United States Military Government in Cuba

The United States Military Government in Cuba (Spanish: Gobierno militar estadounidense en Cuba or Gobierno militar americano en Cuba), was a provisional military government in Cuba that was established in the aftermath of the Spanish–American War in 1898 when Spain ceded Cuba to the United States.

This period was also referred to as the First Occupation of Cuba, to distinguish it from a second occupation from 1906 to 1909. United States Army forces involved in the garrisoning of the island during this time were honored with the Army of Cuban Occupation Medal after its establishment in 1915.

United States Military Government in Cuba

Gobierno militar estadounidense en Cuba
1898–1902
Motto: E Pluribus Unum
"Out of Many, One"
Anthem: Salve, Columbia
"Hail, Columbia"
CUB orthographic
StatusAdministered Territory of the United States
CapitalHavana
Common languagesSpanish, English
GovernmentMilitary Government
Military-Governor 
• 1898–1899
Adolfo Castellanos
• 1899
John R. Brooke
• 1899–1902
Leonard Wood
Historical eraModern Era
20 April 1898
10 December 1898
2 March 1901
20 May 1902
ISO 3166 codeCU
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Captaincy General of Cuba
Republic of Cuba (1902–1959)
Guantanamo Bay Naval Base
Today part of Cuba
 United States

Timeline

1898
  • 15 February: The USS Maine explodes in Havana harbor.
  • 20 April: President McKinley signs a congressional joint resolution declaring war against Spain. It includes the Teller Amendment asserting U.S. intentions in declaring war on Spain exclude exercising "sovereignty, jurisdiction or control" over Cuba, "except for pacification thereof".
  • 10 December: Spain and the United States sign the Treaty of Paris.
1899
  • 1 January: Military government installed by the United States.
  • 11 April: Spanish–American War officially ends.
1901
1902
  • 20 May: The 1901 constitution takes effect. Birth of the Republic of Cuba.[1]

Platt Amendment

The Platt Amendment defined the terms by which the United States would cease its occupation of Cuba. The amendment, placed into an army appropriations bill was designed to give back control of Cuba to the Cuban people. It had eight conditions to which the Cuban Government needed to adhere to before full sovereignty would be transferred. The main conditions of the amendment prohibited Cuba from signing any treaty allowing foreign powers to use the island for military purposes. The United States also maintained the right to interfere with Cuban independence in order to maintain a certain level of protection of life, though the extent of this intrusion was not defined. Most significant, the amendment forced the Cuban Government to sign a treaty officially binding the amendment to law.

The United States reasoning behind the amendment was based on the significant commercial interests held on the island. Spain had previously been unable to preserve U.S. interests and maintain law and order. At the end of military occupation, the amendment served as the primary method of ensuring a permanent presence. Due to the previously enacted Teller Amendment, The United States was forced to grant Cuba its independence after Spanish rule ended. Since the Platt Amendment was successfully incorporated into the constitution in Cuba, influence was maintained without direct U.S. involvement in the country.[2]

See also

References

  1. ^ History of Cuba. Retrieved 30 June 2015.
  2. ^ The United States, Cuba, and the Platt Amendment, 1901 Archived 23 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Office of the Historian. U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 30 June 2015.
1900 Galveston hurricane

The Great Galveston Hurricane, known regionally as the Great Storm of 1900, was the deadliest natural disaster in United States history, one of the deadliest hurricanes (or remnants) to affect Canada, and the fourth-deadliest Atlantic hurricane overall. The hurricane left between 6,000 and 12,000 fatalities in the United States; the number most cited in official reports is 8,000. Most of these deaths occurred in the vicinity of Galveston after storm surge inundated the entire island with 8 to 12 feet (2.4 to 3.7 m) of water. In addition to the number killed, every house in the city sustained damage, with at least 3,636 destroyed. Approximately 10,000 people in the city were left homeless, out of a total population of nearly 38,000. The disaster ended the Golden Era of Galveston, as the hurricane alarmed potential investors, who turned to Houston instead. The Gulf of Mexico shoreline of Galveston island was subsequently raised by 17 ft (5.2 m) and a 10 mi (16 km) seawall erected.

The first observed hurricane of the season, the tropical cyclone was first detected by a ship well east of the Windward Islands on August 27. Initially at tropical storm intensity, it slowly strengthened while moving steadily west-northwestward and entered the northeastern Caribbean Sea on August 30. The storm made landfall in the Dominican Republic as a weak tropical storm on September 2. It weakened slightly while crossing Hispaniola, before re-emerging into the Caribbean Sea later that day. On September 3, the cyclone struck modern day Santiago de Cuba Province and then slowly drifted along the southern coast of Cuba. Upon reaching the Gulf of Mexico on September 6, the storm strengthened into a hurricane. Significant intensification followed and the system peaked as a Category 4 hurricane with maximum sustained winds of 145 mph (230 km/h) on September 8. Early on the next day, it made landfall near present day Jamaica Beach, Texas. The cyclone weakened quickly after moving inland and fell to tropical storm intensity late on September 9. The storm turned east-northeastward and became extratropical over Iowa on September 11. The extratropical system strengthened while accelerating across the Midwestern United States, New England, and Eastern Canada before reaching the Gulf of Saint Lawrence on September 13. After striking Newfoundland later that day, the remnants entered the far North Atlantic Ocean and weakened, finally dissipating near Iceland on September 15.

The great storm brought flooding and severe thunderstorms to portions of the Caribbean, especially Cuba and Jamaica. It is likely that much of South Florida experienced tropical storm force winds, though mostly minor damage occurred overall. Hurricane force winds and storm surge inundated portions of southern Louisiana, though no significant structural damage or fatalities were reported. The hurricane brought strong winds and storm surge to a large portion of east Texas, with Galveston suffering the brunt of the impact. Further north, the storm and its remnants continued to produce heavy rains and gusty winds, which downed telegraph wires, signs, and trees in several states. There were fifteen deaths in Ohio, six in Wisconsin, two in Illinois, two in New York, and one in Missouri. Damage from storm throughout the United States was over $34 million. The remnants also brought severe impact to Canada. In Ontario, damage reached about $1.35 million, with $1 million to crops. There were at least 52 deaths – and possibly as many as 232 deaths – in Canada, mostly due to sunken vessels near Newfoundland and the French territory of Saint-Pierre. Throughout its path, the hurricane caused more than $35.4 million in damage.

Cuban War of Independence

The Cuban War of Independence (Spanish: Guerra de Independencia cubana, 1895–98) was the last of three liberation wars that Cuba fought against Spain, the other two being the Ten Years' War (1868–1878) and the Little War (1879–1880). The final three months of the conflict escalated to become the Spanish–American War, with United States forces being deployed in Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippine Islands against Spain. Historians disagree as to the extent that United States officials were motivated to intervene for humanitarian reasons but agree that yellow journalism exaggerated atrocities attributed to Spanish forces against Cuban civilians.

Cuba–Philippines relations

Cuba and the Philippines were both former Spanish colonies. Spanish rule on both countries was ended by the victory of the United States in the Spanish–American War as provisions of the Treaty of Paris giving Cuba independence and the Philippines becoming a new possession of the United States.

Historic regions of the United States

This is a list of historic regions of the United States that existed at some time during the territorial evolution of the United States and its overseas possessions, from the colonial era to the present day. It includes formally organized territories, proposed and failed states, unrecognized breakaway states, international and interstate purchases, cessions, and land grants, and historical military departments and administrative districts. The last section lists informal regions from American vernacular geography known by popular nicknames and linked by geographical, cultural, or economic similarities, some of which are still in use today.

For a more complete list of regions and subdivisions of the United States used in modern times, see List of regions of the United States.

List of Presidents of Cuba

This article lists the Presidents of Cuba from 1902 until the present day.

The current President of Cuba (officially called President of the Council of State, according to the 1976 Constitution) is Miguel Díaz-Canel, since 19 April 2018.

List of Prime Ministers of Cuba

This article lists the Prime Ministers of Cuba from 1940 until the present day.

The current Prime Minister of Cuba (officially called President of the Council of Ministers, according to the 1976 Constitution) is Miguel Díaz-Canel, since 19 April 2018. On February 24, 2019, however, the official title of Prime Minister, as well as its office, was restored in a different constitutional referendum.

List of predecessors of sovereign states in North America

This is a list of all present sovereign states in North America and their predecessors. The division between North and South America is unclear, generally viewed as lying somewhere in the Isthmus of Panama, however, the Caribbean Islands, Central America including the whole of Panama is considered to be part of North America as its southernmost nation. The continent was colonized by the Europeans: Mainly by the Spaniards, the French, the English and the Dutch. United States of America gained its independence in American Revolutionary War; Most of nations in Central America gained independence in the early 19th century; Canada and many other island countries in the Caribbean Sea (most of them were British colonies) gained their independence in 20th century. Today, North America consists of twenty-two sovereign states with common government system being some form of presidential republic.

Timeline of sovereign states in North America

This timeline lists all sovereign states in North America (including Central America and the Caribbean), both current and defunct, from the year 1500 onwards.

United States occupation of Cuba

The United States occupation of Cuba may refer to:

the United States Military Government in Cuba (1898–1902)

the Second Occupation of Cuba (1906–09)

the Sugar Intervention (1917-1922), a third occupation of Cuba

the continuing American presence at Guantanamo Bay Naval Base

pre-1902
1902–1959
1959–present

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