United States Department of Energy

The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a cabinet-level department of the United States Government concerned with the United States' policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material. Its responsibilities include the nation's nuclear weapons program, nuclear reactor production for the United States Navy, energy conservation, energy-related research, radioactive waste disposal, and domestic energy production. It also directs research in genomics; the Human Genome Project originated in a DOE initiative.[3] DOE sponsors more research in the physical sciences than any other U.S. federal agency, the majority of which is conducted through its system of National Laboratories.[4] The agency is administered by the United States Secretary of Energy, and its headquarters are located in Southwest Washington, D.C., on Independence Avenue in the James V. Forrestal Building, named for James Forrestal, as well as in Germantown, Maryland.

Former Governor of Texas Rick Perry is the current Secretary of Energy. He was confirmed by a 62 to 37 vote in the United States Senate on March 2, 2017.[5]

United States Department of Energy
Seal of the United States Department of Energy
Seal of the U.S. Department of Energy
Flag of the United States Department of Energy
Flag of the U.S. Department of Energy
US Dept of Energy Forrestal Building

James V. Forrestal Building, Department Headquarters
Agency overview
FormedAugust 4, 1977
Preceding agencies
HeadquartersJames V. Forrestal Building
1000 Independence Avenue
Southwest, Washington, D.C., U.S.
38°53′13″N 77°1′34″W / 38.88694°N 77.02611°WCoordinates: 38°53′13″N 77°1′34″W / 38.88694°N 77.02611°W
Employees12,944 federal (2014)[1]
93,094 contract (2008)
Annual budget$27.9 billion (2015)[2]
Agency executives


Formation and consolidation

In 1942, during World War II, the United States started the Manhattan Project, a project to develop the atomic bomb, under the eye of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. After the war in 1946, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) was created to control the future of the project.[6][7] Among other nuclear projects, the AEC produced fabricated uranium fuel cores at locations such as Fernald Feed Materials Production Center in Cincinnati, Ohio.[8][9][10] In 1974, the AEC gave way to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, which was tasked with regulating the nuclear power industry, and the Energy Research and Development Administration, which was tasked to manage the nuclear weapon, naval reactor, and energy development programs.

The 1973 oil crisis called attention to the need to consolidate energy policy.[11][12][13] On August 4, 1977, President Jimmy Carter signed into law The Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 (Pub.L. 95–91, 91 Stat. 565, enacted August 4, 1977), which created the Department of Energy.[14] The new agency, which began operations on October 1, 1977, consolidated the Federal Energy Administration, the Energy Research and Development Administration, the Federal Power Commission, and programs of various other agencies. Former Secretary of Defense James Schlesinger, who served under Presidents Nixon and Ford during the Vietnam War, was appointed as the first secretary.

Weapon plans stolen

In December 1999, the FBI was investigating how China obtained plans for a specific nuclear device. Wen Ho Lee was accused of stealing nuclear secrets from Los Alamos National Laboratory for the People's Republic of China. Federal officials, including then-Energy Secretary Bill Richardson, publicly named Lee as a suspect before he was charged with a crime. The U.S. Congress held hearings to investigate the Department of Energy's mishandling of his case. Republican senators thought that an independent agency should be in charge of nuclear weapons and security issues, not the Department of Energy.[15] All but one of the 59 charges against Lee were eventually dropped because the investigation finally proved that the plans the Chinese obtained could not have come from Lee. Lee filed suit and won a $1.6 million settlement against the federal government and news agencies.[16]

Loan guarantee program of 2005

In 2001, American Solar Challenge was sponsored by the United States Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.[17] After the 2005 race, the U.S. Department of Energy discontinued its sponsorship.[18]

Title XVII of Energy Policy Act of 2005 authorizes the DOE to issue loan guarantees to eligible projects that "avoid, reduce, or sequester air pollutants or anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases" and "employ new or significantly improved technologies as compared to technologies in service in the United States at the time the guarantee is issued".[19] In loan guarantees, a conditional commitment requires to meet an equity commitment, as well as other conditions, before the loan guarantee is completed.[20]

The United States Department of Energy, the Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI), the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management (INMM), and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) partnered to develop and launch the World Institute for Nuclear Security (WINS) in September 2008. WINS is an international non-governmental organization designed to provide a forum to share best practices in strengthening the security and safety of nuclear and radioactive materials and facilities.[21]


On March 28, 2017 a supervisor in the Office of International Climate and Clean Energy asked staff to avoid the phrases "climate change," "emissions reduction," or "Paris Agreement" in written memos, briefings or other written communication. A DOE spokesperson denied that phrases had been banned.[22][23]


Structure and positions

US Department of Energy organizational chart July 2015
Organizational chart of the U.S. Department of Energy as of July 2015


Secretary of Energy Deputy Secretary of Energy
*Associate Deputy Secretary of Energy
Assistant Secretary of Energy (Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy)
Assistant Secretary of Energy (Nuclear Energy)
Assistant Secretary of Energy (Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability)
Assistant Secretary of Energy (International Affairs)
Assistant Secretary of Energy (Congressional and Intergovernmental Affairs)
Assistant Secretary of Energy (Cybersecurity, Energy Security and Emergency Response)[24]
Office of the General Counsel
Office of the Chief Financial Officer
Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy
Energy Information Administration
Bonneville Power Administration
Southeastern Power Administration
Southwestern Power Administration
Western Area Power Administration
Federal Energy Regulatory Commission
Enterprise Assessments
Energy Policy and System Analysis
Intelligence and Counterintelligence
Loan Programs Office
Public Affairs
Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization
Under Secretary of Energy for Science Office of Science
Assistant Secretary of Energy (Fossil Energy)
Indian Energy Policy and Programs
Technology Transitions
Under Secretary of Energy for Nuclear Security National Nuclear Security Administration
Under Secretary of Energy National Laboratory Operations Board
Associate Under Secretary of Energy (Environment, Health, Safety and Security)
Office of Management
Chief Human Capital Officer
Chief Information Officer
Economic Impact and Diversity
Hearings and Appeals
Assistant Secretary of Energy (Environmental Management)
*Legacy Management

The department is under the control and supervision of a United States Secretary of Energy, a political appointee of the President of the United States. The Energy Secretary is assisted in managing the department by a United States Deputy Secretary of Energy, also appointed by the president, who assumes the duties of the secretary in his absence. The department also has three under secretaries, each appointed by the president, who oversee the major areas of the department's work. The president also appoints seven officials with the rank of Assistant Secretary of Energy who have line management responsibility for major organizational elements of the Department. The Energy Secretary assigns their functions and duties.

Symbolism in the seal

Excerpt from the Code of Federal Regulations, in Title 10: Energy:[25]

The official seal of the Department of energy "includes a green shield bisected by a gold-colored lightning bolt, on which is emblazoned a gold-colored symbolic sun, atom, oil derrick, windmill, and dynamo. It is crested by the white head of an eagle, atop a white rope. Both appear on a blue field surrounded by concentric circles in which the name of the agency, in gold, appears on a green background."

"The eagle represents the care in planning and the purposefulness of efforts required to respond to the Nation's increasing demands for energy. The sun, atom, oil derrick, windmill, and dynamo serve as representative technologies whose enhanced development can help meet these demands. The rope represents the cohesiveness in the development of the technologies and their link to our future capabilities. The lightning bolt represents the power of the natural forces from which energy is derived and the Nation's challenge in harnessing the forces."

"The color scheme is derived from nature, symbolizing both the source of energy and the support of man's existence. The blue field represents air and water, green represents mineral resources and the earth itself, and gold represents the creation of energy in the release of natural forces. By invoking this symbolism, the color scheme represents the Nation's commitment to meet its energy needs in a manner consistent with the preservation of the natural environment."


The Department of Energy operates a system of national laboratories and technical facilities for research and development, as follows:

Other major DOE facilities include:


Nuclear weapons sites

The DOE/NNSA has federal responsibility for the design, testing and production of all nuclear weapons. NNSA in turn uses contractors to carry out its responsibilities at the following government owned sites:

Related legislation

Department of Energy Sign
Sign in front of the United States Department of Energy Forrestal Building on 1000 Independence Avenue in Washington D.C.


President Barack Obama unveiled on May 7, 2009, a $26.4 billion budget request for DOE for fiscal year (FY) 2010, including $2.3 billion for the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). The budget aims to substantially expand the use of renewable energy sources while improving energy transmission infrastructure. It also makes significant investments in hybrids and plug-in hybrids, in smart grid technologies, and in scientific research and innovation.[28]

As part of the $789 billion economic stimulus package in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, Congress provided Energy with an additional $38.3 billion for fiscal years 2009 and 2010, adding about 75 percent to Energy's annual budgets. Most of the stimulus spending was in the form of grants and contracts. For fiscal year 2013, each of the operating units of the Department of Energy operated with the following budgets:[29]

Division Funding
Nuclear Security $11.5
Energy and Environment $9.5
Science $4.9
Management $0.25
Other $0.85
Total $28

In March 2018, Energy Secretary Rick Perry testified to a Senate panel about the Trump administration’s DOE budget request for fiscal year 2019. The budget request prioritizes nuclear security while making large cuts to energy efficiency and renewable energy programs. The proposal is a $500 million in crease in funds over fiscal year 2017. It "promotes innovations like a new Office of Cybersecurity, Energy Security, and Emergency Response (CESER) and gains for the Office of Fossil Energy. Investments would be made to strengthen the National Nuclear Security Administration and modernize the nuclear force, as well as in weapons activities and advanced computing." However, the budget for the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy would be lowered to $696 million under the plan, down from $1.3 billion in fiscal year 2017. Overall, the department’s energy and related programs would be cut by $1.9 billion.[30]

Programs and contracts

Energy Savings Performance Contract

Energy Savings Performance Contracts (ESPCs) are contracts under which a contractor designs, constructs, and obtains the necessary financing for an energy savings project, and the federal agency makes payments over time to the contractor from the savings in the agency's utility bills. The contractor guarantees the energy improvements will generate savings, and after the contract ends, all continuing cost savings accrue to the federal agency.[31]

Energy Innovation Hubs

Energy Innovation Hubs are multi-disciplinary meant to advance highly promising areas of energy science and technology from their early stages of research to the point that the risk level will be low enough for industry to commercialize the technologies.[28] The Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) was the first DOE Energy Innovation Hub established in July 2010, for the purpose of providing advanced modeling and simulation (M&S) solutions for commercial nuclear reactors.[32]

The 2009 DOE budget includes $280 million to fund eight Energy Innovation Hubs, each of which is focused on a particular energy challenge. Two of the eight hubs are included in the EERE budget and will focus on integrating smart materials, designs, and systems into buildings to better conserve energy and on designing and discovering new concepts and materials needed to convert solar energy into electricity. Another two hubs, included in the DOE Office of Science budget, were created to tackle the challenges of devising advanced methods of energy storage and creating fuels directly from sunlight without the use of plants or microbes. Yet another hub was made to develop "smart" materials to allow the electrical grid to adapt and respond to changing conditions.[28]

In 2012, The DOE awarded $120 million to the Ames Laboratory to start a new EIH, the Critical Materials Institute, which will focus on improving the supply of rare earth elements, which is controlled by China.[33]

Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy

ARPA-E was officially created by the America COMPETES Act , authored by Congressman Bart Gordon,[34] within the United States Department of Energy (DOE) in 2007, though without a budget. The initial budget of about $400 million was a part of the economic stimulus bill of February 2009.[35]


List of Secretaries of Energy

# Name Term President served
Start End
1 James R. Schlesinger August 6, 1977 August 23, 1979 Jimmy Carter
2 Charles W. Duncan, Jr. August 24, 1979 January 20, 1981
3 James B. Edwards January 23, 1981 November 5, 1982 Ronald Reagan
4 Donald Paul Hodel November 5, 1982 February 7, 1985
5 John S. Herrington February 7, 1985 January 20, 1989
6 James D. Watkins March 1, 1989 January 20, 1993 George H. W. Bush
7 Hazel R. O'Leary January 22, 1993 January 20, 1997 Bill Clinton
8 Federico F. Peña March 12, 1997 June 30, 1998
9 Bill Richardson August 18, 1998 January 20, 2001
10 Spencer Abraham January 20, 2001 January 31, 2005 George W. Bush
11 Samuel W. Bodman February 1, 2005 January 20, 2009
12 Steven Chu January 21, 2009 April 22, 2013 Barack Obama
13 Ernest Moniz May 16, 2013 January 20, 2017
14 Rick Perry March 2, 2017 Incumbent Donald Trump

See also


  1. ^ Service, Partnership for Public. "Department of Energy". bestplacestowork.org. Retrieved December 25, 2016.
  2. ^ "The Budget for Fiscal Year 2015" (PDF). Department of Energy. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 26, 2015. Retrieved December 6, 2016.
  3. ^ "Genomes to Life, Black Bag" (PDF). U.S. Department of Energy.
  4. ^ "NSF Science and Engineering Indicators 2012". National Science Foundation.
  5. ^ Davenport, Coral (March 2, 2017). "Senate Confirms Rick Perry as Energy Secretary". The New York Times.
  6. ^ "Manhattan Project | Department of Energy". energy.gov. Retrieved July 11, 2016.
  7. ^ Gosling, F. G. (January 2010). "The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb" (PDF). Department of Energy. Retrieved July 11, 2016.
  8. ^ National Lead Company of Ohio, Contract Operator of the Feed Materials Production Center for the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. The Feed Materials Production Center. NCLO-950. n. d.
  9. ^ Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management. "End of Secrecy". Retrieved December 27, 2016.
  10. ^ U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management. "History of the Fernand Site". Retrieved December 27, 2016.
  11. ^ [1] ' 'Time Magazine' ' (May 7, 1973),
  12. ^ Smith, William D. (April 17, 1973). "Energy Crisis: Shortages Amid Plenty". The New York Times. New York. Retrieved September 5, 2016.
  13. ^ Welles, Chris (February 25, 1973). "The Energy Crisis". The New York Times. New York. Retrieved September 5, 2016.
  14. ^ Relyea, Harold; Thomas P. Carr (2003). The executive branch, creation and reorganization. Nova Publishers. p. 29. |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  15. ^ Plotz, David (June 23, 2000). "Energy Secretary Bill Richardson". Slate.com. Retrieved November 7, 2008.
  16. ^ Mears, Bill (May 22, 2006). "Deal in Wen Ho Lee case may be imminent". CNN. Retrieved November 7, 2008.
  17. ^ "State Energy Advisory Board resolution" (PDF). US Department of Energy. Retrieved May 26, 2017.
  18. ^ Toyota Sponsors World's Longest Solar Car Race Archived September 27, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  19. ^ "Department of Energy – Loan Guarantee Program". Lgprogram.energy.gov. December 31, 2006. Archived from the original on February 1, 2010. Retrieved August 25, 2009.
  20. ^ "EERE News: DOE Offers $535 Million Loan Guarantee to Solyndra, Inc". Apps1.eere.energy.gov. March 20, 2009. Retrieved August 25, 2009.
  21. ^ Institute To Strengthen Security for Nuclear Materials, Security Products magazine, September 30, 2008
  22. ^ Wolff, Eric (March 29, 2017). "Energy Department climate office bans use of phrase 'climate change'". Politico. Retrieved March 30, 2017.
  23. ^ Dwibhashyam, Pavitra (March 30, 2017). "US Energy Department tells staff not to use words like climate change and Paris agreement". International Business Times. Retrieved March 30, 2017.
  24. ^ "ecretary of Energy Rick Perry Forms New Office of Cybersecurity, Energy Security, and Emergency Response". Retrieved June 16, 2018.
  25. ^ "Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10- Energy, PART 1002 - OFFICIAL SEAL AND DISTINGUISHING FLAG". U.S. Department of Energy.
  26. ^ Office of Fossil Energy, accessed January 22, 2017
  27. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on January 4, 2010. Retrieved January 18, 2010.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  28. ^ a b c "EERE News: DOE Requests $2.3 Billion for Efficiency, Renewable Energy in FY 2010". Apps1.eere.energy.gov. May 13, 2009. Retrieved August 25, 2009.
  29. ^ "Department of Energy: FY 2014 Congressional Budget Request" (PDF). Department of Energy – Office of the Chief Financial Officer. April 2013.
  30. ^ Galford, Chris (March 20, 2018). "Perry defends nuclear investment and cuts to renewables in $30.6 bln DOE budget proposal". Daily Energy Insider. Retrieved March 22, 2018.
  31. ^ "EERE News: DOE Awards 16 Contracts for Energy Savings at Federal Facilities". Apps1.eere.energy.gov. January 7, 2009. Retrieved August 25, 2009.
  32. ^ Kulesza, Joel; Franceschini, Fausto; Evans, Thomas; Gehin, Jess (February 3, 2016). "Overview of the Consortium for the Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL)". EPJ Web of Conferences. 106. doi:10.1051/epjconf/201610603002. Retrieved February 8, 2019.
  33. ^ "US spots $120M for lab to tackle rare earth shortages". Networkworld.com. January 9, 2013. Retrieved January 16, 2013.
  34. ^ Bart, Gordon, (May 19, 2010). "H.R.5325 - 111th Congress (2009-2010): America COMPETES Reauthorization Act of 2010". www.congress.gov.
  35. ^ George Leopold. "Stimulus: Energy Department scrambles to build new R&D agency". EE Times. Retrieved August 14, 2011.

Further reading

External links

Brookhaven National Laboratory

Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory located in Upton, New York, on Long Island, and was formally established in 1947 at the site of Camp Upton, a former U.S. Army base. Its name stems from its location within the Town of Brookhaven, approximately 60 miles east of New York City.

Research at BNL specializes in nuclear and high energy physics, energy science and technology, environmental and bioscience, nanoscience and national security. The 5,300 acre campus contains several large research facilities, including the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and National Synchrotron Light Source II. Seven Nobel prizes have been awarded for work conducted at Brookhaven lab.

Energy Information Administration

The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System responsible for collecting, analyzing, and disseminating energy information to promote sound policymaking, efficient markets, and public understanding of energy and its interaction with the economy and the environment. EIA programs cover data on coal, petroleum, natural gas, electric, renewable and nuclear energy. EIA is part of the U.S. Department of Energy.

Idaho National Laboratory

Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is one of the national laboratories of the United States Department of Energy and is managed by the Battelle Energy Alliance. While the laboratory does other research, historically it has been involved with nuclear research. Much of current knowledge about how nuclear reactors behave and misbehave was discovered at what is now Idaho National Laboratory. John Grossenbacher, former INL director, said, "The history of nuclear energy for peaceful application has principally been written in Idaho".Various organizations have built more than 50 reactors at what is commonly called "the Site", including the ones that gave the world its first usable amount of electricity from nuclear power and the power plant for the world's first nuclear submarine. Although many are now decommissioned, these facilities are the largest concentration of reactors in the world.It is on a 890-square-mile (2,310 km2) complex in the high desert of eastern Idaho, between Arco to the west and Idaho Falls and Blackfoot to the east. Atomic City, Idaho is just south. The laboratory employs approximately 4,000 people.

Kansas City Plant

The Kansas City Plant is a National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) facility managed and operated by Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (formerly Bendix Aviation Corporation and Bendix Kansas City Division of Allied-Signal) that produces 85 percent of the nonnuclear material used in the United States nuclear weapon arsenal. It was renamed the Kansas City National Security Campus in 2015.

The plant produces non-nuclear mechanical, electronic, and engineered material components for U.S. national defense systems such as high-energy laser ignition systems, microwave hybrid microcircuit production, and miniature electromechanical devices. The plant also provides technical services such as metallurgical/mechanical analysis, analytical chemistry, environmental testing, nondestructive testing, computer-based training, simulations and analysis, and technical certification.

National Energy Technology Laboratory

The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is a U.S. national laboratory under the Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy. NETL focuses on applied research for the clean production and use of domestic energy resources. NETL performs research and development on the supply, efficiency, and environmental constraints of producing and using fossil energy resources, while maintaining their affordability.

NETL has sites in Albany, Oregon; Morgantown, West Virginia; and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Together, these sites have 117 buildings and 242 acres of land combined. More than 1,400 employees work at NETL's three sites, including federal employees and site-support contractors.

NETL funds and manages contracted research in the United States and more than 40 foreign countries through arrangements with both private organizations and other government agencies. This work is augmented by onsite applied research in computational and basic sciences, energy system dynamics, geological and environmental systems, and materials science.

Naval Reactors

Naval Reactors (NR) is an umbrella term for the U.S. government office that has comprehensive responsibility for safe and reliable operation of the United States Navy's nuclear propulsion program. A single entity, it has authority and reporting responsibilities within both the United States Department of the Navy (Chief of Naval Operations and the Naval Sea Systems Command, NAVSEA), and the United States Department of Energy (National Nuclear Security Administration).Program responsibilities are delineated in Presidential Executive Order 12344 of February 1, 1982, and prescribed by Public Laws 98-525 of October 19, 1984 (42 USC 7158), and 106-65 of October 5, 1999 (50 USC 2406).

Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability

The Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE) is a program office within the United States Department of Energy. The mission of OE is "to lead national efforts to modernize the electric grid; enhance security and reliability of the energy infrastructure; and facilitate recovery from disruptions to energy supply."

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is an office within the United States Department of Energy. Formed from other energy agencies after the 1973 energy crisis, EERE's mission is to help support the development of clean, renewable and efficiency energy technologies to America and support a global clean energy economy. The Office of EERE is led by the Assistant Secretary of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, who oversees three technology sectors: renewable energy, sustainable transportation, and energy efficiency. Within these sectors are 11 major technology offices and programs that support research, development, and outreach efforts.

Office of Intelligence and Counterintelligence

The Office of Intelligence and Counterintelligence (OICI), established in 1977, is an office of the United States Department of Energy that focuses on gathering intelligence for the department. It provides information to the Secretary of Energy and senior federal policy makers. As a member of the Intelligence Community, it also provides the other intelligence agencies with technical analysis of foreign intelligence. The Office of Intelligence utilizes all of the Department of Energy's resources to gather and analyze intelligence, including the national laboratories. Its expertise is in nuclear weapons, nuclear proliferation, nuclear energy, radioactive waste and energy security. Its most important function to the Intelligence Community is its assessments of foreign nuclear weapons programs. However, it also provides scientific expertise, analysis and technology. Currently, the office does not perform counterintelligence activities. These are handled by the National Nuclear Security Administration and the Office of the National Counterintelligence Executive.

Office of Science

The Office of Science is a component of the United States Department of Energy (DOE). The Office of Science is the lead federal agency supporting fundamental scientific research for energy and the Nation’s largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences. The Office of Science portfolio has two principal thrusts: direct support of scientific research and direct support of the development, construction, and operation of unique, open-access scientific user facilities that are made available for use by external researchers.

The Office of Science manages this research portfolio through six interdisciplinary scientific program offices: Advanced Scientific Computing Research, Basic Energy Sciences, Biological and Environmental Research, Fusion Energy Sciences, High Energy Physics and Nuclear Physics. The Office of Science also has responsibility for 10 of the 17 United States Department of Energy National Laboratories.The office is the predominant U.S. federal government sponsor for research in the physical sciences, including physics, chemistry, computer science, applied mathematics, materials science, nanoscience, and engineering, as well as systems biology and environmental sciences. The Office of Science makes extensive use of peer review and federal advisory committees to develop general directions for research investments, to identify priorities, and to determine the very best scientific proposals to support.

The 10 Office of Science national laboratories are: Ames Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, and the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility.

Office of Scientific and Technical Information

The Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) is a component of the Office of Science within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The Energy Policy Act PL 109-58, Section 982, called out the responsibility of OSTI: "The Secretary, through the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, shall maintain with the Department publicly available collections of scientific and technical information resulting from research, development, demonstration, and commercial applications activities supported by the Department."

Power Marketing Administration

A Power Marketing Administration (PMA) is a United States federal agency within the Department of Energy with the responsibility for marketing hydropower, primarily from multiple-purpose water projects operated by the Bureau of Reclamation, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the International Boundary and Water Commission.

The federal government first assumed a role in power marketing in the early 1900s when power from federal water projects in excess of project needs was sold in order to repay the government's investment in the projects.The Southeastern Power Administration is the only PMA that doesn't construct and own transmission lines, putting it at a disadvantage with regards to dealing with private utility companies compared to the other three PMAs. The SEPA has to contract with other utilities to provide transmission.There are four federal PMAs, which market and deliver power in 34 U.S. states:

Bonneville Power Administration (established 1937)

Southeastern Power Administration (established in 1950)

Southwestern Power Administration (established 1943)

Western Area Power Administration (established 1977)A fifth PMA, the Alaska Power Administration, existed from 1967 to 1998. In 1995 Congress passed a law authorizing the sale of the two hydroelectric power projects in the APA, the Eklutna Hydroelectric Project and the Snettisham Hydroelectric Project, to private companies. It also authorized the termination of the APA.

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory for plasma physics and nuclear fusion science. Its primary mission is research into and development of fusion as an energy source.

PPPL grew out of the top secret Cold War project to control thermonuclear reactions, called Project Matterhorn. In 1961, after declassification, Project Matterhorn was renamed the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory.PPPL is located on Princeton University's Forrestal Campus in Plainsboro Township, New Jersey. This is some distance from the main Princeton campus, but the lab has a Princeton address.

Project Shoal

Project Shoal was an underground nuclear test that took place on October 26, 1963 within the Sand Springs Range, approximately 30 miles (48 km) southeast of Fallon, Nevada, in a granite formation of the range. The site was selected because its earthquake activity afforded a basis for seismic signal comparisons.Project Shoal was part of the Vela Uniform program sponsored jointly by the U.S Department of Defense and the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. Vela Uniform was directed toward locating, detecting, and identifying underground detonations. The objective of Project Shoal was to detonate a nuclear device underground in an active seismic area so that seismic traces for the test and prior earthquakes could be compared and differentiated.

The test was performed on October 26, 1963. It involved detonating a 12-kiloton nuclear device in granitic rock at a depth of approximately 1,211 feet (369 m) below ground surface.

Southeastern Power Administration

The Southeastern Power Administration is a United States Power Marketing Administration with responsibility for marketing hydroelectric power from 23 water projects operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in the states of West Virginia, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Tennessee and Kentucky.Southeastern was created in 1950 by the Secretary of the Interior to carry out functions assigned to the Secretary by the Flood Control Act of 1944. In 1977, it was transferred to the United States Department of Energy when that department was created.The agency is headquartered in Elberton, Georgia. It markets electric power to nearly 500 wholesale customers, including electrical cooperatives, government-operated electric distributors and investor-owned utilities in Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Tennessee, Kentucky, and southern Illinois.The objectives of Southeastern are to market electric power and energy generated by the Corps projects at the lowest possible cost to consumers, while recovering the Federal government's costs. Public bodies and cooperatives receive preference in the sale of power. One of the agency's main responsibilities is to design, formulate, and justify rate schedules that are sufficient to repay the Federal government's costs for power production and transmission, including amortization of the Federal investment. Southeastern does not own transmission facilities and must contract with other utilities to provide transmission.

Southeastern's annual revenue from the sale of hydroelectric power is about US$200 million.

Spallation Neutron Source

The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is an accelerator-based neutron source facility in the U.S. that provides the most intense pulsed neutron beams in the world for scientific research and industrial development. Each year, this facility hosts hundreds of researchers from universities, national laboratories, and industry, who conduct basic and applied research and technology development using neutrons. SNS is part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, which is managed by UT-Battelle for the United States Department of Energy (DOE). SNS is a DOE Office of Science user facility, and it is open to scientists and researchers from all over the world.

United States Department of Energy national laboratories

The United States Department of Energy National Laboratories and Technology Centers are a system of facilities and laboratories overseen by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) for the purpose of advancing science and technology to fulfill the DOE mission. Sixteen of the seventeen DOE national laboratories are federally funded research and development centers administered, managed, operated and staffed by private-sector organizations under management and operating (M&O) contract with DOE.

United States Deputy Secretary of Energy

The Deputy Secretary of Energy is a high-ranking position within the United States Department of Energy. The Deputy Secretary is the second-highest-ranking official of the Department and assists the Secretary of Energy in the supervision and direction of the Department. The Deputy Secretary succeeds the Secretary in his absence, sickness, or unavailability.

The Deputy Secretary is appointed by the President with the consent of the Senate to serve at the request of the President. Dan Brouillette has served as Deputy Secretary since August 8, 2017.

Y-12 National Security Complex

The Y-12 National Security Complex is a United States Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration facility located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, near the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It was built as part of the Manhattan Project for the purpose of enriching uranium for the first atomic bombs. It is considered the birthplace of the atomic bomb. In the years after World War II, it has been operated as a manufacturing facility for nuclear weapons components and related defense purposes.

Y-12 is managed and operated under contract by Consolidated Nuclear Security, LLC (CNS), which is composed of member companies Bechtel National, Inc., Leidos, Inc., Orbital ATK, Inc, and SOC LLC, with Booz Allen Hamilton, Inc. as a teaming subcontractor. CNS also operates Pantex Plant in Texas.

Agencies under the United States Department of Energy
Deputy Secretary of Energy
Under Secretary of Energy
for Energy and Environment
Under Secretary of Energy for Nuclear Security
Under Secretary of Energy for Science
Assistant Secretary of Energy for Nuclear Energy
Power Marketing Administration
National Laboratory System
Energy Department Facilities and Reservations
Independent Agency
Politics and law
Energy by state
Environmental issues
Governmental Agencies
List of public utilities commissions in North America
United States

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