United States Department of Health and Human Services

The United States Department of Health & Human Services (HHS), also known as the Health Department, is a cabinet-level department of the U.S. federal government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services. Its motto is "Improving the health, safety, and well-being of America".[2] Before the separate federal Department of Education was created in 1979, it was called the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW).

HHS is administered by the Secretary of Health and Human Services, who is appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate. The United States Public Health Service (PHS) is the main division of the HHS and is led by the Assistant Secretary for Health. The current Secretary, Alex Azar, assumed office on January 29, 2018, upon his appointment by President Trump and confirmation by the Senate.

The United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, the uniformed service of the PHS, is led by the Surgeon General who is responsible for addressing matters concerning public health as authorized by the Secretary or by the Assistant Secretary of Health in addition to his or her primary mission of administering the Commissioned Corps.

United States Department of Health & Human Services
Seal of the United States Department of Health and Human Services
Seal of the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services
Flag of the United States Department of Health and Human Services
Flag of the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services
DHHS2 by Matthew Bisanz

Hubert H. Humphrey Building, Department Headquarters
Department overview
FormedApril 11, 1953 (as Department of Health, Education, and Welfare)
May 4, 1980 (as United States Department of Health & Human Services)
Preceding agencies
JurisdictionFederal government of the United States
HeadquartersHubert H. Humphrey Building
Washington, D.C., U.S.
Employees79,540 (2015)[1]
Department executives
Websitewww.hhs.gov
12-07-13-washington-by-RalfR-03
The HHS headquarters in Washington, D.C.

History

Federal Security Agency

The Federal Security Agency (FSA) was established on July 1, 1939, under the Reorganization Act of 1939, P.L. 76-19. The objective was to bring together in one agency all federal programs in the fields of health, education, and social security. The first Federal Security Administrator was Paul V. McNutt.[3] The new agency originally consisted of the following major components: (1) Office of the Administrator, (2) Public Health Service (PHS), (3) Office of Education, (4) Civilian Conservation Corps, and (5) Social Security Board.

By 1953, the Federal Security Agency's programs in health, education, and social security had grown to such importance that its annual budget exceeded the combined budgets of the Departments of Commerce, Justice, Labor and Interior and affected the lives of millions of people. Consequently, in accordance with the Reorganization Act of 1949, President Eisenhower submitted to the Congress on March 12, 1953, Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1953, which called for the dissolution of the Federal Security Agency and elevation of the agency to Cabinet status as the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. The plan was approved April 1, 1953, and became effective on April 11, 1953.

Unlike statutes authorizing the creation of other executive departments, the contents of Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1953 were never properly codified within the United States Code, although Congress did codify a later statute ratifying the Plan. Today, the Plan is included as an appendix to Title 5 of the United States Code. The result is that HHS is the only executive department whose statutory foundation today rests on a confusing combination of several codified and uncodified statutes.

List of Federal Security Agency Administrators
Name Dates of service
Paul V. McNutt[4] July 13, 1939 – September 14, 1945
Watson B. Miller[4] October 11, 1945 – August 26, 1947
Oscar R. Ewing[4] August 27, 1947 – January 20, 1953
Oveta Culp Hobby[4] January 21, 1953 – April 11, 1953

Department of Health, Education, and Welfare

The seal of the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, the flag of the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, the flag of the U.S. Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare, the flag of the U.S. Under Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare, and the flag of the U.S. Assistant Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare.

Seal of the United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare
Flag of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare
Flag of the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare
Flag of the United States Under Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare
Flag of the United States Assistant Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare

The Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW) was created on April 11, 1953, when Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1953 became effective. HEW thus became the first new Cabinet-level department since the Department of Labor was created in 1913. The Reorganization Plan abolished the FSA and transferred all of its functions to the Secretary of HEW and all components of the Agency to the Department. The first Secretary of HEW was Oveta Culp Hobby, a native of Texas, who had served as Commander of the Women's Army Corps in World War II and was editor and publisher of the Houston Post. Sworn in on April 11, 1953, as Secretary, she had been FSA Administrator since January 21, 1953.

The six major program-operating components of the new Department were the Public Health Service, the Office of Education, the Food and Drug Administration, the Social Security Administration, the Office of Vocational Rehabilitation, and St. Elizabeth's Hospital. The Department was also responsible for three federally aided corporations: Howard University, the American Printing House for the Blind, and the Columbia Institution for the Deaf (Gallaudet College since 1954).[4]

List of Secretaries of Health, Education, and Welfare[4]
Name Dates of service
Oveta Culp Hobby April 11, 1953 – July 31, 1955
Marion B. Folsom August 1, 1955 – July 31, 1958
Arthur Flemming August 1, 1958 – January 19, 1961
Abraham Ribicoff January 21, 1961 – July 13, 1962
Anthony J. Celebrezze July 31, 1962 – August 17, 1965
John W. Gardner August 18, 1965 – March 1, 1968
Wilbur J. Cohen (designate) March 22, 1968 – May 16, 1968
Wilbur J. Cohen May 16, 1968 – January 20, 1969
Robert H. Finch January 21, 1969 – June 23, 1970
Elliot L. Richardson June 24, 1970 – January 29, 1973
Caspar W. Weinberger February 12, 1973 – August 8, 1975
Forrest David Mathews August 8, 1975 – January 20, 1977
Joseph A. Califano Jr. January 20, 1977 – August 3, 1979
Patricia Roberts Harris August 3, 1979 – May 4, 1980

Department of Health & Human Services

The Department of Health, Education, and Welfare was renamed the Department of Health & Human Services (HHS) in 1979,[5] when its education functions were transferred to the newly created United States Department of Education under the Department of Education Organization Act.[6] HHS was left in charge of the Social Security Administration, agencies constituting the Public Health Service, and Family Support Administration.

In 1995, the Social Security Administration was removed from the Department of Health & Human Services, and established as an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States Government.

The 2010 United States federal budget established a reserve fund of more than $630 billion over 10 years to finance fundamental reform of the health care system.[7]

Organization

The Department of Health & Human Services is led by the United States Secretary of Health and Human Services, a member of the United States Cabinet appointed by the President of the United States with the consent of the United States Senate. The Secretary is assisted in managing the Department by the Deputy Secretary of Health and Human Services, who is also appointed by the President. The Secretary and Deputy Secretary are further assisted by seven Assistant Secretaries, who serve as top Departmental administrators.

As of Jan. 20, 2018, this is the top level of the organizational chart. HHS provides further organizational detail on its website.

Several agencies within HHS are components of the USPHS or Public Health Service (PHS), as noted below.

Office of Inspector General

The Office of the Inspector General (OIG) investigates criminal activity for HHS. The special agents who work for OIG have the same title series "1811", training and authority as other federal criminal investigators, such as the FBI, ATF, DEA and Secret Service. However, OIG Special Agents have special skills in investigating white collar crime related to Medicare and Medicaid fraud and abuse. Organized crime has dominated the criminal activity relative to this type of fraud.

HHS-OIG investigates tens of millions of dollars in Medicare fraud each year. In addition, OIG will continue its coverage of all 50 states and the District of Columbia by its multi-agency task forces (PSOC Task Forces) that identify, investigate, and prosecute individuals who willfully avoid payment of their child support obligations under the Child Support Recovery Act.

HHS-OIG agents also provide protective services to the Secretary of HHS, and other department executives as necessary.

In 2002, the department released Healthy People 2010, a national strategic initiative for improving the health of Americans.

With the passage of the Fraud Enforcement and Recovery Act of 2009, and the Affordable Care Act of 2010, the Office of the Inspector General has taken an emboldened stance against healthcare related non-compliance, most notably for violations of Stark Law and the Anti-Kickback Statute.[8]

In 2015, the OIG issued a fraud alert as a warning to hospitals and healthcare systems to monitor and comply with their physician compensation arrangements.[9]

Recent years have seen dramatic increases in both the number and the amounts of Stark Law violation settlements, prompting healthcare experts to identify a need for automated solutions that manage physician arrangements by centralizing necessary information with regard to physician-hospital integration.[10] Contract management software companies such as Meditract provide options for health systems to organize and store physician contracts. Ludi Inc introduced DocTime Log®, an SaaS solution that specifically addresses this growing concern, automating physician time logging in compliance with contract terms to eliminate Stark Law and Anti-Kickback Statute violations.[11]

Former operating divisions and agencies

Relationship with state and local health departments

There are three tiers of health departments, the federal health department, state health department and local health department. In relation with state and local government, the federal government provides states with funding to ensure that states are able to retain current programs and are able to implement new programs. The coordination between all three health departments is critical to ensure the programs being implemented are well structured and suited to the corresponding level of health department. The health department at state level needs to safeguard good relations with legislators as well as governors in order to acquire legal and financial aid to guarantee the development and enhancements of the programs. Assemblies are set up to guide the relationships between state and local health departments. The state sets up the regulations and health policies whereas the local health departments are the ones implementing the health policies and services.[12][13]

As of 2018, there are ten regional offices that have separated the states in groups of four to eight. These offices directly work with the state departments, local governments, and tribal councils. The directors from each regional office are appointed directly by the active president. The follow is a list of who runs each regional office:

Region 1: John McGough Region 6: Mervin Turner

Region 2: Dennis González Region 7: Jeff Kahrs

Region 3: Matt Baker Region 8: Brian Shiozawa

Region 4: Renee Ellmers Region 9: Unknown

Region 5: Douglas O' Brien Region 10: John R. Graham

Budget and finances

The Department of Health & Human Services was authorized a budget for fiscal year 2015 of $1.020 trillion. The budget authorization is broken down as follows:[14]

Program Funding (in billions)
Management and Finance
Departmental Management $1.4
Public Health and Social Services Emergency Fund $1.4
Operating Divisions
Food and Drug Administration $2.6
Health Resources and Services Administration $10.4
Indian Health Service $4.8
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention $6.7
National Institutes of Health $30.4
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration $3.4
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality $0.4
Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services $906.8
Administration for Children and Families $51.3
Administration for Community Living $2.1
TOTAL 1,020.3

Programs

The Department of Health & Human Services' administers 115 programs across its 11 operating divisions.[15] The United States Department of Health & Human Services (HHS) aims to "protect the health of all Americans and provide essential human services, especially for those who are least able to help themselves."[16] These federal programs consist of social service programs, civil rights and healthcare privacy programs, disaster preparedness programs, and health related research. HHS offers a variety of social service programs geared toward persons with low income, disabilities, military families, and senior citizens.[17] Healthcare rights are defined under HHS in the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) which protect patient's privacy in regards to medical information, protects workers health insurance when unemployed, and sets guidelines surrounding some health insurance. HHS collaborates with the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response and Office of Emergency Management to prepare and respond to health emergencies.[18][19] A broad array of health related research is supported or completed under the HHS; secondarily under HHS, the Health Resources & Service Administration houses data warehouses and makes health data available surrounding a multitude of topics.[20][21] HHS also has vast offering of health related resources and tools to help educate the public on health policies and pertinent population health information. Some examples of available resources include disease prevention, wellness, health insurance information, as well as links to healthcare providers and facilities, meaningful health related materials, public health and safety information.[22][23][24][25][26][27]

Some highlights include:

  • Health and social science research
  • Preventing disease, including immunization services
  • Assuring food and drug safety
  • Medicare (health insurance for elderly and disabled Americans) and Medicaid (health insurance for low-income people)
  • Health information technology
  • Financial assistance and services for low-income families
  • Improving maternal and infant health, including a Nurse Home Visitation to support first-time mothers
  • Head Start (pre-school education and services)
  • Faith-based and community initiatives
  • Preventing child abuse and domestic violence
  • Substance abuse treatment and prevention
  • Services for older Americans, including home-delivered meals
  • Comprehensive health services for Native Americans
  • Assets for Independence
  • Medical preparedness for emergencies, including potential terrorism
  • Child support enforcement[28]

The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)

This program is to ensure the act and accountability of medical professionals to respect and carry-out basic human health rights. In the United States, the government feels that it is essential for the American people to understand their civil duty and rights to all of their medical information. That includes: health insurance policies or medical records from every doctor or emergency visit in one's life. Through Health & Human services one is able to file a complaint that their HIPAA rights have been violated or a consultant that will be able to decide if their rights were violated.

Social Services

This branch has everything to do with the social justice, wellness, and care of all people throughout the United States. This includes but is not limited to people who need government assistance, foster care, unaccompanied alien children, daycares (headstart included), adoption, senior citizens, and disability programs. Social services is one of it not the largest branch of programs underneath it that has a wide variety throughout the United States at a state and local level.

Prevention and Wellness

The prevention and wellness program's main idea is to give the American people the ability to live the healthiest and best lifestyle physically that they can. They are the ones who deal with vaccines and immunizations, which fight from common diseases to deadly ones. The nutrition & fitness program that are the basics of healthy eating and regular exercise. Health screenings & family health history which are crucial in the knowledge of each individual's health and body. A severely important one especially in today's society is mental health & substance abuse in where they help people with mental illness and drug abuse. Lastly, they help with environmental health where people are researching and studying how our environments both physical and metaphorically have a short and long term effect on our health and wellness.

Strengthening Communities Fund

In June 2010, the Department of Health & Human Services created the Strengthening Communities Fund[29] as part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. The fund was appropriated $50 million to be given as grants to organizations in the United States who were engaged in Capacity Building programs. The grants were given to two different types of capacity builders:

  • State, Local and Tribal governments engaged in capacity building: grants will go to state local and tribal governments to equip them with the capacity to more effectively partner with faith-based or non-faith based nonprofit organizations.[30] Capacity building in this program will involve education and outreach that catalyzes more involvement of nonprofit organizations in economic recovery and building up nonprofit organization's abilities to tackle economic problems. State, Local and Tribal governments can receive up to $250,000 in two year grants
  • Nonprofit Social Service Providers engaged in capacity building: they will make grants available to nonprofit organizations who can assist other nonprofit organizations in organizational development, program development, leadership, and evaluations. Nonprofits can receive up to $1 million in two year grants

Biodefense

HHS plays a role in protecting the United States against bioterrorism events. In 2018, HHS released a new National Biodefense Strategy required by passage of the 2016 Biodefense Strategy Act. The Biodefense Strategy required implementation of a biodefense strategy after a 2015 Blue Ribbon Study Panel on Biodefense report found that the 2009 National Strategy for Countering Biological Threats was inadequate in protecting the U.S. The strategy adopted these five central recommendations: creating a single centralized approach to biodefense; implementing an interdisciplinary approach to biodefense that brings together policy makers, scientists, health experts, and academics; drawing up a comprehensive strategy to address human, plant, and animal health; creating a defense against global and domestic biological threats; and creating a proactive policy to combat the misuse and abuse of advanced biotechnology.[31]

HHS also runs the Biodefense Steering Committee, which works with other federal agencies including the Department of State, Department of Defense (DOD), U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and the Environmental Protection Agency.[31] HHS specifically oversees Project BioShield, established in 2003 and operating since 2004, and its development and production of genetically based bio-weapons and vaccines. HHS together with DHS are authorized under the Homeland Security Act of 2002 to deploy the weapons and vaccines produced by Project BioShield on the US general public under martial law during "emerging terrorist threats" or public health emergencies. Both HHS and DHS have similar authorities through state-based legislation adopted from Model State Emergency Health Powers Act provisions.

Criticisms and controversies

In 2016, a published US Senate report revealed that several dozen unaccompanied children from Central America, some as young as fourteen years old, were released from custody to traffickers where they were sexually assaulted, starved or forced to work for little or no pay.[32] The HHS sub agency Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR) released approximately 90,000 unaccompanied children during 2013-2015 but did not track their whereabouts or properly screen families accepting these children.[33]

To prevent similar episodes, the Homeland Security and Health & Human Services Departments signed a memorandum of understanding in 2016, and agreed to establish joint procedures within one year for dealing with unaccompanied migrant children. As of 2018 they have failed to do so. Between October and December 2017, officials from ORR tried to contact 7,635 children and their sponsors. From these calls, officials learned that 6,075 children remained with their sponsors. Twenty-eight had run away, five had been removed from the United States and fifty-two had relocated to live with a non sponsor. However, officials have lost track of 1,475 children.[34] ORR claims it is not legally liable for the safety and status of the children once released from custody.[35]

DHS claims the migrating children are "terror threats",[36][37] despite all evidence to the contrary. After falsely categorizing people as terror threats, a range of unconstitutional activities can be undertaken by HHS and DHS.

Beyond trafficking and disappearing migrating children, HHS is evidenced to be actively coercing and forcing bio-substances such as antipsychotics[38] on migrating children without consent, and under questionable medical supervision. Medical professionals state that wrongly prescribed antipsychotics are especially dangerous for children, and can cause permanent psychological damage.[39] Medical professionals also state DHS and HHS incarceration and separation policies are likewise causing irreparable mental harm to the children.[40][41]

Children are also dying in HHS custody.[42] The forced drugging, deaths, and disappearances of migrating Mexican and Central American children might be related to DHS falsely labeling them and their families as 'terror threats' before HHS manages their incarcerations. Despite a federal court order,[43] the DHS separation practices mandated by the Trump administration's "zero-tolerance" policy[44] have not been halted, and HHS has not stopped forcing drugs on the children it incarcerates.

Freedom of Information Act processing performance

In the latest Center for Effective Government analysis of 15 federal agencies which receive the most Freedom of Information Act (United States) (FOIA) requests published in 2015 (using 2012 and 2013 data, the most recent years available), the DHHS ranked second to last, earning an F by scoring 57 out of a possible 100 points, largely due to a low score on its particular disclosure rules. It had deteriorated from a D- in 2013.[45]

Related legislation

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ (ASFR), Office of Budget (OB), Assistant Secretary for Financial Resources (March 27, 2014). "2015 Budget in Brief". Archived from the original on May 2, 2015.
  2. ^ "About HHS". U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. Archived from the original on November 13, 2013. Retrieved November 13, 2013.
  3. ^ "Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. A Common Thread of Service: An Historical Guide to HEW. DHEW Publication No. (OS) 73-45". July 1, 1972. Archived from the original on February 14, 2014. Retrieved January 9, 2014.
  4. ^ a b c d e f Preliminary inventory of the records of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (PI 181, Record Group 235), National Archives and Records Service, 1975.
  5. ^ "Office of the Law Revision Counsel, U.S. House of Representatives, Title 20, Section 3508". house.gov. Archived from the original on June 19, 2012. Retrieved January 7, 2012.
  6. ^ Full text of the Department of Education Organization Act Archived May 7, 2018, at the Wayback Machine, P.L. 96-88.
  7. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on March 6, 2009. Retrieved March 6, 2009.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  8. ^ "Becker's Hospital Review". Archived from the original on August 29, 2015.
  9. ^ "Becker's Hospital Review" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on July 1, 2015.
  10. ^ "Becker's Hospital Review". Archived from the original on July 14, 2015.
  11. ^ "Ludi, Inc. Closes $1M in Series A Financing". Business Wire. Archived from the original on September 10, 2015.
  12. ^ "Policy Statement Development Process". American Public Health Association. Archived from the original on October 1, 2017. Retrieved September 30, 2017.
  13. ^ "The State Health Department". American public health department. Archived from the original on September 17, 2017. Retrieved September 30, 2017.
  14. ^ 2015 Department of Health & Human Services Budget-in-Brief Archived March 26, 2015, at the Wayback Machine, pg 10, United States Department of Health & Human Services, Accessed July 14, 2015.
  15. ^ Budget and Performance Archived April 28, 2015, at the Wayback Machine. HHS.gov. Retrieved on April 15, 2014.
  16. ^ (ASPA), Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs (January 29, 2015). "Programs & Services". HHS.gov. Archived from the original on September 17, 2017.
  17. ^ (ASPA), Digital Communications Division (DCD), Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs (February 26, 2015). "Social Services". hhs.gov. Archived from the original on September 17, 2017.
  18. ^ "Preparedness Home - PHE". www.phe.gov. Archived from the original on September 19, 2017.
  19. ^ "Office of Emergency Management - PHE". www.phe.gov. Archived from the original on September 7, 2017.
  20. ^ (ASPA), Digital Communications Division (DCD), Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs (February 26, 2015). "Research". hhs.gov. Archived from the original on September 17, 2017.
  21. ^ "HealthData.gov". www.healthdata.gov. Archived from the original on September 17, 2017.
  22. ^ (ASPA), Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs (January 29, 2015). "Programs & Services". HHS.gov. Archived from the original on September 17, 2017.
  23. ^ (ASPA), Digital Communications Division (DCD), Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs (February 26, 2015). "Prevention & Wellness". hhs.gov. Archived from the original on September 17, 2017.
  24. ^ (ASPA), Digital Communications Division (DCD), Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs (February 26, 2015). "Health Insurance". hhs.gov. Archived from the original on September 17, 2017.
  25. ^ (ASPA), Digital Communications Division (DCD), Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs (April 9, 2015). "Providers & Facilities". hhs.gov. Archived from the original on September 17, 2017.
  26. ^ (ASPA), Digital Communications Division (DCD), Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs (March 3, 2015). "Featured Topic Sites". hhs.gov. Archived from the original on September 17, 2017.
  27. ^ (ASPA), Digital Communications Division (DCD), Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs (February 26, 2015). "Public Health & Safety". hhs.gov. Archived from the original on September 17, 2017.
  28. ^ "Home - Office of Child Support Enforcement - Administration for Children and Families". Archived from the original on August 18, 2015.
  29. ^ "Strengthening Communities Fund". U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. Archived from the original on February 1, 2013.
  30. ^ "Strengthening Communities Fund: American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Implementation Plan" (PDF). U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. May 24, 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 16, 2013.
  31. ^ a b "A Multi-Disciplinary Approach to Multi-Disciplinary Threats". The Pandora Report. 2018-10-04. Retrieved 2018-12-31.
  32. ^ "Almost 1,500 Migrant Children Placed in Homes by the U.S. Government Went Missing Last Year". Time. Retrieved 2018-05-26.
  33. ^ "U.S. Placed Immigrant Children With Traffickers, Report Says". The New York Times. 2016-01-28. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2018-05-26.
  34. ^ "Federal Agencies Lost Track of Nearly 1,500 Migrant Children Placed With Sponsors". The New York Times. 2018-04-26. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2018-05-26.
  35. ^ CNN, Dakin Andone,. "US lost track of 1,500 immigrant children, but says it's not 'legally responsible'". CNN. Retrieved 2018-05-26.
  36. ^ Salvador Rizzo, January 7, 2019
  37. ^ Ackerman, Spencer (January 10, 2019). "DHS Accused of Lying, Again, About a Terrorism-Immigration Link". Retrieved March 7, 2019 – via www.thedailybeast.com.
  38. ^ Caroline Chen, Jess Ramirez (July 20, 2018). "Immigrant Shelters Drug Traumatized Teenagers Without…". ProPublica. Retrieved March 7, 2019.
  39. ^ Chan, Tara Francis. "Migrant children say they've been forcibly drugged, handcuffed, and abused in US government detention". Business Insider. Retrieved March 7, 2019.
  40. ^ "Children Separated From Parents". Psychology Today. Retrieved March 7, 2019.
  41. ^ "Doctors Concerned About 'Irreparable Harm' To Separated Migrant Children". NPR.org. Retrieved March 7, 2019.
  42. ^ Merchant, Nomaan (December 27, 2018). "Deaths of 2 children raise doubts about US border agency". AP NEWS. Retrieved March 7, 2019.
  43. ^ Editorial Board, June 27, 2018
  44. ^ "Attorney General Announces Zero-Tolerance Policy for Criminal Illegal Entry". www.justice.gov. April 6, 2018. Retrieved March 7, 2019.
  45. ^ Making the Grade: Access to Information Scorecard 2015 Archived March 13, 2016, at the Wayback Machine March 2015, 80 pages, Center for Effective Government, retrieved March 21, 2016.

External links

Template:United States Department of Health & Human Services

Administration for Children and Families

The Administration for Children and Families (ACF) is a division of the United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). It is headed by the Assistant Secretary for Children and Families. It has a $49 billion budget for 60 programs that target children, youth and families. These programs include assistance with welfare, child support enforcement, adoption assistance, foster care, child care, and child abuse.

Administration for Community Living

The Administration for Community Living (ACL) is part of the United States Department of Health and Human Services. It is headed by the Administrator, who reports directly to the Secretary of Health and Human Services (HHS). ACL’s Principal Deputy Administrator serves as Senior Advisor to the HHS Secretary for Disability Policy.

Administration on Aging

The Administration on Aging (AoA) is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services. AoA works to ensure that older Americans can stay independent in their communities, mostly by awarding grants to States, Native American tribal organizations, and local communities to support programs authorized by Congress in the Older Americans Act. AoA also awards discretionary grants to research organizations working on projects that support those goals. It conducts statistical activities in support of the research, analysis, and evaluation of programs to meet the needs of an aging population.

AoA's FY 2013 budget proposal includes a total of $1.9 billion, $819 million of which funds senior nutrition programs like Meals on Wheels. The agency also funds $539 million in grants to programs to help seniors stay in their homes through services (such as accomplishing essential activities of daily living, like getting to the doctor's office, buying groceries etc.) and through help given to caregivers. Some of these grants are for Cash & Counseling programs that provide Medicaid participants a monthly budget for home care and access to services that help them manage their finances.AoA is headed by the Assistant Secretary for Aging. From July 2016 to August 2017, Edwin Walker served as Acting Assistant Secretary for Aging. The Assistant Secretary reports directly to the Secretary of Health and Human Services. Lance Allen Robertson was confirmed in August 2017.

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality

The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ; pronounced "ark" by initiates and often "A-H-R-Q" by the public) is 1 of 12 agencies within the United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). The agency is headquartered in North Bethesda, Maryland, a suburb of Washington, D.C. (with a (Rockville mailing address). It was established as the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR) as a constituent unit of the Public Health Service (PHS) under the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1989 (103 Stat. 2159), December 19, 1989, to enhance the quality, appropriateness, and effectiveness of health care services and access to care by conducting and supporting research, demonstration projects, and evaluations; developing guidelines; and disseminating information on health care services and delivery systems.

However, AHCPR became controversial when it produced several guidelines that some thought would reduce medical drugs and procedures. This included concern from ophthalmologists on a cataract guideline and concern by the pharmaceutical industry over a reduction in the use of new drugs. When the agency produced a guideline that concluded that back pain surgery was unnecessary and potentially harmful, a lobbying campaign aided by Congressmen whose backs had been operated on changed the name of the agency and scaled back the guidelines program, which now exists as the National Guideline Clearinghouse. AHCPR was reauthorized December 6, 1999, for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) under the Healthcare Research and Quality Act of 1999, which amended Title IX of the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. 299 et seq).

Aid to Families with Dependent Children

Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) was a federal assistance program in effect from 1935 to 1996 created by the Social Security Act (SSA)

and administered by the United States Department of Health and Human Services that provided financial assistance to children whose families had low or no income.

This program grew from a minor part of the social security system to a significant system of welfare administered by the states with federal funding. However, it was criticized for offering incentives for women to have children, and for providing disincentives for women to join the workforce. In 1996, AFDC was replaced by the more restrictive Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program.

Barbara Favola

Barbara A. Favola (born June 21, 1955) is an American politician from the Commonwealth of Virginia. A Democrat, she has served in the Senate of Virginia since 2011, representing the 31st District, encompassing portions of Arlington, Fairfax, and Loudoun counties.

Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services

The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), previously known as the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA), is a federal agency within the United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) that administers the Medicare program and works in partnership with state governments to administer Medicaid, the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), and health insurance portability standards. In addition to these programs, CMS has other responsibilities, including the administrative simplification standards from the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), quality standards in long-term care facilities (more commonly referred to as nursing homes) through its survey and certification process, clinical laboratory quality standards under the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments, and oversight of HealthCare.gov.

Common Rule

The Common Rule is a 1981 rule of ethics in the United States regarding biomedical and behavioral research involving human subjects. It governed Institutional Review Boards for oversight of human research and followed the 1975 revision of the Declaration of Helsinki; it is encapsulated in the 1991 revision to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Title 45 CFR 46 (Public Welfare) Subparts A, B, C and D. Subpart A. The Common Rule is the baseline standard of ethics by which any government-funded research in the US is held; nearly all U.S. academic institutions hold their researchers to these statements of rights regardless of funding.

Healthy People program

Healthy People is a program of a nationwide health-promotion and disease-prevention goals set by the United States Department of Health and Human Services. The goals were first set in 1979 "in response to an emerging consensus among scientists and health authorities that national health priorities should emphasize disease prevention". The Healthy People program was originally issued by the Department of Health, Education and Welfare (DHEW). This first issue contained "a report announcing goals for a ten-year plan to reduce controllable health risks. In its section on nutrition, the report recommended diets with fewer calories; less saturated fat, cholesterol, salt, and sugar; relatively more complex carbohydrates, fish and poultry; and less red meat." Though this recommended diet consisted of more processed foods rather than fresh produce, the report advised for consumers to "be wary of processed foods". The goals were subsequently updated for Healthy People 2000, Healthy People 2010, and Healthy People 2020.Healthy People 2010, started in January 2000 by the United States Department of Health and Human Services, was a set of nationwide health-promotion and disease-prevention goals to be achieved by the year 2010. Programs such as HealthCorps grew out of this plan.

John E. Fogarty International Center

The John E. Fogarty International Center was founded in 1968 by US President Lyndon Johnson at the National Institutes of Health to support international medical and behavioral research and to train international researchers.

Laboratory Response Network

The Laboratory Response Network (LRN) is a collaborative effort within the US federal government involving the Association of Public Health Laboratories and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Most state public health laboratories participate as reference laboratories (formerly level B/C) of the LRN. These facilities support hundreds of sentinel (formerly level A) laboratories in local hospitals throughout the United States and can provide sophisticated confirmatory diagnosis and typing of biological agents that may be used in a bioterrorist attack or other bio-agent incident. The LRN was established in 1999.

Massachusetts v. United States Department of Health and Human Services

Commonwealth of Massachusetts v. United States Department of Health and Human Services 682 F.3d 1 is a United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit decision that affirmed the judgment of the District Court for the District of Massachusetts in a lawsuit challenging the constitutionality of section 3 of the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA), the section that defines the terms "marriage" as "a legal union between one man and one woman as husband and wife" and "spouse" as "a person of the opposite sex who is a husband or a wife." Both courts found DOMA to be unconstitutional, though for different reasons. The trial court held that DOMA violates the Tenth Amendment and Spending Clause. In a companion case, Gill v. Office of Personnel Management, the same judge held that DOMA violates the Equal Protection Clause. On May 31, 2012, the First Circuit held the act violates the Equal Protection Clause, while federalism concerns affect the equal protection analysis, DOMA does not violate the Spending Clause or Tenth Amendment.

The First Circuit, anticipating that the parties would seek a review of the decision, stayed its decision. Both the Department of Justice and Commonwealth of Massachusetts asked the U.S. Supreme Court to review the decision by filing petitions for a writ of certiorari. The Supreme Court decided a similar case, United States v. Windsor, on June 26, 2013, and dismissed the petitions the following day.

National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity

The National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity is a panel of experts that report to the Secretary of the United States Department of Health and Human Services. It is tasked with recommending policies on such questions as how to prevent published research in biotechnology from aiding terrorism, without slowing scientific progress. It is composed of non-voting ex officio and appointed voting members. The current Chair of the NSABB is Samuel L. Stanley, Jr., M.D..As of 2017, the ex officio members were:

Department of Commerce:

Jason Boehm, Ph.D., Office of Program Analysis and Evaluation, National Institute of Standards and Technology Division Head

Department of Defense :

David Christian Hassell, Ph.D., Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Nuclear and Chemical and Biological Programs

Department of Energy:

Sharlene Weatherwax, Ph.D., Associate Director of Science for Biological and Environmental Research

Department of Health and Human Services

Anthony S. Fauci, M.D., Director, National Institute of Allergy & Infectious Disease

Sally Phillips, R.N., Ph.D., Deputy Assistant Secretary, Office of Policy and Planning, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response

CAPT Carmen Maher, Deputy Director, Office of Counterterrorism and Emerging Threats (OCET), Office of the Commissioner, Food and Drug Administration

Michael W. Shaw, Ph.D., Senior Advisor for Laboratory Science, Office of Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Department of Homeland Security

Wendy Hall, Ph.D., Special Senior Advisor for Biological Threats, Office of Chemical, Biological, and Nuclear Policy

Department of the Interior

Anne E. Kinsinger, Associate Director for Biology, U.S. Geological Survey

Department of Justice

Edward You, Supervisory Special Agent, FBI Weapons of Mass Destruction Directorate

Department of State

Christopher Park, Director, Biological Policy Staff, Bureau of International Security and Nonproliferation

Department of Veterans Affairs

Brenda A. Cuccherini, Ph.D., M.P.H. Special Assistant to the Chief Research and Development Officer, Veterans Health Administration

Environmental Protection Agency,

Gregory Sayles, Ph.D., Acting Director, National Homeland Security Research Center

Executive Office of the President

Gerald Epstein, Ph.D., Assistant Director for Biosecurity and Emerging Technologies, National Security and International Affairs Division, Office of Science and Technology Policy

Intelligence Community

Amanda Dion-Schultz, Ph.D., Office of the Chief Scientist

Robert M. Miceli, Ph.D., Biological Issue Manager and Advisor to the Director, Office of the Director of National Intelligence

National Aeronautics and Space Administration

David R. Liskowsky, Ph.D., Director, Medical Policy & Ethics, Office of the Chief Health and Medical Officer

Department of Agriculture

Steven Kappes, Ph.D. Deputy Administrator, Animal Production and Protection

Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health

The Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health (OASH) is an operating agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services and the managing personnel body for the United States Public Health Service. The office is under the direction of the Assistant Secretary for Health, who serves as the senior uniformed advisor on public health and science issues to the Department Secretary. The Office serves as the focal point for leadership and coordination across the Department in public health and science, provides direction to program offices within OASH, and provides advice and counsel on public health and science issues to the Secretary.

Prior to 2010, the Office was known as the Office of Public Health and Science (OPHS).

Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response

The Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response (ASPR) within the United States Department of Health and Human Services was created under the Pandemic and All Hazards Preparedness Act in the wake of Hurricane Katrina to lead the nation in preventing, preparing for, and responding to the adverse health effects of public health emergencies and disasters. ASPR focuses on preparedness planning and response; building federal emergency medical operational capabilities; countermeasures research, advance development, and procurement; and grants to strengthen the capabilities of hospitals and health care systems in public health emergencies and medical disasters. The office provides federal support, including medical professionals through ASPR’s National Disaster Medical System, to augment state and local capabilities during an emergency or disaster.

President's Council on Sports, Fitness, and Nutrition

The President's Council on Fitness, Sports and Nutrition (PCFSN) is an American government organization that aims to "promote, encourage and motivate Americans of all ages to become physically active and participate in sports." It is part of the Office of Public Health and Science, an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services. Prior to June 2010, it was called the President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports.

Surgeon General of the United States

The Surgeon General of the United States is the operational head of the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps (PHSCC) and thus the leading spokesperson on matters of public health in the federal government of the United States. The Surgeon General's office and staff are known as the Office of the Surgeon General (OSG) which is housed within the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health.The U.S. Surgeon General is nominated by the President of the United States and confirmed by the Senate. The Surgeon General must be appointed from individuals who (1) are members of the Regular Corps of the U.S. Public Health Service, and (2) have specialized training or significant experience in public health programs. The Surgeon General serves a four-year term of office and, depending on whether the current Assistant Secretary for Health is a Public Health Service commissioned officer, is either the senior or next most senior uniformed officer of the commissioned corps, holding the rank of a vice admiral. The current Surgeon General is Jerome Adams, having taken office on September 5, 2017.

United States Public Health Service

The United States Public Health Service (USPHS) is a division of the Department of Health and Human Services concerned with public health. It contains eight out of the department's eleven operating divisions. The Assistant Secretary for Health (ASH) oversees the PHS. The Public Health Service Commissioned Corps (PHSCC) is the federal uniformed service of the USPHS, and is one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.

Its origins can be traced to the establishment of 1798 of a system of marine hospitals. In 1870 these were consolidated into the Marine Hospital Service, and the position of Surgeon General was established. In 1889, the PHSCC was established. As the system's scope grew, it was renamed the Public Health Service in 1912. The Public Health Service Act of 1944 consolidated and revised previous laws and is the current legal basis for the PHS. It became part of the Federal Security Agency and later the Department of Health, Education and Welfare, which became the Department of Health and Human Services in 1979.

United States Secretary of Health and Human Services

The United States Secretary of Health and Human Services is the head of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, concerned with health matters. The Secretary is a member of the President's Cabinet. The office was formerly Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare.

In 1980, the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare was renamed the Department of Health and Human Services, and its education functions and Rehabilitation Services Administration were transferred to the new Department of Education. Patricia Roberts Harris headed the department before and after it was renamed.Nominations to the office of Secretary of HHS are referred to the Health, Education, Labor and Pensions Committee and the Finance Committee, which has jurisdiction over Medicare and Medicaid, before confirmation is considered by the full United States Senate.

Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act the role of the Secretary has been greatly expanded.Donald Trump selected then-Congressman Tom Price to be the 23rd Secretary of the Health and Human Services Department. Price was confirmed by the U.S. Senate on February 10, 2017 and resigned on September 29, 2017. Trump then named Don J. Wright, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Health and Director of the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, as acting Secretary until Deputy Secretary Eric Hargan was sworn in on October 10, 2017. On November 13, 2017, Trump nominated former pharmaceutical executive Alex Azar to fill the position permanently. Azar's confirmation hearing before the Senate Finance Committee took place on January 9, 2018, and on January 24, 2018, Azar was confirmed by the U.S. Senate by a vote of 55 to 43. Azar was sworn in on January 29, 2018.

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