The United States Naval Institute (USNI), based in Annapolis, Maryland, is a private, non-profit (EIN:52-0643040), professional military association that seeks to offer independent, nonpartisan forums for debate of national defense and security issues. In addition to publishing magazines and books, the Naval Institute holds several annual conferences.
Established in 1873, the Naval Institute currently has about 50,000 members, mostly active and retired personnel of the United States Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard. The organization also has members in over 90 countries.
The organization has no official or funding ties to the United States Naval Academy or the U.S. Navy, although it is based on the grounds of the Naval Academy through permission granted by a 1936 Act of Congress.
The Naval Institute's mission is "to provide an independent forum for those who dare to read, think, speak, and write to advance the professional, literary, and scientific understanding of sea power and other issues critical to global security". The Institute also has a Vision.
|United States Naval Institute|
|Formation||October 9, 1873|
|Founded at||Annapolis, Maryland|
|Type||501(c)(3) nonprofit organization|
On October 9, 1873, 15 naval officers gathered at the U.S. Naval Academy's Department of Physics and Chemistry building in Annapolis to discuss the implications of a smaller, post-Civil War Navy and other matters of professional interest. The U.S. Naval Institute was established as a forum for the exchange of ideas, to disseminate and advance the knowledge of sea power, and to preserve U.S. naval and maritime heritage. Rear Admiral John L. Worden (former commander of the USS Monitor) served as the first president.
In 1874, the Naval Institute began to accept papers and publish the "proceedings" of its discussions which were distributed to the organization's members, a practice that continues to this day. Two decades later, the Naval Institute Press was created to publish basic naval guides; it eventually expanded to publish more general-interest titles in history, biography and current affairs.
Having outgrown its offices at Preble Hall, the Naval Institute gave the building to the Naval Academy and, in 1999, renovated a derelict Navy hospital to serve as its new headquarters. The building was named Beach Hall to honor the contributions of Captain Edward L. Beach, Jr. (author of over a dozen books including Run Silent, Run Deep) and his father and namesake, Captain Edward L. Beach, Sr., who had served as the Institute's secretary-treasurer.
The monthly magazine Proceedings is the Naval Institute's flagship product. Published since 1874, it is one of the oldest continuously published magazines in the United States. Issues include articles from military professionals and civilian experts, historical essays, book reviews, full-color photography, and reader commentary. Roughly a third are written by active duty and active reserve personnel, a third by retired military, and a third by civilians. Proceedings also frequently carries feature articles by Secretaries of Defense, Secretaries of the Navy, Chairmen of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and top leaders of the Navy, Marine Corps and Coast Guard. The magazine has published controversial articles on contentious issues; moreover, military brass have been known to block certain articles from being submitted to the journal. For example, in 1962, DoD officials prevented a Marine Corps lieutenant colonel from sending to Proceedings an article about a 1949 proposal to merge the Marines' aviation units into the Air Force.
Naval History magazine was first published in 1987 to explore the role of sea power in U.S. history. Currently a bimonthly publication, the richly illustrated magazine’s contributors have included historians David McCullough and James M. McPherson; former sailors, Marines and Coast Guardsmen such as Ernest Borgnine, Gene Hackman, and Douglas Fairbanks, Jr.; and newsmen Walter Cronkite and Tom Brokaw.
The Naval Institute Press was founded in 1898 and publishes about 80 books a year. Its twice-yearly catalog includes works on history, biography, professional military education, and occasional works of popular fiction, such as Tom Clancy's first novel, The Hunt for Red October and Stephen Coonts' Flight of the Intruder. Among the professional development titles are The Bluejacket's Manual, Naval Shiphandling, The Naval Officer's Guide, The Marine Officer’s Guide, and The Coast Guardsman’s Manual. The Naval Institute Guide to Combat Fleets of the World and The Naval Institute Guide to Ships and Aircraft of the U.S. Fleet are popular reference books with the military, media and maritime enthusiasts.
Launched in December 2008, the blog is another forum for debate. Contributors have included former NATO Supreme Commander Admiral James G. Stavridis, USN (ret) and Admiral Thad Allen, the 23rd Commandant of the Coast Guard.
Launched in February 2012, USNI News provides breaking news and insight on emerging issues. It is a free, daily (Monday - Friday) news service.
In 1985, the Institute began to hold conferences, open to the public, to foster discussion of defense-related topics. The largest of these, are held in San Diego and Washington, D.C. The conferences often feature the Chief of Naval Operations and the Commandant of the Marine Corps, as well as other leaders.
In 2007, USNI produced Americans At War, a series of video interviews with U.S. combat veterans of conflicts dating to World War I. Former President George H. W. Bush, Senators Bob Dole, Daniel Inouye, Bob Kerrey, and other men and women described how combat changed their lives. The series was broadcast on Public Broadcasting Service television stations nationwide.
The U.S. Naval Institute holds one of the world’s largest private collections of military photographs: more than 450,000 images of people, ships and aircraft from all branches of the armed forces. The photographs date from the American Civil War to the present.
The U.S. Naval Institute's Oral History program captures and preserves the reminiscences of key Navy and Coast Guard figures such as US Army Air Force Gen. Jimmy Doolittle, Adm. Arleigh Burke and Adm. Chester W. Nimitz. The Naval Institute records a series of interviews covering the life story of each participant. The interviews are then transcribed, annotated, indexed, and bound. Since the inception of the program in 1969, more than 230 bound volumes have been completed, and interviews have been recorded to produce dozens more.
The Naval Institute maintains an extensive library of books on naval subjects. The collection contains many rare volumes on obscure maritime topics, so it serves a valuable resource for researchers and students.
The institute's notable current and former members include:
The Battle of the Caribbean refers to a naval campaign waged during World War II that was part of the Battle of the Atlantic, from 1941 to 1945. German U-boats and Italian submarines attempted to disrupt the Allied supply of oil and other material. They sank shipping in the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico and attacked coastal targets in the Antilles. Improved Allied anti-submarine warfare eventually drove the Axis submarines out of the Caribbean region.Benjamin Franklin Tilley
Benjamin Franklin Tilley (March 29, 1848 – March 18, 1907), often known as B. F. Tilley, was a career officer in the United States Navy who served from the end of the American Civil War through the Spanish–American War. He is best remembered as the first Acting-Governor of American Samoa as well as the territory's first Naval governor.Tilley entered the United States Naval Academy during the height of the Civil War, graduating after the conflict. He gradually rose through the ranks and participated as a lieutenant in the United States military crackdown against strikers in the wake of the Great Railroad Strike of 1877. He and a small contingent of sailors and marines defended the American consulate in Santiago, Chile during the 1891 Chilean Civil War. He was a commander during the Spanish–American War, and his gunship USS Newport successfully captured two Spanish Navy ships. After the war, he was made the first acting-Governor of Tutuila and Manua (later called American Samoa) and set legal and administrative precedents for the new territory. After 41 years of service, he was promoted to rear admiral but died of pneumonia shortly afterwards.CNA (nonprofit)
CNA, formerly known as the CNA Corporation, is a nonprofit research and analysis organization based in Arlington County, Virginia. CNA has around 625 employees.Carrier Air Wing Six
Carrier Air Wing Six (CVW-6) was a United States Navy aircraft carrier air wing whose operational history spans from the middle of World War II to the end of the Cold War. Established in 1943 as Carrier Air Group Seventeen (CVG-17), it would be re-designated several times during its establishment, including Carrier Air Group Six (CVG-6) as the second unit to be so designated. The first Carrier Air Group Six served for just over two years during World War II, but drew on the history of the Enterprise Air Group established in 1938 and active in the early battles of the Pacific War, being disestablished after the first year of the conflict. During its time in USS Enterprise (CV-6), it was the Navy’s only carrier-based air group to carry out three complete tours of duty during World War II.Christopher Raymond Perry Rodgers
Rear Admiral Christopher Raymond Perry Rodgers (4 November 1819 – 8 January 1892) was an officer in the United States Navy. He served in the Mexican–American War, the American Civil War, as Superintendent of the Naval Academy, President of the United States Naval Institute, and Commander-in-Chief of the Pacific Squadron.Curtiss F9C Sparrowhawk
The Curtiss F9C Sparrowhawk is a light 1930s biplane fighter aircraft that was carried by the United States Navy airships USS Akron and Macon. It is an example of a parasite fighter, a small airplane designed to be deployed from a larger aircraft such as an airship or bomber.Displacement (ship)
The displacement or displacement tonnage of a ship is its weight based on the amount of water its hull displaces at varying loads. It is measured indirectly using Archimedes' principle by first calculating the volume of water displaced by the ship then converting that value into weight displaced. Traditionally, various measurement rules have been in use, giving various measures in long tons. Today, metric tonnes are more used.
Ship displacement varies by a vessel's degree of load, from its empty weight as designed (known as "Lightweight tonnage") to its maximum load. Numerous specific terms are used to describe varying levels of load and trim, detailed below.
Ship displacement should not be confused with measurements of volume or capacity typically used for commercial vessels, such as net tonnage, gross tonnage, or deadweight tonnage.Farragut-class destroyer (1958)
The Farragut-class destroyer was a group of 10 guided missile destroyers built for the United States Navy (USN) during the 1950s. They were the second destroyer class to be named for Admiral David Farragut. The class is sometimes referred to as the Coontz class, since Coontz was first to be designed and built as a guided missile ship, whereas the previous three ships were designed as all-gun units and converted later. The class was originally envisioned as a Destroyer Leader class (DL/DLG, verbally referred to as "Frigates"), but was reclassified as Guided Missile Destroyers following the 1975 ship reclassification.Gatling gun
The Gatling gun is one of the best-known early rapid-fire spring loaded, hand cranked weapons, and a forerunner of the modern machine gun and rotary cannon. Invented by Richard Gatling, it saw occasional use by the Union forces during the American Civil War in the 1860s, which was the first time it was employed in combat. It was later used in numerous military conflicts, including the Boshin War, the Anglo-Zulu War, and the assault on San Juan Hill during the Spanish–American War. It was also used by the Pennsylvania militia in episodes of the Great Railroad Strike of 1877, specifically in Pittsburgh.
The Gatling gun's operation centered on a cyclic multi-barrel design which facilitated cooling and synchronized the firing-reloading sequence. Each barrel fired a single shot when it reached a certain point in the cycle, after which it ejected the spent cartridge, loaded a new round, and, in the process, allowed the barrel to cool. This configuration allowed higher rates of fire to be achieved without the barrels overheating.
The Gatling gun was an early form of rotary cannon, and today modern rotary cannons are often referred to as Gatling guns.General Dynamics Electric Boat
General Dynamics Electric Boat (GDEB) is a subsidiary of General Dynamics Corporation. It has been the primary builder of submarines for the United States Navy for more than 100 years. The company's main facilities are a shipyard in Groton, Connecticut, a hull-fabrication and outfitting facility in Quonset Point, Rhode Island, and a design and engineering facility in New London, Connecticut.Memnon (clipper)
The Memnon was the first clipper ship to arrive in San Francisco after the Gold Rush, and the only clipper to arrive in San Francisco before 1850. Built in 1848, she made record passages to San Francisco and to China, and sailed in the first clipper race around Cape Horn.Naval History (magazine)
Naval History is a bi-monthly magazine published by the United States Naval Institute since 1987. The 72-page publication not only includes feature articles spanning the course of Naval History written by significant scholars of their subject, but also has standing features including: "Looking Back," "On Our Scope," "Naval History News," "Book Reviews," and "Museum Report."
Noted authors Norman Polmar and A.D. Baker III provide the "Historic Aircraft" and "Historic Fleets" columns.
Each issue is illustrated with rare art and photographs.PIRAZ
PIRAZ is a United States Navy acronym for Positive Identification Radar Advisory Zone. The zone is defined by the air search radar coverage of a ship patrolling a designated PIRAZ station. The concept was similar to radar picket stations established in World War II. The PIRAZ ship requires a Naval Tactical Data System radio-linked computer installation to effectively identify and track all aircraft anticipated to enter the airspace of the zone during combat.Proceedings (magazine)
Proceedings is a 96-page monthly magazine published by the United States Naval Institute. Launched in 1874, it is one of the oldest continuously published magazines in the United States. Proceedings covers topics concerning global security and includes articles from military professionals and civilian experts, historical essays, book reviews, full-color photography, and reader commentary. Roughly a third are written by active-duty personnel, a third by retired military, and a third by civilians. Proceedings also frequently carries feature articles by Secretaries of Defense, Secretaries of the Navy, Chairmen of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and top leaders of the Navy, Marine Corps and Coast Guard.The Bluejacket's Manual
The Bluejacket's Manual is the basic handbook for United States Navy personnel. First issued in 1902 to teach new recruits about naval procedures and life and offer a reference for active sailors, it has become the "bible" for Navy personnel, providing information about a wide range of Navy topics. The current version, issued in 2017, is the 25th Edition and is given to all enlistees.USS Langley (CV-1)
USS Langley (CV-1/AV-3) was the United States Navy's first aircraft carrier, converted in 1920 from the collier USS Jupiter (AC-3), and also the US Navy's first turbo-electric-powered ship. Conversion of another collier was planned but canceled when the Washington Naval Treaty required the cancellation of the partially built Lexington-class battlecruisers Lexington and Saratoga, freeing up their hulls for conversion to the aircraft carriers Lexington and Saratoga. Langley was named after Samuel Pierpont Langley, an American aviation pioneer. Following another conversion to a seaplane tender, Langley fought in World War II. On 27 February 1942, she was attacked by nine twin-engine Japanese bombers of the Japanese 21st and 23rd Naval Air Flotillas and so badly damaged that she had to be scuttled by her escorts.United States Naval Institute v. Charter Communications, Inc.
United States Naval Institute v. Charter Communications, Inc., 936 F.2d 692 (2d Cir. 1991), is a U.S. federal court case. A contract case, it discusses the impropriety of punitive damages and favoring the theory of efficient breach.Warship (magazine)
Warship (ISSN 0142-6222) is a long-running yearly publication covering the design, development, and service history of combat ships. It is published by Conway Publishing in the United Kingdom and the United States Naval Institute Press in North America.William Laird Clowes
Sir William Laird Clowes (1 February 1856 – 14 August 1905) was a British journalist and historian whose principal work was The Royal Navy, A History from the Earliest Times to 1900, a text that is still in print. He also wrote numerous technical pieces on naval technology and strategy and was also noted for his articles concerning racial politics in the Southern United States. Despite having trained as a lawyer, Clowes had always preferred literature and writing, publishing his first work in 1876 and becoming a full-time journalist in 1879. For the services rendered in his career, Clowes was knighted, awarded the gold medal of the United States Naval Institute and given a civil list pension. He died in Sussex in 1905 after years of ill-health.