The United States Intelligence Community (IC) is a federation of 16 separate United States government intelligence agencies and a 17th administrative office, that work separately and together to conduct intelligence activities to support the foreign policy and national security of the United States. Member organizations of the IC include intelligence agencies, military intelligence, and civilian intelligence and analysis offices within federal executive departments. The IC is overseen by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI) making up the seventeen-member Intelligence Community, which itself is headed by the Director of National Intelligence (DNI), who reports to the President of the United States.
Among their varied responsibilities, the members of the Community collect and produce foreign and domestic intelligence, contribute to military planning, and perform espionage. The IC was established by Executive Order 12333, signed on December 4, 1981, by U.S. President Ronald Reagan.
The Washington Post reported in 2010 that there were 1,271 government organizations and 1,931 private companies in 10,000 locations in the United States that were working on counterterrorism, homeland security, and intelligence, and that the intelligence community as a whole includes 854,000 people holding top-secret clearances. According to a 2008 study by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence, private contractors make up 29% of the workforce in the U.S. intelligence community and account for 49% of their personnel budgets.
|United States Intelligence Community|
Seal of the United States Intelligence Community
|Formed||December 4, 1981|
Intelligence is information that agencies collect, analyze, and distribute in response to government leaders' questions and requirements. Intelligence is a broad term that entails:
Collection, analysis, and production of sensitive information to support national security leaders, including policymakers, military commanders, and Members of Congress. Safeguarding these processes and this information through counterintelligence activities. Execution of covert operations approved by the President. The IC strives to provide valuable insight on important issues by gathering raw intelligence, analyzing that data in context, and producing timely and relevant products for customers at all levels of national security—from the war-fighter on the ground to the President in Washington.
Executive Order 12333 charged the IC with six primary objectives:
The IC is headed by the Director of National Intelligence (DNI), whose statutory leadership is exercised through the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI). The other 16 members of the IC are:
|Agency||Parent Agency||Federal Department||Date est.|
|Twenty-Fifth Air Force||United States Air Force||Defense||1948|
|Intelligence and Security Command||United States Army||Defense||1977|
|Central Intelligence Agency||none||Independent agency||1947|
|Coast Guard Intelligence||United States Coast Guard||Homeland Security||1915|
|Defense Intelligence Agency||none||Defense||1961|
|Office of Intelligence and Counterintelligence||none||Energy||1977|
|Office of Intelligence and Analysis||none||Homeland Security||2007|
|Bureau of Intelligence and Research||none||State||1945|
|Office of Terrorism and Financial Intelligence||none||Treasury||2004|
|Office of National Security Intelligence||Drug Enforcement Administration||Justice||2006|
|Intelligence Branch||Federal Bureau of Investigation||Justice||2005|
|Marine Corps Intelligence Activity||United States Marine Corps||Defense||1978|
|National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency||none||Defense||1996|
|National Reconnaissance Office||none||Defense||1961|
|National Security Agency/Central Security Service||none||Defense||1952|
|Office of Naval Intelligence||United States Navy||Defense||1882|
The IC performs under two separate programs:
Since the definitions of the NIP and MIP overlap when they address military intelligence, assignment of intelligence activities to the NIP and MIP sometimes proves problematic.
The overall organization of the IC is primarily governed by the National Security Act of 1947 (as amended) and Executive Order 12333. The statutory organizational relationships were substantially revised with the 2004 Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act (IRTPA) amendments to the 1947 National Security Act.
Though the IC characterizes itself as a federation of its member elements, its overall structure is better characterized as a confederation due to its lack of a well-defined, unified leadership and governance structure. Prior to 2004, the Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) was the head of the IC, in addition to being the director of the CIA. A major criticism of this arrangement was that the DCI had little or no actual authority over the budgetary authorities of the other IC agencies and therefore had limited influence over their operations.
Following the passage of IRTPA in 2004, the head of the IC is the Director of National Intelligence (DNI). The DNI exerts leadership of the IC primarily through statutory authorities under which he or she:
However, the DNI has no authority to direct and control any element of the IC except his own staff—the Office of the DNI—neither does the DNI have the authority to hire or fire personnel in the IC except those on his own staff. The member elements in the executive branch are directed and controlled by their respective department heads, all cabinet-level officials reporting to the President. By law, only the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency reports to the DNI.
In light of major intelligence failures in recent years that called into question how well Intelligence Community ensures U.S. national security, particularly those identified by the 9/11 Commission (National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States), and the "WMD Commission" (Commission on the Intelligence Capabilities of the United States Regarding Weapons of Mass Destruction), the authorities and powers of the DNI and the overall organizational structure of the IC have become subject of intense debate in the United States.
Previously, interagency cooperation and the flow of information among the member agencies was hindered by policies that sought to limit the pooling of information out of privacy and security concerns. Attempts to modernize and facilitate interagency cooperation within the IC include technological, structural, procedural, and cultural dimensions. Examples include the Intellipedia wiki of encyclopedic security-related information; the creation of the Office of the Director of National Intelligence, National Intelligence Centers, Program Manager Information Sharing Environment, and Information Sharing Council; legal and policy frameworks set by the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004, information sharing Executive Orders 13354 and Executive Order 13388, and the 2005 National Intelligence Strategy.
The U.S. intelligence budget (excluding the Military Intelligence Program) in fiscal year 2013 was appropriated as $52.7 billion, and reduced by the amount sequestered to $49.0 billion. In fiscal year 2012 it peaked at $53.9 billion, according to a disclosure required under a recent law implementing recommendations of the 9/11 Commission. The 2012 figure was up from $53.1 billion in 2010, $49.8 billion in 2009, $47.5 billion in 2008, $43.5 billion in 2007, and $40.9 billion in 2006.
About 70 percent of the intelligence budget went to contractors for the procurement of technology and services (including analysis), according to the May 2007 chart from the ODNI. Intelligence spending has increased by a third over ten years ago, in inflation-adjusted dollars, according to the Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments.
In a statement on the release of new declassified figures, DNI Mike McConnell said there would be no additional disclosures of classified budget information beyond the overall spending figure because "such disclosures could harm national security". How the money is divided among the 16 intelligence agencies and what it is spent on is classified. It includes salaries for about 100,000 people, multibillion-dollar satellite programs, aircraft, weapons, electronic sensors, intelligence analysis, spies, computers, and software.
On August 29, 2013 The Washington Post published the summary of the Office of the Director of National Intelligence's multivolume FY 2013 Congressional Budget Justification, the U.S. Intelligence Community's top-secret "black budget". The IC's FY 2013 budget details how the 16 spy agencies use the money and how it performs against the goals set by the president and Congress. Experts said that access to such details about U.S. spy programs is without precedent. Steven Aftergood of the Federation of American Scientists, which provides analyses of national security issues, stated that "It was a titanic struggle just to get the top-line budget number disclosed, and that has only been done consistently since 2007 ... but a real grasp of the structure and operations of the intelligence bureaucracy has been totally beyond public reach. This kind of material, even on a historical basis, has simply not been available." Access to budget details will enable an informed public debate on intelligence spending for the first time, said the co-chair of the 9/11 Commission Lee H. Hamilton. He added that Americans should not be excluded from the budget process because the intelligence community has a profound impact on the life of ordinary Americans.
Intelligence Community Oversight duties are distributed to both the Executive and Legislative branches. Primary Executive oversight is performed by the President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board, the Joint Intelligence Community Council, the Office of the Inspector General, and the Office of Management and Budget. Primary congressional oversight jurisdiction over the IC is assigned to two committees: the United States House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence and the United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence. The House Armed Services Committee and Senate Armed Services Committee draft bills to annually authorize the budgets of DoD intelligence activities, and both the House and Senate appropriations committees annually draft bills to appropriate the budgets of the IC. The Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs took a leading role in formulating the intelligence reform legislation in the 108th Congress.
The Association of Former Intelligence Officers (AFIO), formerly known as the Association of Retired Intelligence Officers is a non-profit, non-partisan advocacy organization founded in 1975 by David Atlee Phillips to counter widespread criticism of the United States intelligence community coming from the media and the U.S. Congress. It is registered with the IRS as a 501(c)(3) tax-exempt charity and sees its primary mission as educational. The AFIO has 5,000 members in 24 active chapters. Full membership is limited to current and former professional intelligence officers who served within the United States intelligence community. AFIO also offers an "associate" membership to the general public if one supports its principles and abides by its code of ethics.DHS Office of Intelligence and Analysis
The Office of Intelligence and Analysis (I&A) is an agency of the United States Department of Homeland Security. Under the direction of the Under Secretary of Homeland Security for Intelligence and Analysis, I&A is responsible for developing DHS-wide intelligence through managing the collection, analysis and fusion of intelligence throughout the entire Department. I&A disseminates intelligence throughout DHS, to the other members of the United States Intelligence Community, and to first responders at the state, local, and tribal level.Director of the Central Intelligence Agency
The Director of the Central Intelligence Agency (D/CIA) is a statutory office (50 U.S.C. § 3036) that functions as the head of the Central Intelligence Agency, which in turn is a part of the United States Intelligence Community. Since February 2017, the D/CIA has been a Cabinet-level position.
The Director reports to the Director of National Intelligence (DNI) and is assisted by the Deputy Director of the Central Intelligence Agency. The Director is a civilian or a general/flag officer of the armed forces nominated by the President, with the concurring or nonconcurring recommendation from the DNI, and must be confirmed by a majority vote of the Senate.Executive Order 11905
Executive Order 11905 is a United States Presidential Executive Order signed on February 18, 1976, by President Gerald R. Ford as an attempt to reform the United States Intelligence Community, improve oversight on foreign intelligence activities, and ban political assassination. Much of this EO would be changed or strengthened by Jimmy Carter's Executive Order 12036 in 1978.Intelligence community
Intelligence community may refer to:
Bangladeshi intelligence community
Croatian security and intelligence system
Israeli intelligence community
Italian intelligence agencies
New Zealand intelligence community, see New Zealand intelligence agencies
Pakistani intelligence community, see List of Pakistani intelligence agencies
Russian Intelligence Community
United Kingdom intelligence agencies, List of intelligence agencies of the United Kingdom
United States Intelligence CommunityMarine Corps Intelligence
Marine Corps Intelligence, is an element of the United States Intelligence Community. The Director of Intelligence supervises the Intelligence Department of HQMC and is responsible for policy, plans, programming, budgets, and staff supervision of Intelligence and supporting activities within the U.S. Marine Corps as well as supervising the Marine Corps Intelligence Activity (MCIA). The Department supports the Commandant of the Marine Corps (CMC) in his role as a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS), represents the service in Joint and Intelligence Community matters, and exercises supervision over the MCIA.
The Department has Service Staff responsibility for Geospatial Intelligence (GEOINT), Advanced Geospatial Intelligence (AGI), Signals Intelligence (SIGINT), Human Intelligence (HUMINT), Counterintelligence (CI), and ensures there is a single synchronized strategy for the development of the Marine Corps Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) Enterprise.
The MCIA, located at Hochmuth Hall (see Bruno Hochmuth ), provides tailored intelligence and services to the Marine Corps, other services, and the Intelligence Community based on expeditionary mission profiles in littoral areas. It supports the development of service doctrine, force structure, training and education, and acquisition.National Counterproliferation Center
The National Counterproliferation Center (NCPC) is the primary organization within the United States Intelligence Community for combating the spread of weapons of mass destruction and their delivery systems.NCPC works with the Intelligence Community (IC) to identify critical intelligence gaps in counter-proliferation collection or analysis and then develops solutions to help close those gaps. NCPC also works to find and fund new technologies to help combat proliferation. Additionally, NCPC works to identify "over the horizon" proliferation concerns and creates strategies to ensure that the IC is well-positioned to address them.National Intelligence Council
The National Intelligence Council (NIC) is the center for midterm and long-term strategic thinking within the United States Intelligence Community (IC). It was formed in 1979. According to its official website:
It leads the IC's effort to produce National Intelligence Estimates and other documents;
It supports (and reports to) the Director of National Intelligence;
It serves as a focal point for policymakers' questions;
It contributes to the effort to allocate IC resources in response to policy changes; and
It communicates with experts in academia and the private sector to broaden the IC's perspective;The NIC's goal is to provide policymakers with the best information: unvarnished, unbiased and without regard to whether the analytic judgments conform to current U.S. policy.
One of the NICs most important analytical projects is a Global Trends report produced for the incoming US president. The report is delivered to the incoming president between Election Day and Inauguration Day, and it assesses critical drivers and scenarios for global trends with an approximate time horizon of fifteen years. The Global Trends analysis provides a basis for long-range strategic policy assessment for the White House and the intelligence community. The NIC's most recent Global Trends report, "Global Trends: Paradox of Progress" was released in January 2017.On February 2, 2007, the Office of the Director of National Intelligence, and the National Intelligence Council released the National Intelligence Estimate (NIE)—"'Prospects for Iraq's Stability: A Challenging Road Ahead' Unclassified Key Judgments".National Intelligence Distinguished Public Service Medal
The National Intelligence Distinguished Public Service Medal is the highest award that can be granted to noncareer Federal employees, private citizens or others who have performed distinguished service of exceptional significance for the United States Intelligence Community. The Director of National Intelligence (DNI) established the award on October 1, 2008 to acknowledge individuals who rendered extraordinary service at considerable personal sacrifice and who were motivated by patriotism, good citizenship or a sense of public responsibility.National Intelligence Distinguished Service Medal
The National Intelligence Distinguished Service Medal (NIDSM) is a decoration awarded for service to the United States Intelligence Community. The decoration is awarded to any member or contributor to the National Intelligence Community, either civilian or military, who distinguishes themselves by meritorious actions to the betterment of national security in the United States of America, through sustained and selfless service of the highest order.The National Intelligence Distinguished Service Medal was once considered junior to the older National Security Medal. With the establishment of the National Intelligence Awards (NIA) Program by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI), the National Intelligence Distinguished Service Medal was the highest decoration in the program. An update to the NIA program added awards and changed precedence, with the NIDSM being succeeded by the Intelligence Community Medal for Valor in the order of precedence.As an authorized U.S. non-military decoration on U.S. military uniforms, the National Intelligence Distinguished Service Medal is worn after U.S. military unit awards and before U.S. military campaign and service awards.National Intelligence Estimate
National Intelligence Estimates (NIEs) are United States federal government documents that are the authoritative assessment of the Director of National Intelligence (DNI) on intelligence related to a particular national security issue. NIEs are produced by the National Intelligence Council and express the coordinated judgments of the United States Intelligence Community, the group of 17 U.S. intelligence agencies. NIEs are classified documents prepared for policymakers.National Intelligence Exceptional Achievement Medal
The National Intelligence Exceptional Achievement Medal is an award of the National Intelligence Awards Program that recognizes a single significant act or contribution to the United States Intelligence Community and the United States as a whole.National Intelligence Medal for Valor
The National Intelligence Medal for Valor, formerly the Intelligence Community Medal for Valor, is a decoration of the United States Intelligence Community awarded by the National Intelligence Awards Program led by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence.The Director of National Intelligence established the Intelligence Community Medal for Valor on 1 October 2008, to "acknowledge the exceptional and unrecognized accomplishments of members of the Intelligence Community." In 2009, the award was renamed the National Intelligence Medal for Valor.National Intelligence Medal of Achievement
The National Intelligence Medal of Achievement is an award that was presented to members of the United States Intelligence Community, both civilian and military, to recognize significant acts of service to the community as a whole. The National Intelligence Medal of Achievement was replaced with the equivalent National Intelligence Exceptional Achievement Medal, during the restructuring of the National Intelligence Community Awards (NICA) Program, with the revision of Intelligence Community Directive 655 (National Intelligence Awards Program) in 2012.Secret War (comics)
Secret War is a 2004–2005 five-issue comic book limited series published by Marvel Comics. The series is written by Brian Michael Bendis and painted by Gabriele Dell'Otto. It is loosely based on classified operations told to Bendis by an anonymous high-ranking officer in the United States Intelligence Community during Bendis' childhood.The storyline involves a large-scale super-hero crossover featuring Marvel characters such as Spider-Man, Captain America, Wolverine, Daredevil, Luke Cage and Nick Fury fighting a wide array of super-villains who have received hi-tech armaments from a mysterious benefactor.
The first issue was published in April 2004, and though intended originally as a bimonthly publication, it faced long delays. It was completed with issue five's publication in December 2005.
The aftermath of the series was explored in stories in The Pulse and Bendis has gone on to use many of the same characters in his New Avengers titles. This event begins an eight-year-long series of cross-over events ending with Avengers vs. X-Men.
The storyline in Secret War is unrelated to the original Secret Wars and Secret Wars II crossover limited series which Marvel published in the mid-1980s, although its title is clearly inspired by them. Those stories received their own spiritual successor in Beyond!, published in 2006.
Bendis has noted that Secret War is connected to the "Secret Invasion" storyline, in which Skrulls have infiltrated several institutions of Earth.United States House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence
The United States House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence (HPSCI), also known as the House Intelligence Committee, is a committee of the United States House of Representatives, currently chaired by Adam Schiff. It is the primary committee in the U.S. House of Representatives charged with the oversight of the United States Intelligence Community, though it does share some jurisdiction with other committees in the House, including the Armed Services Committee for some matters dealing with the Department of Defense and the various branches of the U.S. military.
The committee was preceded by the Select Committee on Intelligence between 1975 and 1977. House Resolution 658 established the permanent select committee, which gave it status equal to a standing committee on July 14, 1977.United States Intelligence Community Oversight
United States Intelligence Community Oversight duties are shared by both the executive and legislative branches of the government. Oversight, in this case, is the supervision of intelligence agencies, and making them accountable for their actions. Generally oversight bodies look at the following general issues: following policymaker needs, the quality of analysis, operations, and legality of actions.United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence
The United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence (sometimes referred to as the Intelligence Committee or SSCI) is dedicated to overseeing the United States Intelligence Community—the agencies and bureaus of the federal government of the United States who provide information and analysis for leaders of the executive and legislative branches. The Committee was established in 1976 by the 94th Congress.The Committee is "select" in that membership is temporary and rotated among members of the chamber. The committee comprises 15 members. Eight of those seats are reserved for one majority and one minority member of each of the following committees: Appropriations, Armed Services, Foreign Relations, and Judiciary. Of the remaining seven, four are members of the majority, and three are members of the minority. In addition, the Majority Leader and Minority Leader are non-voting ex officio members of the committee. Also, the Chairman and Ranking Member of the Committee on Armed Services (if not already a member of the select Committee) are ex officio members.As part of its oversight responsibilities, the Committee performs an annual review of the intelligence budget submitted by the president and prepares legislation authorizing appropriations for the various civilian and military agencies and departments comprising the intelligence community. These entities include the Office of the Director of National Intelligence, Central Intelligence Agency, Defense Intelligence Agency, National Security Agency, National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, National Reconnaissance Office, as well as the intelligence-related components of Department of State, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Department of the Treasury, and Department of Energy.
The Committee makes recommendations to the Senate Armed Services Committee on authorizations for the intelligence-related components of the U.S. Army, U.S. Navy, U.S. Air Force, and U.S. Marine Corps. The Committee also conducts periodic investigations, audits, and inspections of intelligence activities and programs.Z-Division
The International Assessments Program — known as Z-Division — is a Special Projects Group of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory established to provide the United States Intelligence Community with technical assessments of foreign nuclear programs and weapons capabilities. Z-Division was formed in 1965, bringing together scientists and engineers to help intelligence agencies understand the significance of Soviet nuclear weapons tests. The letter 'Z' was chosen as most letters were already assigned to other divisions. Relationships with the American intelligence community were formalised by a memorandum of understanding drawn up between the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and the Atomic Energy Commission (now the Department of Energy) in the same year.
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