The United States Pacific Fleet (USPACFLT) is a Pacific Ocean theater-level component command of the United States Navy that provides naval forces to the United States Indo-Pacific Command. Fleet headquarters is at Pearl Harbor Naval Station, Hawaii, with large secondary facilities at North Island, San Diego Bay on the Mainland.
|United States Pacific Fleet|
The seal of the Commander of the United States Pacific Fleet
|Branch||United States Navy|
|Size||250,000 Navy sailors and Marines|
|Part of||United States Indo-Pacific Command|
|Garrison/HQ||Pearl Harbor Naval Base|
|Engagements||World War II|
Global War on Terrorism
|ADM John C. Aquilino|
|James O. Richardson|
Husband E. Kimmel
Chester W. Nimitz
Raymond A. Spruance
Cecil D. Haney
A Pacific Fleet was created in 1907 when the Asiatic Squadron and the Pacific Squadron were combined. In 1910, the ships of the First Squadron were organized back into a separate Asiatic Fleet. The General Order 94 of 6 December 1922 organized the United States Fleet, with the Battle Fleet as the Pacific presence. Until May 1940, the Battle Fleet was stationed on the west coast of the United States (primarily at San Diego). During the summer of that year, as part of the U.S. response to Japanese expansionism, it was instructed to take an "advanced" position at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. Long term basing at Pearl Harbor was so strongly opposed by the commander, Admiral James O. Richardson, that he personally protested in Washington. Political considerations were thought sufficiently important that he was relieved by Admiral Husband E. Kimmel, who was in command at the time of the attack on Pearl Harbor.
The Pacific Fleet was formally recreated on 1 February 1941. On that day General Order 143 split the United States Fleet into separate Atlantic, Pacific, and Asiatic Fleets.
On 7 December, the Fleet consisted of the Battle Force, Scouting Force, Base Force, Amphibious Force (ComPhibPac), Cruiser Force (COMCRUPAC), Destroyer Force (COMDESPAC), and the Submarine Force (COMSUBPAC). Also in Hawaii was the Fourteenth Naval District, commanded by Rear Admiral Claude C. Bloch.
These nine battleships were intended to counterbalance the ten battleships of the Imperial Japanese Navy. At the time of the attack on Pearl Harbor, Pennsylvania was in dry dock undergoing maintenance, and Colorado was in the midst of a refit at Bremerton Navy Yard, Washington. Arizona was mated with Nevada and Oklahoma at that time.
When the attack took place, all three carriers were absent - Saratoga was in San Diego collecting her air group following a major refit, Enterprise was en route back to Hawaii following a mission to deliver aircraft to Wake Island, while Lexington had just departed on a similar mission to Midway.
The Amphibious Force was formally known as Commander, Amphibious Forces, Pacific Fleet (ComPhibPac). On 7 December 1941 the Amphibious Force comprised the Army's 3rd Infantry Division at Fort Lewis, under Army operational control, the 2nd Marine Division, the 2nd Marine Aircraft Wing, the 2nd Defense Battalion (see Marine defense battalions), and a depot. One of PhibPac's subordinate commands during World War II was Transports, Amphibious Force, Pacific Fleet, or TransPhibPac. The commander of TransPhibPac was known as ComTransPhibPac.
In December 1941, the fleet consisted of nine battleships, three aircraft carriers, 12 heavy cruisers, eight light cruisers, 50 destroyers, 33 submarines, and 100 patrol bombers. This was approximately the fleet's strength at the time of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. That day, the Japanese Combined Fleet carried out the attack on Pearl Harbor, drawing the United States into World War II in the Pacific. The Pacific Fleet's Battle Line took the brunt of the attack, with two battleships destroyed, two salvageable but requiring lengthy reconstruction, and four more lightly to moderately damaged, forcing the U.S. Navy to rely primarily on aircraft carriers and submarines for many months afterward.
Subsequently Pacific Fleet engagements during World War II included the Battle of Guam, the Marshalls-Gilberts raids, the Doolittle Raid, the Solomon Islands campaign, the Battle of the Coral Sea, the Battle of Midway, the Battle of the Eastern Solomons, the Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands, the Battle of the Philippine Sea, the Gilbert and Marshall Islands campaign, the Battle of Leyte Gulf, and the Battle of Okinawa. More minor battles included the Battle of Dutch Harbor. The Submarine Force began a sustained campaign of commerce raiding against Japan's merchant marine, beginning the very first day of the war, which ultimately claimed 1,314 ships totalling about 5.3 million tons (by the imperfect postwar reckoning of the Joint Army-Navy Assessment Committee, JANAC). The West Loch disaster occurred at Pearl Harbor on 21 May 1944.
The Pacific Fleet took part in Operation Magic Carpet, the return of U.S. servicemen, after the end of the Second World War. The organization of the Pacific Fleet in January 1947 is shown in Hal M. Friedman's Arguing over the American Lake: Bureaucracy and Rivalry in the U.S. Pacific, 1945-1947.
Since 1950 the Pacific Fleet has been involved in the Korean War, the Vietnam War, the two Taiwan Straits Crises, and a number of other operations including the Mayaguez Incident of 1975, as well as post-Vietnam related operations such as Operation New Arrivals. The RIMPAC exercise series began in 1971.
On 7 March 1984, the Secretaries of Transportation and Navy signed a Memorandum of Agreement which created the Maritime Defense Zones (MDZ). The Pacific MDZ is an echelon three Navy command under the Commander U.S. Pacific Fleet. The Pacific MDZ has responsibility for coastal defense up to 200 nautical miles (370 km; 230 mi) around the U.S. West Coast, Aleutian Islands, and Hawaii during times of hostility. On 1 October 1990, Commander U.S. Naval Forces Alaska (COMUSNAVAK) was established as the Naval Component Commander to Commander, Alaskan Command (COMALCOM). Since its inception, COMUSNAVAK has grown to become responsible for coordinating all Navy activity in the Alaska and Aleutian area, for detailed planning and coordination for the Naval portion of the Joint and Combined Exercise Northern Edge, and coordinates high-visibility U.S. Navy ship visits throughout Alaska in support of public relations and recruiting initiatives.
The very large PACEX 89 in the North Pacific involved the USN, Canadian Navy, Japanese Maritime Self-Defence Force, and ROK Navy. At the end of Exercise PACEX '89 a 54-ship formation was assembled for photos. It included the flagship, USS Blue Ridge, the USS Enterprise Battle Group, the USS Carl Vinson Battle Group, two battleship surface action groups formed around USS New Jersey and USS Missouri, and a Japanese Maritime Self-Defence Force task force. Missouri and New Jersey performed a simultaneous gunfire demonstration for the aircraft carriers Enterprise and Nimitz during PACEX. The highlight of PacEx for Missouri was a port visit in Pusan, Republic of Korea.
Other operations undertaken since include participation in the Alaskan Oil Spill Joint Task Force, including participation of Commander, Amphibious Group Three, as deputy CJTF. This was the defence response to the Exxon Valdez oil spill of March 1989. Also, the Pacific Fleet was involved in Joint Task Force Philippines during the December 1989 coup attempt there, which involved two carrier battle groups, USS Midway and USS Enterprise-with their associated air wings operating in the Philippine Sea, chopped to JTF Philippines. During the operations, the carriers maintained deck alerts and 24-hour coverage of Manila with E-2C aircraft.
Around 10 September 1990, USS Princeton and the USS Reuben James visited Vladivostok. This marked the first United States Navy visit to the Soviet Union's Pacific port of Vladivostok since before World War II. Before the visit was completed, the crew received word that their Pacific cruise was canceled. They returned to Long Beach and joined the USS Ranger Battle Group preparing to deploy to the Persian Gulf.
During Operation Fiery Vigil in June 1991, the following vessels participated in the sealift phase of the evacuation: the Abraham Lincoln battle group (COMCARGRU 3 embarked): USS Abraham Lincoln, USS Long Beach, USS Lake Champlain, USS Merrill, USS Gary, USS Ingraham, USS Roanoke, Amphibious Ready Group Alpha (COMPHIBRON 3 embarked): USS Peleliu, USS Cleveland, USS Comstock, USS Bristol County, and a large number of other vessels: USS Midway, USS Curts, USS Rodney M. Davis, USS Thach, USS Arkansas, USS McClusky, USS St. Louis, USS San Bernardino, MV 1st Lt Lummus, MV American Condor, USS Niagara Falls, USNS Ponchatoula, USNS Passumpsic, USNS Hassayampa, USS Haleakala, USNS Spica, USS Cape Cod. (CNA, 1994, 113) Further operations included JTF Marianas (August–September 1992) and JTF Hawaii (September–October 1992).
Other contingency operation after 1991 included Operation Sea Angel (Bangladesh relief) (led by Commander III Marine Expeditionary Force), Operation Eastern Exit, and involvement in the Somali Civil War - 'Restore Hope'. During 'Restore Hope,' Navy command arrangements underwent a number of changes during the operation. At the start, the principal naval forces were the Ranger battle group (with Commander, Carrier Group One embarked on USS Ranger as Commander, Naval Forces), the Kitty Hawk battle group, an amphibious task unit including USS Tripoli, USS Juneau, USS Rushmore, and MV Lummus, and three ships from MPSRON TWO (MV Anderson, MV Bonnyman, and MV Phillips). Other events led to the departure of the carriers and, as a result, Commander, Naval Forces responsibilities devolved first to Commander, Carrier Group Three, on Kitty Hawk, and thence to Commander, Amphibious Group Three. Finally Commander, Amphibious Squadron 3 became COMNAVFOR on 15 January with the departure of COMPHIGRU THREE after the completion of the MPF offload. (CNA, 1994, 168)
In 1995 Pacific Fleet surface ships were reshuffled. Effective Oct. 1, 1995 the U.S. Pacific Fleet's surface ships were to be reorganized into six core battle groups and eight destroyer squadrons. Permanent core battle groups were to include a battle group commander, aircraft carrier, carrier air wing and at least two cruisers.
Commander, Naval Surface Forces Pacific probably directed ..
In 1996 two carrier battle groups were sent to the Taiwan area during the Third Taiwan Straits Crisis. Later ships of the Pacific Fleet, notably the Ticonderoga-class cruiser USS Mobile Bay provided support to the entry of INTERFET in East Timor in 1999.
Between 25–27 March 2006, Carrier Strike Group Nine participated in a series of anti-submarine warfare exercises (ASW) in Hawaiian waters while en route to the U.S. Seventh Fleet's area of responsibility. In addition to the strike group, the exercise also included the nuclear-powered attack submarines Seawolf, Cheyenne, Greeneville, Tucson, and Pasadena, as well as land-based P-3 Orion aircraft from Commander Patrol and Reconnaissance Wing 2 and associated patrol squadrons VP-4, VP-9, and VP-47.
As of 2011, the Pacific Fleet has authority over:
Naval shore commands over which PACFLT has authority:
Destroyer Force, United States Pacific Fleet, usually known as COMDESPAC, was a type command of the United States Pacific Fleet from 1940 until the Destroyer Force was combined with Cruisers, Pacific Fleet and in 1975 type command functions of both were transferred to Commander, Naval Surface Forces Pacific. The Pacific Fleet Destroyer Force comprised the Destroyers of the fleet (DD) operating in Pacific Fleet area of responsibility. The Commander, Destroyers, Pacific Fleet supervised the assignments, basing, maintenance of the destroyers, the training of crews and reported to the Commander in Chief, United States Pacific Fleet (CinCPac), on Destroyer operations.
Forces were under the COMDESPAC were known as DesPac.
In 1940-1941 The Destroyer Force of the Pacific Fleet consisted of two Destroyer Flotillas, Flotilla One was commanded by Rear Admiral Theobald and Flotilla Two was commanded by Rear Admiral Draemel (COMDESPAC).COMSUBPAC
Commander, Submarine Force, U.S. Pacific Fleet (COMSUBPAC) is the principal advisor to the Commander, United States Pacific Fleet (COMPACFLT) for submarine matters. The Pacific Submarine Force (SUBPAC) includes attack, ballistic missile and auxiliary submarines, submarine tenders, floating submarine docks, deep submergence vehicles and submarine rescue vehicles throughout the Pacific.
The Force provides anti-submarine warfare, anti-surface ship warfare, precision land strike, mine warfare, intelligence, surveillance and early warning and special warfare capabilities to the U.S. Indo-Pacific Command and strategic deterrence capabilities to the U.S. Strategic Command.COMSUBPAC's mission is to provide the training, logistical plans, manpower and operational plans and support and tactical development necessary to maintain the ability of the Force to respond to both peacetime and wartime demands.Cecil D. Haney
Cecil Eugene Diggs Haney (born December 1, 1955), is a retired United States Navy admiral who previously served as Commander, United States Strategic Command (STRATCOM) from November 15, 2013 through November 3, 2016. Prior to STRATCOM, he served as Commander, United States Pacific Fleet. He received the Defense Distinguished Service Medal, the Navy Distinguished Service Medal, the Defense Superior Service Medal, and the Legion of Merit.ComServPac
Service Force, United States Pacific Fleet, usually known as COMSERVPAC, was a service support command of the United States Pacific Fleet from 1942 until 1973. It was the reincarnation of the former Base Force. The Service Force comprised the supply train of the fleet which includes Oilers (AO), Gasoline Tanker (AOG), Repair Ships (AR), Ammunition Ships (AE), Destroyer Tenders (AD) and Submarine tenders (AS).
Service forces were under the ComServPac were known as ServPac or SERVPAC.
From 1942, the early Service Force was organized around four squadrons: Two, Four, Six, and Eight. Squadron Two included hospital ships, fleet motion-picture exchange, repair ships, salvage ships, and tugs. Squadron Four had the transports and the responsibility for training. This was the tiny nucleus of what eventually became the great Amphibious Force, or Forces. Squadron Six took care of all target-practice firing and of the towing of targets, both surface and aerial. Six also controlled the Fleet Camera Party, Target Repair Base, Anti-Aircraft School, Fleet Machine Gun School, and Small Craft Disbursing. Squadron Eight had the responsibility for the supply and distribution to the fleet of all its fuels, food, and ammunition. Growth and changes came. In March 1942 the name was changed to Service Forces Pacific Fleet. Headquarters had already moved ashore from the USS Argonne (AS-10) to the Pearl Harbor Navy Yard, and later moved again to the new administration building of the Commander in Chief Pacific, in the Makalapa area outside the navy yard.
In 1973 cruisers, destroyers, amphibious ships, mine warfare vessels, and service ships in the Pacific Fleet all came under the command of Commander, Naval Surface Force Pacific. The ships of the modern day equivalent of the service force have gradually transferred from Naval Surface Force Pacific to the Military Sealift Command's Naval Fleet Auxiliary Force.
In 1984, Service Group 1 and Service Squadron 3 on the West Coast had a total of fifteen ships assigned (2 AFS, 2 AOE, 3 AOR, 1 AR, 7 AE). In addition, Service Squadron 5 at Pearl Harbor had another 2 ARS and 2 ATS. By 1987, Service Squadron 3 had been disestablished and there were a total of fourteen service ships on the West Coast, plus five more in Service Squadron 5. By 2012, the Military Balance listed 5 Sacramento class fast combat support ships and Supply-class oilers (AOE) in regular U.S. Navy service, but 42 vessels in the Naval Fleet Auxiliary Force.Commander, Naval Air Forces
Commander, Naval Air Forces (a.k.a. COMNAVAIRFOR, CNAF; and dual-hatted as Commander, Naval Air Force, Pacific or COMNAVAIRPAC) is the aviation Type Commander (TYCOM) for all United States Navy naval aviation units. Type Commanders are in administrative control (ADCON), and in some cases operational control (OPCON) of certain types of assets (ships, submarines, aircraft, and fleet marines) assigned to the Pacific and Atlantic Fleets. AIRFOR is responsible for the material readiness, administration, training, and inspection of units/squadrons under their command, and for providing operationally ready air squadrons and aircraft carriers to the fleet.
COMNAVAIRFOR is a three-star headquarters, based at NAS North Island in Coronado, California. The current commander is VADM DeWolfe Miller III. The staff is made up of approximately 515 officer, enlisted, civilian and contractor personnel. The position is colloquially known throughout the navy as "the Air Boss", mimicking the nickname given to the officer who commands the air department on an aircraft carrier.Commander, U.S. Pacific Fleet
Commander, U.S. Pacific Fleet (COMPACFLT), is the title of the United States Navy officer who commands the United States Pacific Fleet. Originally established in 1907 as a two-star rear admiral's billet, the position has been held by a four-star admiral since March 19, 1915.
As of May 17, 2018, the 63rd and current Commander, U.S. Pacific Fleet is Admiral John C. Aquilino.Cooperation Afloat Readiness and Training
The Cooperation Afloat Readiness and Training (Exercise CARAT) is a series of annual bilateral military exercises conducted by the United States Pacific Fleet with several member nations of ASEAN in Southeast Asia. Currently, the navies of Bangladesh, Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka and Thailand participate. Objectives of CARAT include enhancing regional cooperation; building friendships, and strengthening professional skills. In 2010, Cambodia and Bangladesh became the first CARAT participants to join the exercise since 1995.Fleet Marine Force, Pacific
The United States Fleet Marine Force, Pacific (FMFPAC) is the largest maritime landing force in the world. Its units are spread across the Pacific Ocean and reports to the United States Pacific Command. It is headquartered at MCB Camp H. M. Smith, HI and directs and commands all the subordinate elements of the Navy Expeditionary Strike Force and Marine Air-Ground Task Force components that follow under the 3rd, 5th, and 7th Fleet and the Marine Corps Forces, Pacific (MARFORPAC). The Commanding General of Marine Corps Forces, Pacific is dual-posted as the Commanding General of Fleet Marine Force, Pacific. FMFPAC is under operational control of the Commander, United States Pacific Fleet (COMPACFLT), when deployed.
FMFPac was established by General 'Howling Mad' Smith in 1944 to assume command of very large USMC forces in the Pacific, of the order of 500,000.Gary Roughead
Gary Roughead ( "rough head"; born July 15, 1951) is a former United States Navy officer who served as the 29th Chief of Naval Operations from September 29, 2007 to September 22, 2011. He previously served as Commander, United States Fleet Forces Command, from May 17 to September 29, 2007. Prior to that, Roughead served as the 31st Commander, United States Pacific Fleet from July 8, 2005, to May 8, 2007. He retired from the U.S. Navy after 38 years of service.HC-1
Helicopter Combat Support Squadron 1 (HC-1) was a helicopter squadron of the United States Navy operating several helicopter types in support of United States Pacific Fleet ships and other units. The squadron was established on 1 April 1948 and disestablished on 29 April 1994. It was nicknamed "Pacific Fleet Angels" or just "Angels".List of units of the United States Navy
This article is a list of commands of the United States Navy.
The list is organized along administrative chains of command (CoC), and does not include the CNO's office or shore establishments.
Deployable/operational U.S. Navy units typically have two chains of command – the operational chain and the administrative chains.
Operational CoCs change quite often based on a unit's location and current mission. For example, USS Roosevelt is always administratively assigned to Commander, Naval Air Force, Atlantic Fleet (CNAL). It might also be operationally assigned to CNAL early in its inter-deployment readiness cycle (IDRC). Before 2010, later in the IDRC, it would have been assigned to Commander, Second Fleet, which is responsible for Carrier Strike Group (CSG) training and operations on the east coast.
Once the CSG deploys and crosses over the inter-UCC boundary in the mid-Atlantic, it then reports (is "chopped") to the Sixth Fleet (responsible for European waters and the Mediterranean Sea).
Once the CSG enters the Suez Canal, it "chops" to the Fifth Fleet for operational control.
Operationally, the Roosevelt CSG chain of command is: Commander Fifth Fleet, Commander U.S. Naval Forces Central Command, Commander U.S. Central Command, Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff, United States Secretary of Defense, President of the United States.Navy Region Hawaii
Navy Region Hawaii (CNRH or NAVREGHI) is one of eleven current naval regions responsible to Commander, Navy Installations Command for the operation and management of Naval shore installations in Hawaii. The region is commanded by RDML Brian Fort, who also serves additionally as the commander of Naval Surface Group Middle Pacific.
The region's most important installation, Joint Base Pearl Harbor–Hickam hosts two of United States Pacific Command subordinate Service components - United States Pacific Fleet on the Pearl Harbor side, and Pacific Air Forces on the Hickam side. The region also oversees installation support for the Pacific Missile Range Facility, the world's largest instrumented, multi-dimensional testing and training missile range in Kekaha, Hawaii.Pacific Fleet
Pacific Fleet may refer to:
United States Pacific Fleet
Pacific Reserve Fleet of the United States
Pacific Fleet (Russia) (formerly Soviet)
Pacific Naval Force of Mexico
British Pacific Fleet (1944–1945)
Maritime Forces Pacific of Canada
Pacific Fleet station, San Diego Trolley stationPearl Harbor
Pearl Harbor is a lagoon harbor on the island of Oahu, Hawaii, west of Honolulu. It has been long visited by the Naval fleet of the United States, before it was acquired from the Hawaiian Kingdom by the U.S. with the signing of the Reciprocity Treaty of 1875. Much of the harbor and surrounding lands is now a United States Navy deep-water naval base. It is also the headquarters of the United States Pacific Fleet. The U.S. government first obtained exclusive use of the inlet and the right to maintain a repair and coaling station for ships here in 1887. The attack on Pearl Harbor by the Empire of Japan on December 7, 1941, was the immediate cause of the United States' entry into World War II.San Diego Bay
San Diego Bay is a natural harbor and deepwater port located in San Diego County, California near the U.S.–Mexico border. The bay, which is 12 miles (19 km) long and 1 to 3 miles (1.6 to 4.8 km) wide, is the third largest of the three large, protected natural bays on California's entire 840 miles (1,350 km) long coastline after San Francisco Bay and Humboldt Bay. The highly urbanized land adjacent to the bay includes the city of San Diego (eighth largest city in the United States) and four other cities: National City, Chula Vista, Imperial Beach and Coronado.
Considered to be one of the best natural harbors on the west coast of North America, it was colonized by Spain beginning in 1769. Later it served as base headquarters of major ships of the United States Navy in the Pacific until just before the United States entered World War II, when the newly organized United States Pacific Fleet primary base was transferred to Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. However, San Diego Bay remains as a home port of major assets, including several aircraft carriers, of the United States Pacific Fleet, and as a result of base closures beginning in the 1980s, facilities in San Diego Bay are the major naval base facilities still in operation in California.U. S. Grant Sharp Jr.
Ulysses Simpson Grant Sharp Jr. (April 2, 1906 – December 12, 2001) was a United States Navy four star admiral who served as Commander in Chief, United States Pacific Fleet (CINCPACFLT) from 1963 to 1964; and Commander-in-Chief, United States Pacific Command (CINCPAC) from 1964 to 1968. He was PACOM commander during the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. Sharp was related to Ulysses S. Grant, who married Sharp's great-aunt.USS Mississippi (SSN-782)
USS Mississippi (SSN-782) is a Virginia-class submarine of the United States Navy, named for the state of Mississippi. The contract to build her was awarded to the Electric Boat Division of General Dynamics Corporation in Groton, Connecticut on 14 August 2003. Mississippi's keel was laid down on 9 June 2010.Mississippi was christened on 3 December 2011 at General Dynamics Electric Boat in Groton, Connecticut. Allison Stiller, Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Navy, is the ship's sponsor. The submarine was commissioned at a ceremony on 2 June 2012 in Pascagoula, Mississippi. SSN-782 was delivered 12 months ahead of schedule and $60 million below planned cost.On 25 November 2014, Mississippi arrived at Joint Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, where the ship is permanently assigned to Submarine Squadron 1 of the United States Pacific Fleet.United States Fleet Activities Sasebo
U.S. Fleet Activities Sasebo is a United States Navy base, in Sasebo, Japan, on the island of Kyūshū. It provides facilities for the logistic support of forward-deployed units and visiting operating forces of the United States Pacific Fleet and designated tenant activities.William T. Swinburne
William T. Swinburne (August 24, 1847 – March 3, 1928) was a rear admiral of the United States Navy and one-time Commander-in-Chief of the United States Pacific Fleet.
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