United States Secret Service

The United States Secret Service (also USSS or Secret Service) is a federal law enforcement agency under the Department of Homeland Security charged with conducting criminal investigations and protecting the nation's leaders.[3] Until 2003, the Secret Service was part of the Department of the Treasury, as the agency was originally founded to combat the then-widespread counterfeiting of US currency.[4]

United States Secret Service
Logo of the United States Secret Service
U.S Secret Service emblem
Badge of the United States Secret Service
Secret Service Special Agent badge
Flag of the United States Secret Service
U.S. Secret Service flag
Common nameSecret Service
AbbreviationUSSS
Agency overview
FormedJuly 5, 1865
Employees7,000+ (2019)[1]
Annual budget$2.2 billion (2019)[1]
HeadquartersWashington, D.C.

Agency executives
Parent agency U.S. Department of Homeland Security (2003–present)
U.S. Department of the Treasury (1865–2003)
Facilities
Field and resident offices116
Overseas offices20
Website
www.secretservice.gov

Primary Missions

The Secret Service is mandated by Congress with two distinct and critical national security missions: protecting the nation's leaders and safeguarding the financial and critical infrastructure of the United States.

Protective Mission

Ensures the safety of the President of the United States, the Vice President of the United States, the President's and Vice President's immediate families, former presidents, their spouses, and their minor children under the age of 16, major presidential and vice presidential candidates and their spouses, and foreign heads of state. The Secret Service also provides physical security for the White House Complex, the neighboring Treasury Department building, the Vice President's residence, and all foreign diplomatic missions in Washington, D.C. The protective mission includes protective operations to coordinate manpower and logistics with state and local law enforcement, protective advances to conduct site and venue assessments for protectees, and protective intelligence to investigate all manners of threats made against protectees. The Secret Service is the lead agency in charge of the planning, coordination, and implementation of security operations for events designated as National Special Security Events (NSSEs). As part of the Service's mission of preventing an incident before it occurs, the agency relies on meticulous advance work and threat assessments developed by its Intelligence Division to identify potential risks to protectees.[5]

Investigative Mission

Safeguards the payment and financial systems of the United States from a wide range of financial and electronic-based crimes. Financial investigations include counterfeit US currency, bank & financial institution fraud, mail fraud, wire fraud, illicit financing operations, and major conspiracies. Electronic investigations include cybercrime, network intrusions, identity theft, access device fraud, credit card fraud, and intellectual property crimes. The Secret Service is a key member of the FBI's Joint Terrorism Task Force (JTTF) which investigates and combats terrorism on a national and international scale, as well as of the High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas (HIDTA) Task Force which seeks to reduce and eliminate drug trafficking in critical regions of the United States. The Secret Service also investigates missing and exploited children and is a core partner of the National Center for Missing & Exploited Children (NCMEC).[6]

The Secret Service's initial responsibility was to investigate the counterfeiting of US currency, which was rampant following the American Civil War. The agency then evolved into the United States' first domestic intelligence and counterintelligence agency. Many of the agency's missions were later taken over by subsequent agencies such as the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF), and IRS Criminal Investigation Division (IRS-CI).

Dual objective

Secret Service agents conducting investigations
Secret Service agents conducting electronic investigations
US Secret Service Agent
Secret Service agents protecting President George W. Bush in 2002
Secret Service and FBI agents investigate the Boston Marathon bombing
Secret Service and FBI agents investigate the Boston Marathon bombing

The Secret Service combines the two responsibilities into a unique dual objective. The two core missions of protection and investigations synergize with the other, providing crucial benefits to special agents during the course of their careers. Skills developed during the course of investigations which are also used in an agent’s protective duties include but are not limited to:

  • Partnerships that are created between field offices and local law enforcement during the course of investigations being used to gather both protective intelligence and in coordinating protection events.
  • Tactical operation (i.e. surveillance, arrests, and search warrants) and law enforcement writing (i.e. affidavits, after action reports, and operations plans) skills being applied to both investigative and protective duties.
  • Proficiency in analyzing handwriting and forgery techniques being applied in protective investigations of handwritten letters and suspicious package threats.
  • Expertise in investigating electronic and financial crimes being applied in protective investigations of threats made against the nation's leaders on the Internet.

Protection of the nation's highest elected leaders and other government officials is one of the primary missions of the Secret Service. After the 1901 assassination of President William McKinley, Congress also directed the Secret Service to protect the President of the United States.

The Secret Service is authorized by law to protect:[7]

  • The President, Vice President (or other officer next in the order of succession to the Office of President, should the Vice Presidency be vacant), President-elect and Vice President-elect
  • The immediate families of the above individuals
  • Former Presidents and their spouses for their lifetimes (except when the spouse divorces or remarries), under the Former Presidents Act. From 1997 until 2013, legislation was in place limiting Secret Service protection to former Presidents and their spouses to a period of 10 years from the date the former President leaves office. President Barack Obama signed legislation on January 10, 2013, reversing this limit and reinstating lifetime protection.[8][9]
  • The widow or widower of a former President who dies in office or dies within a year of leaving office for a period of one year after the President's death (the Secretary of Homeland Security can extend the protection time)
  • Children of former Presidents until age 16 or 10 years after the presidency
  • Former Vice Presidents, their spouses, and their children under 16 years of age, for up to 6 months from the date the former Vice President leaves office (the Secretary of Homeland Security can extend the protection time)
  • Visiting heads of states or governments and their spouses traveling with them
  • Other distinguished foreign visitors to the United States and official representatives of the United States performing special missions abroad, as directed by the President
  • Major presidential and vice presidential candidates[10]
  • The spouses of major presidential and vice presidential candidates (within 120 days of a general presidential election)
  • Other individuals as designated per executive order of the President
  • National Special Security Events, when designated as such by the Secretary of Homeland Security

The law states that individuals other than the President, the Vice President (or other officer next in the order of succession to the Office of President), the President-elect, and the Vice President-elect may decline Secret Service protection, but the law neither allows nor disallows these excepted offices from declining.[7]

When Hillary Clinton became Secretary of State in 2009, the Secret Service continued to protect her at home; however the Diplomatic Security Service protected her while she was performing her duties as the Secretary of State, including foreign travel.

The Secret Service investigates thousands of incidents each year of individuals threatening the President of the United States.

In the face of budget pressure, hiring challenges and some high-profile lapses in its protective service role in 2014, the Brookings Institution and some members of Congress are asking whether the agency's focus should shift more to the protective mission, leaving more of its original mission to other agencies.[11][12]

The Secret Service's other primary mission is investigative; to protect the payment and financial systems of the United States from a wide range of financial and electronic-based crimes including counterfeit U.S. currency, bank & financial institution fraud, illicit financing operations, cybercrime, identity theft, intellectual property crimes, and any other violations that may affect the United States economy and financial systems. The agency's key focus is on large, high-dollar economic impact cases involving organized criminal groups. Financial criminals include embezzling bank employees, armed robbers at automatic teller machines, heroin traffickers, and criminal organizations that commit bank fraud on a global scale.

The USSS plays a leading role in facilitating relationships between other law enforcement entities, the private sector, and academia. The Service maintains the Electronic Crimes Task Forces, which focus on identifying and locating international cyber criminals connected to cyber intrusions, bank fraud, data breaches, and other computer-related crimes. Additionally, the Secret Service runs the National Computer Forensics Institute (NCFI), which provides law enforcement officers, prosecutors, and judges with cyber training and information to combat cybercrime.

History

Early years

Logo of the United States Secret Service
Logo of the United States Secret Service

With a reported one third of the currency in circulation being counterfeit at the time,[13] the Secret Service was created on July 5, 1865 in Washington, D.C., to suppress counterfeit currency. Chief William P. Wood was sworn in by Secretary of the Treasury Hugh McCulloch. It was commissioned in Washington, D.C. as the "Secret Service Division" of the Department of the Treasury with the mission of suppressing counterfeiting. The legislation creating the agency was on Abraham Lincoln's desk the night he was assassinated.[14] At the time, the only other federal law enforcement agencies were the United States Customs Service, the United States Park Police, the U.S. Post Office Department's Office of Instructions and Mail Depredations (now known as the United States Postal Inspection Service), and the United States Marshals Service. The Marshals did not have the manpower to investigate all crime under federal jurisdiction, so the Secret Service began investigating a wide range of crimes from murder to bank robbery to illegal gambling.

After the assassination of President William McKinley in 1901, Congress informally requested that the Secret Service provide presidential protection. A year later, the Secret Service assumed full-time responsibility for presidential protection. In 1902, William Craig became the first Secret Service agent to die while serving, in a road accident while riding in the presidential carriage.

The Secret Service was the first U.S. domestic intelligence and counterintelligence agency. Domestic intelligence collection and counterintelligence responsibilities were vested in the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) upon the FBI's creation in 1908.

The Secret Service assisted in arresting Japanese American leaders and in the Japanese American internment during World War II.[15] The U.S. Secret Service is not a part of the U.S. Intelligence Community.[16]

20th century

Taft Mexican Summit (1909)

In 1909, President William H. Taft agreed to meet with Mexican President Porfirio Díaz in El Paso, Texas and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico, the first meeting between a U.S. and a Mexican president and also the first time an American president visited Mexico.[17] But the historic summit resulted in serious assassination threats and other security concerns for the then small Secret Service, so the Texas Rangers, 4,000 U.S. and Mexican troops, BOI agents, U.S. Marshals, and an additional 250-man private security detail led by Frederick Russell Burnham, the celebrated scout, were all called in by Chief John Wilkie to provide added security.[18][19] On October 16, the day of the summit, Burnham discovered a man holding a concealed palm pistol standing at the El Paso Chamber of Commerce building along the procession route.[20] The man was captured and disarmed only a few feet from Díaz and Taft.[21]

1950s

In 1950, President Harry S. Truman was residing in Blair House while the White House, across the street, was undergoing renovations. On November 1, 1950, two Puerto Rican nationalists, Oscar Collazo and Griselio Torresola, approached Blair House with the intent to assassinate President Truman. Collazo and Torresola opened fire on Private Leslie Coffelt and other White House Police officers. Though mortally wounded by three shots from a 9 mm German Luger to his chest and abdomen, Private Coffelt returned fire, killing Torresola with a single shot to his head. As of 2017, Coffelt is the only member of the Secret Service killed while protecting a US president against an assassination attempt (Special Agent Tim McCarthy stepped in front of President Ronald Reagan during the assassination attempt of March 30, 1981, and took a bullet to the abdomen but made a full recovery). Collazo was also shot, but survived his injuries and served 29 years in prison before returning to Puerto Rico in late 1979.

1960s

In 1968, as a result of Robert F. Kennedy's assassination, Congress authorized protection of major presidential and vice presidential candidates and nominees.[22] In 1965 and 1968, Congress also authorized lifetime protection of the spouses of deceased presidents unless they remarry and of the children of former presidents until age 16.[4]

1980s

Secret Service analyst examining counterfeit documents
Secret Service analyst examining counterfeit documents

The Secret Service Presidential Protective Division safeguards the President of the United States and his immediate family. They work with other federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies and the military to safeguard the President when he travels in Air Force One, Marine One and by limousine in motorcades.

Although the most visible role of the Secret Service today, personal protection is an anomaly in the responsibilities of an agency focused on fraud and counterfeiting.

In 1984, the US Congress passed the Comprehensive Crime Control Act, which extended the Secret Service's jurisdiction over credit card fraud and computer fraud.

1990s

In 1990, the Secret Service initiated Operation Sundevil, which they originally intended as a sting against malicious hackers, allegedly responsible for disrupting telephone services across the entire United States. The operation, which was later described by Bruce Sterling in his book The Hacker Crackdown, affected a great number of people unrelated to hacking, and led to no convictions. The Secret Service, however, was sued and required to pay damages.

In 1994 and 1995, it ran an undercover sting called Operation Cybersnare.[23] The Secret Service has concurrent jurisdiction with the FBI over certain violations of federal computer crime laws. They have created 24 Electronic Crimes Task Forces (ECTFs) across the United States. These task forces are partnerships between the Service, federal/state and local law enforcement, the private sector and academia aimed at combating technology-based crimes.

In 1998, President Bill Clinton signed Presidential Decision Directive 62, which established National Special Security Events (NSSE). That directive made the Secret Service responsible for security at designated events. In 1999, the United States Secret Service Memorial Building was dedicated in DC, granting the agency its first headquarters. Prior to this, the agency's different departments were based in office space around the DC area.[24]

21st century

2000s

The New York City Field office was located at 6 World Trade Center. Immediately after the World Trade Center was attacked as part of the September 11 attacks, Special Agents and other New York Field office employees were among the first to respond with first aid. Sixty-seven Special Agents in New York City, at and near the New York Field Office, helped to set up triage areas and evacuate the towers. One Secret Service employee, Master Special Officer Craig Miller,[25] died during the rescue efforts. On August 20, 2002, Director Brian L. Stafford awarded the Director's Valor Award to employees who assisted in the rescue attempts.[26]

Secret Service Electronic Crimes Task Force (ECTF)
Secret Service Electronic Crimes Task Force (ECTF)
Secret Service Asset Forfeiture and Money Laundering Task Force (AFMLTF)
Secret Service Asset Forfeiture and Money Laundering Task Force (AFMLTF)

Effective March 1, 2003, the Secret Service transferred from the Treasury to the newly established Department of Homeland Security.[27]

The USA Patriot Act, signed into law by President George W. Bush on October 26, 2001, mandated the Secret Service to establish a nationwide network of ECTFs in addition to the one already active in New York. As such, this mandate expanded on the agency's first ECTF—the New York Electronic Crimes Task Force, formed in 1995—which brought together federal, state and local law enforcement, prosecutors, private-industry companies, and academia. These bodies collectively provide necessary support and resources to field investigations that meet any one of the following criteria: significant economic or community impact; participation of organized criminal groups involving multiple districts or transnational organizations; or use of schemes involving new technology.[28][29]

The network prioritizes investigations that meet the following criteria:

  • Significant economic or community impact,
  • Participation of multiple-district or transnational organized criminal groups,
  • Use of new technology as a means to commit crime.

Investigations conducted by ECTFs include crimes such as computer generated counterfeit currency; bank fraud; virus and worm proliferation; access device fraud; telecommunications fraud; Internet threats; computer system intrusions and cyberattacks; phishing/spoofing; assistance with Internet-related child pornography and exploitation; and identity theft.[30]

Secret Service Cyber Intelligence Center (CIS)
Secret Service Cyber Intelligence Center (CIS)

On July 6, 2009, the U.S. Secret Service expanded its fight on cybercrime by creating the first European Electronic Crime Task Force, based on the successful U.S. domestic model, through a memorandum of understanding with Italian police and postal officials. Over a year later, on August 9, 2010, the agency expanded its European involvement by creating its second overseas ECTF in the United Kingdom.[31][32]

Both task forces are said to concentrate on a wide range of "computer-based criminal activity," including:

2010s

As of 2010, the Service had over 6,500 employees: 3,200 Special Agents, 1,300 Uniformed Division Officers, and 2,000 technical and administrative employees.[33] Special agents serve on protective details and investigate financial, cyber, and homeland security-related crimes.

In September 2014, the United States Secret Service came under criticism following two high-profile incidents involving intruders at the White House. One such intruder entered the East Room of the White House through an unlocked door.[34]

Another incident involved a violation of procedure in which an armed security guard for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention rode in the same elevator as President Barack Obama during a visit to that agency's headquarters in Atlanta, Georgia, to discuss U.S. response to the Ebola virus epidemic in West Africa. The guard used his phone to record a video of Obama and refused to comply with a request to stop.[35] The guard had been arrested multiple times in the past, but had never been convicted of a crime.[36]

Attacks on presidents

Reagan assassination attempt 4 crop
Secret Service agents responding to the assassination attempt of Ronald Reagan by John Hinckley, Jr. on March 30, 1981

Since the 1960s, Presidents John F. Kennedy (killed), Gerald Ford (twice attacked, but uninjured) and Ronald Reagan (seriously wounded) have been attacked while appearing in public.[37][38] Agents on scene though not injured during attacks on Presidents include William Greer and Roy Kellerman. One of the agents was Robert DeProspero, the Special Agent In Charge (SAIC) of Reagan's Presidential Protective Division (PPD) from January 1982 to April 1985. DeProspero was deputy to Jerry Parr, the SAIC of PPD during the Reagan assassination attempt on March 30, 1981.[39][40]

President George W. Bush greets troops guarded by Secret Service
Secret Service agents guard President George W. Bush in 2008.

The Kennedy assassination spotlighted the bravery of two Secret Service agents. First, an agent protecting Mrs. Kennedy, Clint Hill, was riding in the car directly behind the presidential limousine when the attack began. While the shooting continued, Hill leapt from the running board of the car he was riding on and jumped onto the back of the President's moving car and guided Mrs. Kennedy from the trunk back into the rear seat of the car. He then shielded the President and the First Lady with his body until the car arrived at the hospital.

Rufus Youngblood was riding in the vice-presidential car. When the shots were fired, he vaulted over the front seat and threw his body over Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson.[41] That evening, Johnson called Secret Service Chief James J. Rowley and cited Youngblood's bravery.[42][43] Youngblood would later recall some of this in his memoir, Twenty Years in the Secret Service.

The period following the Kennedy assassination was the most difficult in the modern history of the agency. Press reports indicated that morale among the agents was "low" for months following the assassination.[44][45] The agency overhauled its procedures in the wake of the Kennedy killing. Training, which until that time had been confined largely to "on-the-job" efforts, was systematized and regularized.

The Reagan assassination attempt also highlighted the bravery of several Secret Service agents, particularly agent Tim McCarthy, who spread his stance to protect Reagan as six bullets were being fired by the would-be assassin, John Hinckley Jr.[46] McCarthy survived a .22-caliber round in the abdomen. For his bravery, McCarthy received the NCAA Award of Valor in 1982.[47] Jerry Parr, the agent who pushed President Reagan into the limousine, and made the critical decision to divert the presidential motorcade to George Washington University Hospital instead of returning to the White House, was also honored with U.S. Congress commendations for his actions that day.[48]

Significant investigations

Arrest and indictment of Max Ray Butler, co-founder of the Carders Market carding website. Butler was indicted by a federal grand jury in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, after his September 5, 2007 arrest, on wire fraud and identity theft charges. According to the indictment, Butler hacked over the Internet into computers at financial institutions and credit card processing centers and sold the tens of thousands of credit card numbers that he acquired in the process.[49]

Operation Firewall: In October 2004, 28 suspects—located across eight U.S. states and six countries—were arrested on charges of identity theft, computer fraud, credit-card fraud, and conspiracy. Nearly 30 national and foreign field offices of the U.S. Secret Service, including the newly established national ECTFs, and countless local enforcement agencies from around the globe, were involved in this operation. Collectively, the arrested suspects trafficked in at least 1.7 million stolen credit card numbers, which amounted to $4.3 million of losses to financial institutions. However, authorities estimated that prevented loss to the industry was in the hundreds of millions of dollars. The operation, which started in July 2003 and lasted for more than a year, led investigators to identify three cybercriminal groups: Shadowcrew, Carderplanet, and Darkprofits.[50]

Arrest and indictment of Albert Gonzalez and 11 individuals; three U.S. citizens, one from Estonia, three from Ukraine, two from the People's Republic of China, one from Belarus, and one known only by an online alias. They were arrested on August 5, 2008, for the theft and sale of more than 40 million credit and debit card numbers from major U.S. retailers, including TJX Companies, BJ's Wholesale Club, OfficeMax, Boston Market, Barnes & Noble, Sports Authority, Forever 21, and DSW. Gonzalez, the main organizer of the scheme, was charged with computer fraud, wire fraud, access device fraud, aggravated identity theft, and conspiracy for his leading role in the crime.[51]

Structure

Secret Service agents protecting President Obama and First Lady Michelle Obama
Secret Service agents protecting President Obama and First Lady Michelle Obama
Ranks of the Secret Service (not inclusive)

---

  • Special Agent in Charge (SAIC)
  • Deputy Special Agent in Charge (DSAIC)
  • Assistant Special Agent in Charge (ASAIC)
  • Assistant to the Special Agent in Charge (ATSAIC)
  • Special Agent (SA)
  • Uniformed Division Officer (UD)
  • Special Officer (SO)

---

  • Administrative, Professional, Technical (APT)

Special Agent

Secret Service agents executing a protective operation
Secret Service agents executing a protective operation

The Secret Service special agent position is highly competitive. In 2011, the Service accepted less than 1% of its 15,600 special agent applicants.[52] While the Secret Service has always been a popular career path for former military and law enforcement personnel, the Service seeks to hire agents from a diverse range of backgrounds in fulfilling its dual mission, including accountants, lawyers, scientists, engineers, and foreign language specialists.

At a minimum, a prospective agent must be a U.S. citizen, possess a current valid driver's license, be in excellent health and physical condition, possess visual acuity no worse than 20/60 uncorrected, correctable to 20/20 in each eye, and be between the ages of 21 and 37 at the time of appointment.[53] However, eligible veterans may apply after age 37. In 2009, the Office of Personnel Management issued implementation guidance on the Isabella v. Department of State court decision: OPM Letter.[54]

Prospective agents must also qualify for a TS/SCI (Top Secret / Sensitive Compartmented Information) clearance, and undergo an extensive background investigation, to include in-depth interviews, drug screening, medical diagnosis, and full-scope polygraph examination.[53]

Secret Service agent trainees at the James J. Rowley Training Center (RTC)
Secret Service agent trainees at the James J. Rowley Training Center (RTC)

Special agents receive training in two locations, totaling approximately 7 months. The first phase, the Criminal Investigator Training Program (CITP) is conducted at the Federal Law Enforcement Training Centers (FLETC) at Glynco, GA, lasting approximately 12 weeks. The second phase, the Special Agent Training Course (SATC) is conducted at the Secret Service Academy, James J. Rowley Training Center (JJRTC), just outside Washington, D.C. in Laurel, Maryland, lasting approximately 18 weeks.[55]

Secret Service agent trainees practice executing a search warrant
Secret Service agent trainees practice executing a search warrant.

A typical special agent career path, depending upon performance and promotions that affect individual assignments, begins with the first six to eight years on the job assigned to a field office. Applicants are directed to list their office location preference during the application process, and upon receiving a final job offer, usually have several locations to choose from.[53] After their field office experience, agents are usually transferred to a protective assignment where they will stay for three to five years. Following their protective assignment, many agents return to a field office for the rest of their careers, or opt for a headquarters based assignment located in Washington, D.C. During their careers, agents also have the opportunity to work overseas in one of the agency's international field offices. This typically requires foreign language training to ensure language proficiency when working alongside the agency's foreign law enforcement counterparts.[53]

Special agents are hired at either the GS-07 or GS-09 grade level, depending on individual qualifications and/or education.[53] Agents are eligible for promotion on a yearly basis, from GS-07, to GS-09, to GS-11, to GS-12, to GS-13 (GS-08 and GS-10 grade levels are skipped). The full performance grade level for a journeyman agent is GS-13, which a GS-07 and GS-09 agent may reach in as little as four and three years respectively. GS-13 agents are eligible for competitive promotion to supervisory agent positions, which compasses the GS-14, GS-15, and SES grade levels. GS-13 agents who wish to remain as senior field agents continue to advance the GS-13 step level, capping at GS-13 Step-10.

Special agents also receive Law Enforcement Availability Pay (LEAP), a type of premium overtime pay which provides them with an additional 25% bonus pay on top of their salary, as agents are required to work an average workweek of 50 hours as opposed to 40.[56] Therefore, an agent living in the Greater New York City area will earn an annual salary of approximately $76,431 (GL-09), $89,491 (GS-11), $107,263 (GS-12), $127,550 (GS-13), $150,725 (GS-14), and $166,500 (GS-15).[57]

Moreover, due to the nature of their work and unique among their federal law enforcement counterparts (e.g. FBI, DEA, ATF, ICE), Secret Service agents are regularly eligible for scheduled overtime pay (SOT pay) and enjoy a raised statutory pay cap of $192,300 per year (Level II of the Executive Schedule) as opposed to $166,500 per year (Level IV of the Executive Schedule).[58]

Uniformed Division Officer

Secret Service officer and his police dog as part of the Emergency Response Team (ERT)
Secret Service officer and his police dog as part of the Emergency Response Team (ERT)

The Secret Service Uniformed Division is a security police similar to the U.S. Capitol Police or DHS Federal Protective Service and is in charge of protecting the physical White House grounds and foreign diplomatic missions in the Washington, D.C. area. Established in 1922 as the White House Police, this organization was fully integrated into the Secret Service in 1930. In 1970, the protection of foreign diplomatic missions was added to the force's responsibilities, and its name was changed to the Executive Protective Service. The name United States Secret Service Uniformed Division was adopted in 1977.

Secret Service Uniformed Division officers provide protection for the White House Complex, the Vice President's residence, the main Treasury Building and Annex, and foreign diplomatic missions and embassies in the Washington, D.C., area. Additionally, Uniformed Division officers travel in support of presidential, vice presidential and foreign head of state government missions.[59] Officers may, as their careers progress, be selected to participate in one of several specialized units, including the:

  • Canine Unit: Performing security sweeps and responding to bomb threats and suspicious packages.
  • Emergency Response Team: Providing a coordinated tactical response for the White House and other protected facilities.
  • Counter-sniper Team: Utilizing observation, sighting equipment and high-performance weapons to provide a secure environment for protectees.
  • Motorcade Support Unit: Providing motorcycle tactical support for official movements of motorcades.
  • Crime Scene Search Unit: Photographing, collecting and processing physical and latent evidence.
  • Office of Training: Serving as firearms and classroom instructors or recruiters.
  • Special Operations Section: Handling special duties and functions at the White House Complex, including conducting the daily congressional and public tours of the White House.[59]

Special Officer

Secret Service special officers (not to be confused with Uniformed Division Officers) are federal agents who work within the Special Agent Division and perform a wide range of security functions and support assignments as part of the protective mission for the Secret Service. Whereas special agents alternate between protection and investigative assignments, special officers are hired only to work protection details. They must have a familiarity with all phases of protective responsibilities sufficient to assist in protective movements, cover designated security posts and drive protective vehicles.

Assignments may include:

  • Maintaining designated protective security posts that control movement of persons into and around multiple Secret Service facilities and associated areas
  • Inspecting all operational, safety, emergency, and convenience equipment of protective vehicles to ensure peak-operating condition
  • Driving protective or follow-up vehicles
  • Monitoring and operating various communications equipment
  • Using various advanced x-ray screening technologies to detect and identify high-risk items

Special officers are sworn law enforcement officers, and are authorized to make arrests in connection with their official duties. They are classified as federal agents but use "special officer" as their official title much the same way as Deputy US Marshals are special agents but use the title "Deputy US Marshal".

Newly appointed special officers must successfully complete eight (8) weeks of intensive training at the Special Officer Basic Training Course at the Secret Service James J. Rowley Training Center just outside Washington, D.C. The training includes courses such as Criminal Law, Laws of Arrest, Search and Seizure, Control Tactics, Civil Liability, Emergency Medicine, Basic Water Safety, Firearms and Weapons Handling, Radio Communications, Emergency Driving and Physical Fitness Training.

Investigative Protection Officer

Investigative Protection Officer "IPO" is a new title reclassification of the Special Officer position. Whether the two will coexist is unknown. Both positions have the same duties but IPOs have full law enforcement authority and their full performance level is a GL-11 instead of GL-9, which is a Special Officer.

Weapons and equipment

Snipers Perched
Secret Service snipers protect Vice President Mike Pence in Indianapolis in 2017.

Since the agency's inception, a variety of weapons have been carried by its agents.

Previous firearms

Initially the firearms were privately procured and there was little, if any, standardization. In the 1930s, the USSS issued the Colt M1911A1 pistol in .45 ACP caliber. In the 1950s and 1960s, Special Agents carried the Smith & Wesson Model 36 and Colt Detective Special .38-Special revolvers.

Following President Kennedy's assassination, USSS Special Agents were authorized to carry the .357 Magnum Smith & Wesson Model 19 revolver. Between 1981 and 1991, the Secret Service issued the Smith & Wesson Model 19 and the Smith & Wesson Model 66 .357 Magnum revolvers, with 2.5-inch barrels all the way up to the 4-inch-barreled models, loaded with hollow-point rounds. By 1992, the standard issue weapon became the SIG Sauer P228 9mm pistol. This weapon stayed in service through 1999.

The Secret Service replaced the Thompson submachine gun with the Uzi submachine gun in the 1970s. Uzis that the Secret Service used have slightly shorter-than-standard barrels so they could to fit inside the standard size Samsonite briefcases that concealed them. They phased out the Uzi in the mid 1990s and replaced it with the H&K MP5. The Secret Service was the last Federal agency to use the Uzi. The Counter-Assault Team used the M4 carbine from the early 1990s until 2006.

Current weapons

Secret Service on White House roof
Secret Service counter-sniper marksman on top of the White House's roof, armed with a sniper rifle

The current sidearm for USSS agents is the SIG Sauer P229 chambered in .357 SIG (which entered service in 1999).

Agents and officers are trained on standard shoulder weapons that include the FN P90 submachine gun,[60] the 9mm Heckler & Koch MP5 submachine gun, and the 12-gauge Remington 870 shotgun.[60] The agency has initiated a procurement process to ultimately replace the MP5 with a 5.56mm rifle.[61]

As a non-lethal option, Special Agents, Special Officers, and Uniformed Division Officers are armed with the ASP 16” expandable baton, and Uniformed Division officers also carry pepper spray.

Special Operations Division (SOD) units are authorized to use a variety of non-standard weapons. The Counter Assault Team (CAT) and the Emergency Response Team (ERT) both use the 5.56mm Knight's Armament Company SR-16 CQB assault rifle in an 11.5" configuration. CAT also deploys 12 gauge Remington 870 MCS breaching shotguns. Uniform Division technicians assigned to the Counter Sniper (CS) team use custom built .300 Winchester Magnum-chambered bolt-action rifles referred to as JARs ("Just Another Rifle"). These rifles are built with Remington 700 long actions in Accuracy International stocks and use Schmidt & Bender optics. CS technicians also use the 7.62mm KAC SR-25/Mk11 Mod 0 semi-automatic sniper rifle with a Trijicon 5.5× ACOG optic.[62]

Badges

Badge of the United States Secret Service (1875-1890)

Secret Service badge (1875-1890)

Badge of the United States Secret Service (1890-1971)

Secret Service badge (1890-1971)

Badge of the United States Secret Service (1971-2003)

Secret Service badge (1971-2003)

Badge of the United States Secret Service

Secret Service badge (2003–Present)

Attire

2010SecretServiceMN
Secret Service agent in business suit working President Obama's protection detail

Special Agents and Special Officers of the Secret Service wear attire that is appropriate for their surroundings, in order to blend in as much as possible. In most circumstances, the attire of a close protection shift is a conservative suit, but it can range from a tuxedo to casual clothing as required by the environment. Stereotypically, Secret Service agents are often portrayed wearing reflective sunglasses and a communication earpiece. Often their attire is customized to conceal the wide array of equipment worn in service. Agents wear a distinctive lapel pin that identifies them to other agents.

The attire for Uniformed Division Officers includes standard police uniforms or utility uniforms and ballistic/identification vests for members of the counter-sniper team, Emergency Response Team (ERT), and canine officers. The shoulder patch of the Uniformed Division consists of the U.S. coat of arms on white or black, depending on the garment. Also, the shoulder patch is embroidered with "U.S. Secret Service Uniformed Division Police" around the emblem.[63]

Vehicles

When transporting the President in a motorcade, the Secret Service uses a fleet of custom-built armored Cadillac Parade Limousines, the newest and largest version of which is known as "The Beast". Armored Chevrolet Suburbans are also used when logistics require such a vehicle or when a more low profile appearance is required. For official movement the limousine is affixed with U.S. and presidential flags and the presidential seal on the rear doors. For unofficial events the vehicles are left sterile and unadorned.[26]

Field offices

Secret Service Field Office Locations
Secret Service Field Offices

The Secret Service has agents assigned to 136 field offices and field agencies, and the headquarters in Washington, D.C. The Service's offices are located in cities throughout the United States and the world. The offices in Lyon and The Hague are respectively responsible for liaison with the headquarters of Interpol and Europol, located in those cities.[64]

Misconduct

In April 2012, an incident involving the president's security detail received international press attention. The incident involved 11 agents and personnel from four branches of the U.S. military; they allegedly engaged prostitutes while assigned to protect the U.S. President at the 6th Summit of the Americas in Cartagena, Colombia. As of April 24, 2012, nine employees had resigned or retired.[65][66]

After the incident was publicized, the Secret Service implemented new rules for its personnel.[67][68][69][70] The rules prohibit personnel from visiting "non-reputable establishments"[68] and from consuming alcohol less than ten hours before starting work. Additionally, they restrict who is allowed in hotel rooms.[68]

A few weeks later, stories emerged of Secret Service agents hiring strippers and prostitutes prior to Obama's 2011 visit to El Salvador.[71]

In 2015, two inebriated senior service agents drove an official car into the White House complex and collided with a barrier. One of the congressmen in the United States House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform that investigated that incident was Jason Chaffetz. In September 2015, it was revealed that 18 Secret Service employees or supervisors, including Assistant Director Ed Lowery, accessed an unsuccessful 2003 application by Chaffetz for employment with the agency and discussed leaking the information to the media in retaliation for Chaffetz' investigations of agency misconduct. The confidential personal information was later leaked to The Daily Beast. Agency Director Joe Clancy apologized to Chaffetz and said that disciplinary action would be taken against those responsible.[72]

In March 2017, a member of US Vice President Mike Pence's detail was suspended after he was caught visiting a prostitute at a hotel in Maryland.[73]

In popular culture

Films

Television

  • The Wild Wild West (1965): A highly popular Western action series, set in the early- to mid- 1870s, starring Robert Conrad and Ross Martin as Secret Service agents James West and Artemus Gordon. West and Gordon pursue a variety of villains across the old west and often report directly to President Ulysses S. Grant. Two reunion telemovies were screened in 1979 and 1980, followed by the film Wild Wild West (above).
  • 24 (2001): Involves many characters and operations within the Secret Service as they protect the presidents throughout the series, most notable Agent Aaron Pierce, played by Glenn Morshower.
  • House of Cards (2013): Edward Meechum initially serves as a bodyguard to President Frank Underwood when he was Majority Whip but later gets promoted to the Secret Service when Underwood became Vice President (remaining on his detail when he becomes president). During an assassination attempt on President Underwood, Edward Meechum takes a bullet for the president and shoots and kills the gunman before immediately dying from his injuries.
  • Intelligence (2014): U.S. Secret Service agent Riley Neal (Meghan Ory) is recruited by the U.S. Cyber Command to provide protective services for Cyber Command agent Gabriel Vaughn (Josh Holloway), into whose brain a high-tech microchip has been implanted.
  • Wayward Pines (2015): After a car crash, U.S. Secret Service agent Ethan Burke (Matt Dillon) wakes up in the mysterious town of Wayward Pines, where the inexplicable happens and from which there is no escape.

Video games

Other U.S. federal law enforcement agencies

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "DHS / Secret Service FY 2019 Budget" (PDF). dhs.gov. Retrieved February 13, 2019.
  2. ^ "Leadership". www.secretservice.gov.
  3. ^ Resse, Shawn (April 16, 2012). "The U.S. Secret Service: An Examination and Analysis of Its Evolving Missions" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved April 18, 2012.
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  5. ^ "United States Secret Service: Protective Mission". Secretservice.gov. Retrieved September 20, 2017. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  6. ^ "United States Secret Service: Investigative Mission". Secretservice.gov. Retrieved September 20, 2017. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  7. ^ a b "United States Code: Title 18, Section 3056".
  8. ^ Gillman, Todd J. "Obama signs lifetime Secret Service protection for George W. Bush, himself and future presidents". Trail Blazers Blog. The Dallas Morning News. Retrieved January 18, 2013.
  9. ^ Compton, Ann (January 10, 2013). "Lifetime Secret Service Protection Restored for Presidents Bush and Obama". ABC News. Retrieved September 21, 2013.
  10. ^ USSS. "USSS Fiscal Year 2010 Annual Report" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on August 18, 2012. Retrieved June 8, 2012.
  11. ^ "The Secret Service: What's next for the new director | Brookings Institution". Brookings. Retrieved October 26, 2016.
  12. ^ "Secret Service Recruitment Campaign Amps Up". www.wbur.org. Retrieved October 26, 2016.
  13. ^ "The United States Secret Service". Clinton2.nara.gov. July 1, 1922. Archived from the original on August 2, 2012. Retrieved August 9, 2012.
  14. ^ Petro, Joseph; Jeffrey Robinson (2005). Standing Next to History, An Agent's Life Inside the Secret Service. New York: St. Martin's Press. p. 16. ISBN 978-0-312-33221-1.
  15. ^ 11 Asian L.J. 147 (2004), Foreword: Sixty Years after the Internment: Civil Rights, Identity Politics, and Racial Profiling; Tamaki, Donald K.
  16. ^ Intelligence.gov Archived May 2, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
  17. ^ Harris & Sadler 2009, pp. 1–2.
  18. ^ Harris & Sadler 2009, p. 15.
  19. ^ "Mr. Taft's Peril; Reported Plot to Kill Two Presidents". Daily Mail. London. October 16, 1909. ISSN 0307-7578.
  20. ^ Hammond (1935), pp. 565–566
  21. ^ Harris & Sadler 2009, p. 213.
  22. ^ Pub.L. 90–331
  23. ^ "Wireless Industry Salutes U.S. Secret Service". Ctia.org. September 11, 1995. Archived from the original on March 23, 2012. Retrieved August 9, 2012.
  24. ^ "History". www.secretservice.gov. Retrieved May 14, 2017.
  25. ^ "Master Special Officer Craig J. Miller". ODMP.org. The Officer Down Memorial Page, Inc. Retrieved August 12, 2013.
  26. ^ a b Kessler, Ronald. In the President's Secret Service: Behind the Scenes with Agents in the Line of Fire and the Presidents They Protect.
  27. ^ "History". www.secretservice.gov. Retrieved January 27, 2019.
  28. ^ "United States Secret Service: Electronic Crimes Task Forces and Working Groups". Secretservice.gov. October 26, 2001. Archived from the original on August 6, 2012. Retrieved August 9, 2012.
  29. ^ "About the U.S. Secret Service Electronic Crimes Task Forces". Secretservice.gov. Archived from the original on August 18, 2012. Retrieved August 9, 2012.
  30. ^ "United States Secret Service Electronic Crimes Task Forces" (PDF). US Department of Homeland Security. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 29, 2017. Retrieved September 24, 2017. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  31. ^ "United States Secret Service Signs Partnership Agreement With Italian Officials Establishing the First European Electronic Crimes Task Force" (PDF) (Press release). July 6, 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 15, 2012. Retrieved August 9, 2012.
  32. ^ "United States Secret Service Signs Partnership Agreement With United Kingdom Officials Establishing the Second European Electronic Crimes Task Force" (PDF) (Press release). August 9, 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 15, 2012. Retrieved August 9, 2012.
  33. ^ "United States Secret Service: Frequently Asked Questions". SecretService.gov. January 1, 1997. Archived from the original on March 23, 2010. Retrieved August 9, 2012.
  34. ^ Henry, Ed (September 30, 2014). "House intruder entered East Room, used unlocked door". FOX News, Associated Press. Retrieved September 30, 2014.
  35. ^ "Armed contractor with arrest record was on elevator with Obama in Atlanta". Washington Post. September 30, 2014. Retrieved December 19, 2016.
  36. ^ Schmidt, Michael (November 2, 2014). "One Day in an Elevator With Obama, Then Out of a Job". The New York Times. Retrieved November 3, 2014.
  37. ^ Elaine Quijano (May 10, 2005). "Secret Service told grenade landed near Bush". CNN.com. Retrieved August 9, 2012.
  38. ^ Chilcote (January 11, 2006). "Bush grenade attacker gets life". CNN. Retrieved January 3, 2007.
  39. ^ Petro, Joseph; Jeffrey Robinson (2005). Standing Next to History, An Agent's Life Inside the Secret Service. New York: St. Martin's Press. pp. 140–141 & 202–204. ISBN 978-0-312-33221-1.
  40. ^ "Robert L. DeProspero". WVUAlumni. West Virginia University Alumni Association. 2005. Archived from the original on October 13, 2007. Retrieved August 12, 2013.
  41. ^ "Johnson Praises Agent's Bravery: Honors Guard Who Shielded Him in Dallas Shooting 'Courage' Is Cited". The New York Times. Associated Press. December 5, 1963. p. 32.
  42. ^ "The Transfer of Power". Time. November 29, 1963.
  43. ^ Associated Press (November 27, 1963). "Johnson Says Agent in Dallas Screened Him With His Body". The New York Times. p. 21.
  44. ^ Youngblood, Rufus (1973). Twenty Years in the Secret Service. New York: Simon and Schuster. pp. 147–149.
  45. ^ "Survivor's Guilt: The Secret Service and the Failure to Protect the President".
  46. ^ "He Took a Bullet for Reagan". CBS News. June 11, 2004. 'In the Secret Service,' [McCarthy] continued, 'we're trained to cover and evacuate the president. And to cover the president, you have to get as large as you can, rather than hitting the deck.'
  47. ^ By means of the NCAA Award of Valor, the National Collegiate Athletic Association recognizes "courageous action or noteworthy bravery" by persons involved with intercollegiate athletics. McCarthy had played NCAA football at the University of Illinois.
  48. ^ Wilber, Del Quentin (2011). Rawhide Down: The Near Assassination of Ronald Reagan. Macmillan. ISBN 0-8050-9346-X.
  49. ^ "Secret Service Investigation Disrupts Identity Theft Ring" (PDF) (Press release). September 13, 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 15, 2012. Retrieved August 9, 2012.
  50. ^ "U.S. Secret Service's Operation Firewall Nets 28 Arrests" (PDF) (Press release). October 28, 2004. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 15, 2012. Retrieved August 9, 2012.
  51. ^ "Additional Indictments Announced in Ongoing Secret Service Network Intrusion Investigation" (PDF) (Press release). August 5, 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 15, 2012. Retrieved August 9, 2012.
  52. ^ "Secret Service Agent Selection Tougher Than Harvard".
  53. ^ a b c d e "Special Agent: Career Path". US Secret Service. Retrieved September 24, 2017. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  54. ^ "CHCOC.gov". CHCOC.gov. August 26, 2009. Retrieved August 9, 2012.
  55. ^ "Agent Training".
  56. ^ "LEAP Pay".
  57. ^ "LEAP Salary Calculator".
  58. ^ "Secret Service Agent Overtime Pay".
  59. ^ a b "Uniformed Division Careers". This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  60. ^ a b Jones, Richard D. Jane's Infantry Weapons 2009/2010. Jane's Information Group; 35th edition (January 27, 2009). ISBN 978-0-7106-2869-5.
  61. ^ "Additional Presolicitation Conference for Rifle Requirement – Federal Business Opportunities: Opportunities".
  62. ^ "The Gear and Guns of the Secret Service" World of Firepower, Vol 4 Issue 3, May/June 2016, pp 9-10, ASIN: B01GK8XJEY
  63. ^ "The American Presidency". Americanhistory.si.edu. March 14, 2012. Retrieved August 9, 2012.
  64. ^ "United States Secret Service Field Office Contact Details". United States Secret Service. Retrieved September 6, 2014.
  65. ^ Schmidt, Michael S. (April 18, 2012). "3 in Scandal Being Forced Out of Secret Service, Officials Say". The New York Times. Retrieved April 28, 2012.
  66. ^ David Jackson; Richard Wolf (April 16, 2012). "Obama: 'Angry' if Secret Service allegations are true". USA Today. Retrieved April 24, 2012.
  67. ^ "Secret Service amends standards of conduct after KIRO 7 investigation". KIRO-TV. April 27, 2012. Archived from the original on May 4, 2012. Retrieved April 30, 2012.
  68. ^ a b c Norah O'Donnell; Jillian Hughes (April 27, 2012). "New code of conduct issued for Secret Service agents". CBS News. Retrieved April 29, 2012.
  69. ^ Schmidt, Michael S. (April 27, 2012). "Secret Service Tightens Travel Rules for Its Staff". The New York Times. Retrieved April 29, 2012.
  70. ^ Nakamura, David; O'Keefe, Ed (April 28, 2012). "Secret Service imposes new rules on agents for foreign trips". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 29, 2012.
  71. ^ Jackson, David (April 26, 2012). "Secret Service investigating more allegations of misconduct". USA Today. Retrieved April 27, 2012.
  72. ^ Caldwell, Alicia A., "Investigation: Secret Service tried to discredit US lawmaker", Associated Press/Stars and Stripes, September 30, 2015
  73. ^ Landers, Elizabeth Secret Service agent on VP's detail caught after meeting with prostitute at Maryland hotel April 5, 2017
  74. ^ "Complete National Film Registry Listing". Library of Congress. National Film Preservation Board.

Bibliography

  • Hammond, John Hays (1935). The Autobiography of John Hays Hammond. New York: Farrar & Rinehart. ISBN 978-0-405-05913-1.
  • Harris, Charles H. III; Sadler, Louis R. (2009). The Secret War in El Paso: Mexican Revolutionary Intrigue, 1906–1920. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press. ISBN 978-0-8263-4652-0.

Further reading

  • Costello, Mark (2002). Big If. New York: W. W. Norton & Co. ISBN 978-0-393-05116-2.
  • Emmett, Dan (2014). Within Arm's Length: A Secret Service Agent's Definitive Inside Account of Protecting the President (First ed.). New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 9781250044716.
  • Kessler, Ronald (2010). In the President's Secret Service: Behind the Scenes with Agents in the Line of Fire and the Presidents They Protect (1st paperback ed.). New York: Three Rivers Press. ISBN 9780307461360.
  • Roberts, Marcia (1991). Looking Back and Seeing the Future: The United States Secret Service, 1865–1990. Association of Former Agents of the United States Secret Service.

External links

Bill Bordley

William Clarke Bordley (born January 9, 1958) is a former Major League Baseball pitcher. Bordley was inducted into the College Baseball Hall of Fame in 2014. In 2011, he was named Vice President for Major League Baseball Security investigations.

Brian L. Stafford

Brian L. Stafford was the 20th Director of the United States Secret Service. Preceded by Lewis C. Merletti, he was sworn in on March 4, 1999 by the then Secretary of the Treasury, Robert E. Rubin. He was succeeded by W. Ralph Basham.

Clint Hill (Secret Service)

Clinton J. Hill (born January 4, 1932) is a former United States Secret Service agent who served under five U.S. presidents; from Dwight D. Eisenhower to Gerald Ford. Hill is best known for his notable act of bravery while in the presidential motorcade on November 22, 1963 when President John F. Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Texas.During the assassination, Hill ran from the car immediately behind the presidential limousine, leaped onto the back of it and shielded Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis and the stricken president with his body as the car raced to Parkland Memorial Hospital. This action was documented in the Zapruder film. Since the death of Nellie Connally in September 2006, Hill is the last surviving person who was in the presidential limousine that day.

Dave Hoffmann

Dave Hoffmann (born July 24, 1970) was an All-American linebacker at the University of Washington, drafted by the Chicago Bears in the 1993 NFL Draft and played for the Pittsburgh Steelers. After his football career, he became a member of the United States Secret Service, protecting presidents Bill Clinton and George W. Bush as well as vice presidents Al Gore and Dick Cheney.

Director of the United States Secret Service

The Director of the United States Secret Service is the head of the United States Secret Service, and responsible for the day-to-day operations.

The Secret Service is a federal law enforcement agency that is part of the United States Department of Homeland Security. The Service is mandated by Congress to carry out a unique dual mission: safeguarding the financial and critical infrastructure of the United States, and protecting the nation’s leaders.The Director is appointed by, and serves at the pleasure of the President of the United States, and is not subject to Senate confirmation. The Director reports to the Secretary of Homeland Security, and operates with the general directions thereof. Prior to March 1, 2003, the Secret Service was a part of the United States Department of the Treasury.

James Joseph Rowley

James Joseph Rowley (October 14, 1908 – November 1, 1992) was the head of the United States Secret Service between 1961 and 1973, under Presidents Kennedy, Johnson, and Nixon.

Rowley was born in the Bronx, New York to James J. Rowley and Bridget Theresa McTeague. His parents were Irish immigrants who met in New York City and were married in Manhattan.Rowley began working for the Secret Service in 1938 during the days of Franklin D. Roosevelt's administration, after first joining the FBI in 1936. On June 18, 1964, Rowley provided testimony to the Warren Commission investigating the assassination of John F. Kennedy. After the assassination, Secret Service training was regularized and systematized. The James J. Rowley Training Center in Beltsville, Maryland is named after him.

Rowley was a Roman Catholic. His brother Francis, was a Catholic priest who belonged to the largest all-male religious order in the Roman Catholic Church, the Jesuits.

Rowley died of congestive heart failure at his home in Leisure World, Maryland.

James M. Murray

James M. Murray is an American law enforcement officer who is due to become Director of the U.S. Secret Service in May 2019.

John Wilkie

John Elbert Wilkie (1860 – December 13, 1934) was an American journalist and Chief of the United States Secret Service from 1898 to 1911.

Joseph Clancy (Secret Service)

Joseph "Joe" P. Clancy (born 1955) is an American law enforcement official. He was the 24th Director of the United States Secret Service. Clancy previously served as head of the agency’s presidential protection division until 2011, when he retired and became director of corporate security for Comcast.

Julia Pierson

Julia Ann Pierson (born July 21, 1959) is an American former law enforcement official. She served as the 23rd Director of the United States Secret Service. Pierson became director on March 27, 2013. Amid a series of security lapses involving the agency, Pierson resigned on October 1, 2014.

Mark J. Sullivan

Mark J. Sullivan was the Director of the United States Secret Service from May 31, 2006 to March 27, 2013. Sullivan succeeded W. Ralph Basham and was sworn in as the 22nd Director of the Secret Service on May 31, 2006. He was succeeded by Julia Pierson on March 27, 2013.

National Special Security Event

A National Special Security Event (NSSE) is an event of national or international significance deemed by the United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) to be a potential target for terrorism or other criminal activity. These events have included summits of world leaders, meetings of international organizations, presidential nominating conventions and presidential inaugurations. NSSE designation requires federal agencies to provide full cooperation and support to ensure the safety and security of those participating in or otherwise attending the event, and the community within which the event takes place, and is typically limited to specific event sites for a specified time frame.

An NSSE places the United States Secret Service as the lead agency in charge of the planning, coordination, and implementation of security operations for the event, the Federal Bureau of Investigation in charge of intelligence, counterterrorism, and investigation of major criminal activities associated with the event, and the Federal Emergency Management Agency in charge of recovery management in the aftermath of terrorism, major criminal activities, natural disasters, or other catastrophic incidents following the event. Like the FBI and FEMA, the Secret Service brings in local law enforcement, public safety, and military experts to assist with developing the plan, and give them the special guidance and training to operate within the security plan. NSSE designation is not a funding mechanism, and currently there is no specific federal "pot of money" to be distributed to state and local governments within whose jurisdiction NSSEs take place.

Randolph Alles

Randolph D. "Tex" Alles (born 1954) is the 25th Director of the United States Secret Service. He previously served as the acting deputy commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection, as well as in the United States Marine Corps, in which he reached the rank of major general.

Robert W. Bates

Robert Wayne Bates (born May 1941) is a horticultural nurseryman in Forest Hill in south Rapides Parish, Louisiana, who was an agent of the United States Secret Service under U.S. Presidents Lyndon B. Johnson, Richard M. Nixon, and Gerald R. Ford, Jr. He also provided security for Vice President Spiro T. Agnew, former First Lady Mamie Eisenhower and former United States Secretary of State Henry Kissinger.Bates was reared by a single mother in "a shotgun house with a dirt-floored kitchen." He graduated from Northwestern State University in Natchitoches, Louisiana. In 1965, he joined the Secret Service and was posted at the White House. He provided security for the Johnson and Nixon daughters while they were college students. He was with Nixon in the 1972 trip to China. He ended his Secret Service career in 1976 as the agent in charge in the field office in Shreveport in northwestern Louisiana. Bates described the people he protected as "just people, like you and me" who obtain high political office and must provide for the security of the nation.After his eleven years in the Secret Service, Bates relocated to Forest Hill, where he operates Robert Bates Nursery, in the commercial nursery complex south of Alexandria. One of Bates' fellow nurserymen in Forest Hill was the late Louisiana Public Service Commissioner Clyde C. Holloway, a Republican who earlier held Louisiana's 8th congressional district seat from 1987 to 1993, since disbanded.

On November 16, 1991, Bates was the Republican candidate for the District 29 seat in the Louisiana State Senate. He lost to the incumbent Democrat Joe McPherson, then of Pineville. McPherson received 23,428 votes (56.8 percent) to Bates' 17,819 (43.2 percent). Three other Democratic candidates, including state Representative Charles R. Herring of Alexandria and singer Jay Chevalier, had been eliminated in the primary election held earlier on October 19.In 2005, Bates was inducted into the Louisiana Political Museum and Hall of Fame in Winnfield. Holloway defeated Joe McPherson in a special election in 2009 for the Public Service Commission. Holloway has not been inducted into the Hall of Fame.

Roy Kellerman

Roy Herman Kellerman (March 14, 1915 – March 22, 1984) was a U.S. Secret Service agent who was assigned to protect U.S. President John F. Kennedy when the latter was assassinated on November 22, 1963. In his reports, later testimony and interviews, Kellerman outlines in detail his role in the immediate aftermath of the assassination, controlling key evidence of the crime and guiding doctors during the official autopsy at Bethesda Naval Hospital.

Steve Jackson Games, Inc. v. United States Secret Service

Steve Jackson Games, Inc. v. United States Secret Service, 816 F. Supp. 432 (W.D. Tex. 1993), was a lawsuit arising from a 1990 raid by the United States Secret Service on the headquarters of Steve Jackson Games (SJG) in Austin, Texas. The raid, along with the Secret Service's unrelated Operation Sundevil, was influential in the founding of the Electronic Frontier Foundation.

W. Ralph Basham

William Ralph Basham, Jr. (born November 17, 1943) has served at the head of four of the eight U.S. Department of Homeland Security agencies, including as Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection, the largest federal security force in the United States government, Director of the United States Secret Service, Director of the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center and as one of the first employees as Chief of Staff at the Transportation Security Administration.

Upon leaving government service in April 2009, Basham founded Command Consulting Group, a Washington, D.C.-based international advisory firm which provides security advisory services to government clients and works with companies with security related products and services to develop and market products to federal security agencies.

In 2008, Basham was conferred the rank of Distinguished Executive by former U.S. President George W. Bush.

In October 2013, Basham was awarded the Founder's Medal for Lifetime Achievement by the Border Patrol Foundation.

William Greer

William Robert Greer (September 22, 1909 – February 23, 1985) was an agent of the U.S. Secret Service, best known as being the driver of President John F. Kennedy's presidential limousine in the motorcade through Dealey Plaza in Dallas on November 22, 1963, when the president was assassinated.

William P. Wood

William Patrick Wood (March 11, 1820 – March 20, 1903) was the first Director of the United States Secret Service. He was the son of James Wood and Margaret Turner.

He was sworn in on July 5, 1865 by Secretary of the Treasury Hugh McCulloch. He then headed the newly formed Secret Service for four years until he resigned in 1869. Wood was a veteran of the Mexican–American War and was once Keeper of the Old Capitol Prison. He was considered the best in battling financial crime, and within a year of its founding, the Secret Service had arrested over 200 counterfeiters. He died on March 20, 1903, and was buried in the Congressional Cemetery in Washington, D.C.

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