure in order to reduce interservice rivalry, directly subordinate the Secretaries of the Army, the Navy and the Air Force to the Secretary of Defense in the chain of command, and rename the National Military Establishment as the Department of Defense, making it one Executive Department. The position of the Deputy Secretary of Defense, the number two position in the department, was also created at this time.
The general trend since 1949 has been to further centralize management in the Department of Defense, elevating the status and authorities of civilian OSD appointees and defense-wide organizations at the expense of the military departments and the services within them. The last major revision of the statutory framework concerning the position was done in the Goldwater–Nichols Department of Defense Reorganization Act of 1986. In particular, it elevated the status of joint service for commissioned officers, making it in practice a requirement before appointments to general officer and flag officer grades could be made.
The Secretary of Defense, appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate, is by federal law (10 U.S.C. § 113) the head of the Department of Defense, "the principal assistant to the President in all matters relating to Department of Defense", and has "authority, direction and control over the Department of Defense". Because the Constitution vests all military authority in Congress and the President, the statutory authority of the Secretary of Defense is derived from their constitutional authorities. Since it is impractical for either Congress or the President to participate in every piece of Department of Defense affairs, the Secretary of Defense, and the Secretary's subordinate officials generally exercise military authority.
As the head of DoD, all officials, employees and service members are "under" the Secretary of Defense. Some of those high-ranking officials, civil and military (outside of OSD and the Joint Staff) are: the Secretary of the Army, Secretary of the Navy, and Secretary of the Air Force, Army Chief of Staff, Commandant of the Marine Corps, Chief of Naval Operations, and Air Force Chief of Staff, Chief of the National Guard Bureau and the Combatant Commanders of the Combatant Commands. All of these high-ranking positions, civil and military, require Senate confirmation.
The Department of Defense is composed of the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD), the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) and the Joint Staff (JS), Office of the Inspector General (DODIG), the Combatant Commands, the Military Departments (Department of the Army (DA), Department of the Navy (DON) & Department of the Air Force (DAF)), the Defense Agencies and DoD Field Activities, the National Guard Bureau (NGB), and such other offices, agencies, activities, organizations, and commands established or designated by law, or by the President or by the Secretary of Defense.
Department of Defense Directive 5100.01 describes the organizational relationships within the Department, and is the foundational issuance for delineating the major functions of the Department. The latest version, signed by former Secretary of Defense Robert Gates in December 2010, is the first major re-write since 1987.
The Secretary's principally civilian staff element is called the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) and is composed of the Deputy Secretary of Defense (DEPSECDEF) and five Under Secretaries of Defense in the fields of Acquisition, Technology & Logistics, Comptroller/Chief Financial Officer, Intelligence, Personnel & Readiness, and Policy; several Assistant Secretaries of Defense; other directors and the staffs under them.
The name of the principally military staff organization, organized under the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, is the Joint Staff (JS).
The Defense Distinguished Service Medal (DDSM), the Defense Superior Service Medal (DSSM), the Defense Meritorious Service Medal (DMSM), the Joint Service Commendation Medal (JSCM) and the Joint Service Achievement Medal (JSAM) are awarded, to military personnel for service in joint duty assignments, in the name of the Secretary of Defense. In addition, there is the Joint Meritorious Unit Award (JMUA), which is the only ribbon (as in non-medal) and unit award issued to joint DoD activities, also issued in the name of the Secretary of Defense.
The DDSM is analogous to the distinguished services medals issued by the military departments (i.e. Army Distinguished Service Medal, Navy Distinguished Service Medal & Air Force Distinguished Service Medal), the DSSM corresponds to the Legion of Merit, the DMSM to the Meritorious Service Medal, the JSCM to the service commendation medals, and the JSAM to the achievement medals issued by the services. While the approval authority for DSSM, DMSM, JSCM, JSAM and JMUA is delegated to inferior DoD officials: the DDSM can only be awarded by the Secretary of Defense.
Recommendations for the Medal of Honor (MOH), formally endorsed in writing by the Secretary of the Military Department concerned and the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, are processed through the Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness, and such recommendations be must approved by the Secretary of Defense before it can be handed over to the President, who is the final approval authority for the MOH, although it is awarded in the name of Congress.
The Secretary of Defense, with the concurrence of the Secretary of State, is the approval authority for the acceptance and wear of NATO medals issued by the Secretary General of NATO and offered to the U.S. Permanent Representative to NATO in recognition of U.S. Service members who meet the eligibility criteria specified by NATO.
As the head of the department, the Secretary of Defense is the chief witness for the congressional committees with oversight responsibilities over the Department of Defense. The most important committees, with respect to the entire department, are the two authorizing committees, the Senate Armed Services Committee (SASC) and the House Armed Services Committee (HASC), and the two appropriations committees, the Senate Appropriations Committee and the House Appropriations Committee.
The Secretary of Defense is a statutory member of the National Security Council. As one of the principals, the Secretary along with the Vice President, Secretary of State and the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs participates in biweekly Principals Committee (PC) meetings, preparing and coordinating issues before they are brought before full NSC sessions chaired by the President.
The Secretary is one of only five or six civilians—the others being the President, the three "service secretaries" (the Secretary of the Army, Secretary of the Navy, and Secretary of the Air Force), and the Secretary of Homeland Security (when the United States Coast Guard is under the United States Department of Homeland Security and has not been transferred to the Department of the Navy under the Department of Defense)—authorized to act as convening authority in the military justice system for General Courts-Martial (10 U.S.C. § 822: article 22, UCMJ), Special Courts-Martial (10 U.S.C. § 823: article 23, UCMJ), and Summary Courts-Martial (10 U.S.C. § 824: article 24 UCMJ).
The longest-serving Secretary of Defense is Robert McNamara, who served for a total of 7 years, 39 days. Combining his two non-sequential services as Secretary of Defense, the second-longest serving is Donald Rumsfeld, who served just ten days fewer than McNamara. The second-longest unbroken tenure was Caspar Weinberger's, at 6 years, 306 days.
The shortest-serving Secretary of Defense is Elliot Richardson, who served 114 days and then was appointed U.S. Attorney General amid the resignations of the Watergate Scandal. (This is not counting Deputy Secretary of Defense William P. Clements and William Howard Taft IV, who each served a few weeks as temporary/acting Secretary of Defense).
|№||Secretary of Defense||Took office||Left office||Time in office||Party||State of residence||President
|September 17, 1947||March 28, 1949||1 year, 192 days||Democratic||New York||Harry S Truman (Dem)|||
|2||Louis A. Johnson|
|March 28, 1949||September 19, 1950||1 year, 175 days||Democratic||West Virginia||Harry S Truman (Dem)|||
|September 21, 1950||September 12, 1951||356 days||Independent||Pennsylvania||Harry S Truman (Dem)|||
|4||Robert A. Lovett|
|September 17, 1951||January 20, 1953||1 year, 125 days||Republican||New York||Harry S Truman (Dem)|||
|5||Charles Erwin Wilson|
|January 28, 1953||October 8, 1957||4 years, 253 days||Republican||Michigan||Dwight D. Eisenhower (Rep)|||
|6||Neil H. McElroy|
|October 9, 1957||December 1, 1959||2 years, 53 days||Republican||Ohio||Dwight D. Eisenhower (Rep)|||
|7||Thomas S. Gates Jr.|
|December 2, 1959||January 20, 1961||1 year, 49 days||Republican||Pennsylvania||Dwight D. Eisenhower (Rep)|||
|January 21, 1961||February 29, 1968||7 years, 39 days||Republican||Michigan||John F. Kennedy (Dem)|
Lyndon B. Johnson (Dem)
|March 1, 1968||January 20, 1969||325 days||Democratic||Maryland||Lyndon B. Johnson (Dem)|||
|10||Melvin R. Laird|
|January 22, 1969||January 29, 1973||4 years, 7 days||Republican||Wisconsin||Richard Nixon (Rep)|||
|January 30, 1973||May 24, 1973||114 days||Republican||Massachusetts||Richard Nixon (Rep)|||
|May 24, 1973||July 2, 1973||39 days||Republican||Texas||Richard Nixon (Rep)|||
|12||James R. Schlesinger|
|July 2, 1973||November 19, 1975||1 year, 38 days||Republican||Virginia||Richard Nixon (Rep)|
Gerald Ford (Rep)
|November 20, 1975||January 20, 1977||1 year, 61 days||Republican||Illinois||Gerald Ford (Rep)|||
|January 20, 1977||January 20, 1981||4 years, 0 days||Independent||California||Jimmy Carter (Dem)|||
|January 21, 1981||November 23, 1987||6 years, 306 days||Republican||California||Ronald Reagan (Rep)|||
|November 23, 1987||January 20, 1989||1 year, 58 days||Republican||Virginia||Ronald Reagan (Rep)|||
|–||William Howard Taft IV|
|January 20, 1989||March 21, 1989||60 days||Republican||Ohio||George H. W. Bush (Rep)|||
|March 21, 1989||January 20, 1993||3 years, 305 days||Republican||Wyoming||George H. W. Bush (Rep)|||
|January 20, 1993||February 3, 1994||1 year, 14 days||Democratic||Wisconsin||Bill Clinton (Dem)|||
|February 3, 1994||January 23, 1997 / January 24, 1997||2 years, 356 days||Independent||Pennsylvania||Bill Clinton (Dem)||.|
|January 24, 1997||January 20, 2001||3 years, 362 days||Republican||Maine||Bill Clinton (Dem)|||
|January 20, 2001||December 18, 2006||5 years, 332 days|
(7 years, 29 days total)
|Republican||Illinois||George W. Bush (Rep)|||
|December 18, 2006||June 30, 2011 / July 1, 2011||4 years, 194 days||Republican||Texas||George W. Bush (Rep)|
Barack Obama (Dem)
|July 1, 2011||February 26, 2013||1 year, 240 days||Democratic||California||Barack Obama (Dem)|||
|February 27, 2013||February 17, 2015||1 year, 355 days||Republican||Nebraska||Barack Obama (Dem)|||
|February 17, 2015||January 19, 2017||1 year, 337 days||Democratic||Massachusetts||Barack Obama (Dem)|||
|January 20, 2017||December 31, 2018||1 year, 345 days||Independent||Washington||Donald Trump (Rep)|||
|–||Patrick M. Shanahan|
|January 1, 2019||Incumbent||112 days||Independent||Washington||Donald Trump (Rep)|||
In Executive Order 13533 of March 1, 2010, President Barack Obama modified the line of succession regarding who would act as Secretary of Defense in the event of a vacancy or incapacitation, thus reversing the changes made by President George W. Bush in Executive Order 13394 as to the relative positions of the Secretaries of the Military Departments. All of the officials in the line of succession are civilians appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate:
Executive Order 13533 (March 1, 2010 – present)
Executive Order 13394 (December 22, 2005 – March 1, 2010)
As of April 2019, there are nine living former Secretaries of Defense, the oldest being William Perry (1994–1997, born 1927). The most recent Secretary of Defense to die was Harold Brown (1977–1981), on January 4, 2019.
|Name||Term of office||Date of birth (and age)|
|Donald Rumsfeld||1975–1977, 2001–2006||9 July 1932|
|Dick Cheney||1989–1993||30 January 1941|
|William Perry||1994–1997||11 October 1927|
|William Cohen||1997–2001||28 August 1940|
|Robert Gates||2006–2011||25 September 1943|
|Leon Panetta||2011–2013||28 June 1938|
|Chuck Hagel||2013–2015||4 October 1946|
|Ash Carter||2015–2017||24 September 1954|
|Jim Mattis||2017–2018||8 September 1950|
It is hereby expressed as the intent of the Congress that the authority granted by this Act is not to be construed as approval by the Congress of continuing appointments of military men to the office of Secretary of Defense in the future. It is hereby expressed as the sense of the Congress that after General Marshall leaves the office of Secretary of Defense, no additional appointments of military men to that office shall be approved.
In June 1973, Representative O. C. Fisher complained to William P. Clements, Jr., acting Secretary of Defense, that the authority, responsibility, and, consequently, effectiveness of the chiefs of the various reserve components seemed to be eroding.
(Deputy Secretary of Defense William H. Taft served as acting secretary of defense from 20 January 1989 until 21 March 1989).
Sworn in as secretary of defense on 3 February 1994 and served until 24 January 1997.
|U.S. order of precedence (ceremonial)|
as Secretary of the Treasury
| Order of Precedence of the United States
as Secretary of Defense
as Attorney General
|U.S. presidential line of succession|
Secretary of the Treasury
|6th in line||Succeeded by|
Secretary of the Interior
The 2005 Pepsi 400 was a NASCAR Nextel Cup Series event held on July 2, 2005, at Daytona International Speedway in Daytona Beach, Florida. Contested over 160 laps, Tony Stewart, driver of the No. 20 Joe Gibbs Racing Chevrolet, won the race from the pole position, and led the most laps. Former United States Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld was the grand marshal.This was the last Pepsi 400 to be broadcast on NBC until 2015.Center for International Security and Cooperation
Formerly the Center for International Security and Arms Control, co-founded by physicist Sidney Drell and political scientist John Lewis, CISAC now stands for the Center for International Security and Cooperation. CISAC is a research center at Stanford University that studies a range of international and domestic security and cooperation issues, including nuclear proliferation, counter-terrorism and homeland security, conflict resolution, and governance problems affecting security. The Center has particular strength on issues involving arms control as well as governance and security, and has a long history of encouraging collaboration between social and natural scientists. CISAC scholars have also made important contributions to the study of ethnic conflict, global governance, organizations, and homeland security. It is a part of the Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies.
Among its most distinguished current and former members are William J. Perry, 19th United States Secretary of Defense; George Bunn, first general counsel for the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency; Michael May, former Director of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (1965-1971); astronaut Sally Ride; Condoleezza Rice, former United States Secretary of State; Mariano-Florentino Cuéllar, a Stanford law professor and Justice of the Supreme Court of California; Siegfried Hecker, Director emeritus of Los Alamos National Laboratory (1985-1997) and winner of the 2009 Enrico Fermi Award; and Whitfield Diffie, an American cryptographer and one of the pioneers of public-key cryptography.Church Report
This article is about Admiral Albert T. Church's 2004 Report on allegations of abuse of extrajudicial detainees at the Guantanamo Bay Naval Base. See also the report of the 1975 Report of the US Senate Church Committee that recommended reform of the US Intelligence establishment.The Church Report, officially Review of Department of Defense Detention Operations and Detainee Interrogation Techniques, is a report into allegations of the abuse of extrajudicial detainees at the Guantanamo Bay Naval Base, Cuba, Admiral Albert T. Church III.
United States Secretary of Defense appointed Church to investigate the abuse allegations on May 25, 2004.The Executive Summary was published on March 11, 2005. While the full report remains classified, a heavily redacted copy of it was obtained by the ACLU who, on February 11, 2009, published an excerpt allegedly proving illegal abuses of power had resulted in the death of several individuals.
Original 2005 Church Report redacted release
Further Church Report material released in litigation
Report p.281, released April 2008
Report pp. 353-365, released April 2008
Report pp.235 & 242, released January 2009David Norquist
David L. Norquist is an American financial management professional and government official. Norquist was nominated in March 2017 by President Trump to be Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller)/Chief Financial Officer (CFO) in the United States Department of Defense. He was confirmed by the U.S. Senate on May 25, 2017 by unanimous consent. On January 1, 2019, while remaining Comptroller and CFO, Norquist began performing the duties of the United States Deputy Secretary of Defense in place of Patrick M. Shanahan who, on the same date, began serving as the Acting United States Secretary of Defense.Earl Ravenal
Earl Cedric Ravenal (born 1931) is an American foreign policy analyst, academic, and writer. He is a former distinguished senior fellow in foreign policy studies at the Cato Institute and professor emeritus of the Georgetown University School of Foreign Service.
Ravenal served as a division director in the Office of United States Secretary of Defense from 1967 to 1969, under Secretaries of Defense Robert McNamara and Clark Clifford.He was a candidate for the Libertarian Party's presidential nomination in the 1984 election, and he finished second to the party's eventual nominee, David Bergland.Electoral history of Dick Cheney
Electoral history of Dick Cheney, 46th Vice President of the United States (2001–2009), 17th United States Secretary of Defense (1989–1993), United States Representative from Wyoming (1979–1989, including Minority Whip, 1989) and White House Chief of Staff (1975–1977)
Wyoming's At-large congressional district, 1978 (Republican primary):
Wyoming's At-large congressional district, 1978:
Wyoming's At-large congressional district, 1980:
Wyoming's At-large congressional district, 1982:
Wyoming's At-large congressional district, 1984:
Wyoming's At-large congressional district, 1986:
Wyoming's At-large congressional district, 1988
United States Secretary of Defense, 1989 (Confirmation in the United States Senate):
Yea – 92
Nay – 0
Not voting – 82000 Republican National Convention (Vice Presidential tally):
Dick Cheney – 2,066 (100.00%)United States presidential election, 2000:
George W. Bush/Dick Cheney (R) – 50,460,110 (47.9%) and 271 electoral votes (30 states carried)
Al Gore/Joe Lieberman (D) – 51,003,926 (48.4%) and 266 electoral votes (20 states and D.C. carried)
Abstaining – 1 electoral vote (Washington, D.C. faithless elector)
Ralph Nader/Winona LaDuke (Green) – 2,883,105 (2.7%)
Pat Buchanan/Ezola Foster (Reform) – 449,225 (0.4%)
Harry Browne/Art Olivier (Libertarian) – 384,516 (0.4%)
Howard Phillips/Curtis Frazier (Constitution) – 98,022 (0.1%)
John Hagelin/Nat Goldhaber (Natural Law) – 83,702 (0.1%)
Others – 54,652 (0.1%)2004 Republican National Convention (Vice Presidential tally):
Dick Cheney – unamiouslyUnited States presidential election, 2004:
George W. Bush/Dick Cheney (R) (inc.) – 62,040,610 (50.73%) and 286 electoral votes (31 states carried)
John Kerry/John Edwards (D) – 59,028,444 (48.27%) and 251 electoral votes (19 states and D.C. carried)
John Edwards (D) – 1 electoral vote (Minnesota faithless elector)
Ralph Nader/Peter Camejo (I) – 465,650 (0.38%)
Michael Badnarik/Richard Campagna (Libertarian) – 397,265 (0.32%)
Michael Peroutka/Chuck Baldwin (Constitution) – 143,630 (0.12%)
David Cobb/Pat LaMarche (Green) – 119,859 (0.096%)Formerly Used Defense Sites
Formerly Used Defense Sites (FUDS) are properties that were owned by, leased to, or otherwise possessed by the United States and under the jurisdiction of the United States Secretary of Defense. The term also refers to the U.S. military program created in 1986 for assessment and environmental restoration, if any, led by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.Frank Carlucci
Frank Charles Carlucci III (October 18, 1930 – June 3, 2018) was an American politician and diplomat who served as the United States Secretary of Defense from 1987 to 1989 in the administration of President Ronald Reagan.Carlucci served in a variety of senior-level governmental positions, including Director of the Office of Economic Opportunity in the Richard Nixon administration, Deputy Director of the CIA in the Jimmy Carter administration, and Deputy Secretary of Defense and National Security Advisor in the Reagan administration.John M. Richardson (admiral)
John Michael Richardson (born April 8, 1960) is a four-star admiral in the United States Navy who currently serves as the 31st Chief of Naval Operations. He previously served as the Director of the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program from November 2, 2012 to August 14, 2015. While serving as Director of Naval Nuclear Propulsion (itself a joint Department of Energy and Department of Navy organization), Richardson was responsible for the command and safe, reliable operation of the United States Navy's nuclear propulsion program and for all the current United States naval reactors deployed for usage as well as all facilities needed to ensure safe operations. On May 13, 2015, United States Secretary of Defense, Ashton Carter, announced Richardson's nomination to succeed Admiral Jonathan Greenert as Chief of Naval Operations.
Richardson began serving as the 31st Chief of Naval Operations on September 18, 2015.Key West Agreement
The Key West Agreement is the colloquial name for the policy paper Function of the Armed Forces and the Joint Chiefs of Staff drafted by James V. Forrestal, the first United States Secretary of Defense. Its most prominent feature was an outline for the division of air assets between the Army, Navy, and the newly created Air Force which, with modifications, continues to provide the basis for the division of these assets in the U.S. military today.
The basic outline for the document was agreed to at a meeting of the United States service chiefs that took place from March 11 to March 14, 1948 in Key West, Florida, and was finalized after subsequent meetings in Washington, D.C. President Harry S. Truman approved the agreement on April 21, 1948, which was revised in 1954 by the Dwight D. Eisenhower administration.Louis Johnson
Louis Johnson or Lou Johnson may refer to:
Lou Johnson (pitcher) (1869–1941), baseball player
Louis A. Johnson (1891–1966), second United States Secretary of Defense
Louis Johnson (boxer) (born 1938), American Olympic boxer
Louis Johnson (poet) (1924–1988), New Zealand poet
Lou Johnson or Louis Brown Johnson (born 1932), Major League Baseball player
Louis Johnson (politician) (born 1937), American politician
Lou Johnson (singer) (born 1941), American soul singer
Louis Johnson (bassist) (1955–2015), electric bassist
Louis Dicta JohnsonMcNamara fallacy
The McNamara fallacy (also known as quantitative fallacy), named for Robert McNamara, the United States Secretary of Defense from 1961 to 1968, involves making a decision based solely on quantitative observations (or metrics) and ignoring all others. The reason given is often that these other observations cannot be proven.
The first step is to measure whatever can be easily measured. This is OK as far as it goes. The second step is to disregard that which can't be easily measured or to give it an arbitrary quantitative value. This is artificial and misleading. The third step is to presume that what can't be measured easily really isn't important. This is blindness. The fourth step is to say that what can't be easily measured really doesn't exist. This is suicide.
The fallacy refers to McNamara's belief as to what led the United States to defeat in the Vietnam War—specifically, his quantification of success in the war (e.g. in terms of enemy body count), ignoring other variables.Patrick M. Shanahan
Patrick Michael Shanahan (born June 27, 1962) is an American government official serving as acting United States Secretary of Defense since 2019. President Donald Trump appointed Shanahan to the role after the resignation of Retired General James N. Mattis. Shanahan served as Deputy Secretary of Defense from 2017 to 2019. He previously spent 30 years at Boeing in a variety of roles.Robert A. Lovett
Robert Abercrombie Lovett (September 14, 1895 – May 7, 1986) was the fourth United States Secretary of Defense, having been promoted to this position from Deputy Secretary of Defense. He served in the cabinet of President Harry S. Truman from 1951 to 1953 and in this capacity, directed the Korean War.Lovett was a core member of the group of foreign policy elders known as "The Wise Men", and was deemed an "architect of the cold war" by social scientist G. William Domhoff, in his 1970 book, The Higher Circles: The Governing Class in America.Rumsfeld Doctrine
The "Rumsfeld Doctrine", named after former United States Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, is a neologism created by journalists concerned with the perceived transformation of the military of the United States. It would be considered Rumsfeld's own take on RMA (Revolution in Military Affairs). It seeks to increase force readiness and decrease the amount of supply required to maintain forces, by reducing the number in a theater. This is done mainly by using LAVs (Light Armoured Vehicles) to scout for enemies who are then destroyed via airstrikes. The basic tenets of this military strategy are:
High-technology combat systems;
Reliance on air forces;
Small, nimble ground forces.The early phases of the Afghanistan and Iraq wars are considered the two closest implementations of this doctrine.Sharable Content Object Reference Model
Shareable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM) is a collection of standards and specifications for web-based electronic educational technology (also called e-learning). It defines communications between client side content and a host system (called "the run-time environment"), which is commonly supported by a learning management system. SCORM also defines how content may be packaged into a transferable ZIP file called "Package Interchange Format."SCORM is a specification of the Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL) Initiative from the Office of the United States Secretary of Defense.
SCORM 2004 introduced a complex idea called sequencing, which is a set of rules that specifies the order in which a learner may experience content objects. In simple terms, they constrain a learner to a fixed set of paths through the training material, permit the learner to "bookmark" their progress when taking breaks, and assure the acceptability of test scores achieved by the learner. The standard uses XML, and it is based on the results of work done by AICC, IMS Global, IEEE, and Ariadne.Thomas Sovereign Gates
Thomas Sovereign Gates (March 21, 1873 – April 8, 1948) was an American investment banker and educator. He was the first president of the University of Pennsylvania from 6 October 1930 until 1944, and was the father of United States Secretary of Defense Thomas S. Gates, Jr.United States Deputy Secretary of Defense
The Deputy Secretary of Defense (acronym: DEPSECDEF) is a statutory office (10 U.S.C. § 132) and the second-highest-ranking official in the Department of Defense of the United States of America.
The deputy secretary is the principal civilian deputy to the Secretary of Defense, and is appointed by the President, with the advice and consent of the Senate. The deputy secretary, by statute, is designated as the DoD Chief Management Officer and must be a civilian, at least seven years removed from service as a commissioned officer on active-duty at the date of appointment.The Deputy Secretary of Defense position is currently held by Patrick M. Shanahan. Effective January 1, 2019, Shanahan became the Acting Secretary of Defense upon Jim Mattis's resignation from that office. While Shanahan serves in that role, he has selected David Norquist to perform the duties of Deputy Secretary of Defense, effective January 1, 2019.Weapons Systems Evaluation Group
The Weapons Systems Evaluation Group (abbreviated WSEG) was formed in 1949 to carry out Operational Research work for the Joint Chiefs of Staff of the United States Army and the United States Secretary of Defense. The group oversaw the appraisal of weapons used during the Korean War. The group collaborated with Israel in evaluating the effectiveness of Soviet weapons during the Cold War.
United States Secretaries of Defense
Senior officials in the United States Department of Defense
a - Acting
|Projects, operations, and programs|
|Operations and history|
Leaders of the United States federal executive departments
* Ineligible to act as president