United States Military Government in Cuba

The United States Military Government in Cuba (Spanish: Gobierno militar estadounidense en Cuba or Gobierno militar americano en Cuba), was a provisional military government in Cuba that was established in the aftermath of the Spanish–American War in 1898 when Spain ceded Cuba to the United States.

This period was also referred to as the First Occupation of Cuba, to distinguish it from a second occupation from 1906 to 1909. United States Army forces involved in the garrisoning of the island during this time were honored with the Army of Cuban Occupation Medal after its establishment in 1915.

United States Military Government in Cuba
Gobierno militar estadounidense en Cuba
1898–1902
Motto: E Pluribus Unum
"Out of Many, One"
Anthem: Salve, Columbia
"Hail, Columbia"
CUB orthographic
Status Administered Territory of the United States
Capital Havana
Common languages Spanish, English
Government Military Government
Military-Governor  
• 1898–1899
Adolfo Castellanos
• 1899
John R. Brooke
• 1899–1902
Leonard Wood
Historical era Modern Era
20 April 1898
10 December 1898
2 March 1901
20 May 1902
ISO 3166 code CU
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Captaincy General of Cuba
Republic of Cuba (1902–1959)
Guantanamo Bay Naval Base
Today part of  Cuba
 United States

Timeline

1898
  • 15 February: The USS Maine explodes in Havana harbor.
  • 20 April: President McKinley signs a congressional joint resolution declaring war against Spain. It includes the Teller Amendment asserting U.S. intentions in declaring war on Spain exclude exercising "sovereignty, jurisdiction or control" over Cuba, "except for pacification thereof".
  • 10 December: Spain and the United States sign the Treaty of Paris.
1899
  • 1 January: Military government installed by the United States.
  • 11 April: Spanish–American War officially ends.
1901
1902
  • 20 May: The 1901 constitution takes effect. Birth of the Republic of Cuba.[1]

Platt Amendment

The Platt Amendment, defined the terms by which the United States would cease its occupation of Cuba. The amendment, placed into an army appropriations bill was designed to give back control of Cuba to the Cuban people. It had eight conditions to which the Cuban Government needed to adhere to before full sovereignty would be transferred. The main conditions of the amendment prohibited Cuba from signing any treaty allowing foreign powers to use the island for military purposes. The United States also maintained the right to interfere with Cuban independence in order to maintain a certain level of protection of life, though the extent of this intrusion was not defined. Most significant, the amendment forced the Cuban Government to sign a treaty officially binding the amendment to law.

The United States reasoning behind the amendment was based on the significant commercial interests held on the island. Spain had previously been unable to preserve U.S. interests and maintain law and order. At the end of military occupation, the amendment served as the primary method of ensuring a permanent presence. Due to the previously enacted Teller Amendment, The United States was forced to grant Cuba its independence after Spanish rule ended. Since the Platt Amendment was successfully incorporated into the constitution in Cuba, influence was maintained without direct U.S. involvement in the country.[2]

See also

References

  1. ^ History of Cuba. Retrieved 30 June 2015.
  2. ^ The United States, Cuba, and the Platt Amendment, 1901 Archived 23 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine.. Office of the Historian. U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 30 June 2015.

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