The United States Department of Education (ED or DoED), also referred to as the ED for (the) Education Department, is a Cabinet-level department of the United States government. It began operating on May 4, 1980, having been created after the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare was split into the Department of Education and the Department of Health and Human Services by the Department of Education Organization Act, which President Jimmy Carter signed into law on October 17, 1979.
The Department of Education is administered by the United States Secretary of Education. It has under 4,000 employees (2018) and an annual budget of $68 billion (2016). The 2019 Budget also supports $129.8 billion in new postsecondary grants, loans, and work-study assistance to help an estimated 11.5 million students and their families pay for college. Its official abbreviation is "ED" ("DOE" refers to the United States Department of Energy) and is also often abbreviated informally as "DoEd".
Department of Education
Seal of the U.S. Department of Education
Flag of the U.S. Department of Education
Lyndon Baines Johnson Department of Education Building, Department Headquarters
|Formed||October 17, 1979|
|Jurisdiction||Federal government of the United States|
|Headquarters||Lyndon Baines Johnson Department of Education Building, 400 Maryland Avenue, Southwest, Washington, D.C., U.S. 20202|
|Annual budget||$68 billion (2016)|
The primary functions of the Department of Education are to "establish policy for, administer and coordinate most federal assistance to education, collect data on US schools, and to enforce federal educational laws regarding privacy and civil rights." The Department of Education does not establish schools or colleges.
Unlike the systems of most other countries, education in the United States is highly decentralized, and the federal government and Department of Education are not heavily involved in determining curricula or educational standards (with the exception of the No Child Left Behind Act). This has been left to state and local school districts. The quality of educational institutions and their degrees is maintained through an informal private process known as accreditation, over which the Department of Education has no direct public jurisdictional control.
The Department of Education is a member of the United States Interagency Council on Homelessness, and works with federal partners to ensure proper education for homeless and runaway youth in the United States.
Opposition to the Department of Education mainly stems from conservatives, who see the department as an undermining of states rights, and libertarians who believe it results in a state-imposed leveling towards the bottom and low value for taxpayers' money.
The U.S. Department of Education oversees the nation's education system. The Department sets uniform rules and standards which are applied nationwide. “Since the Department of Education (Education) began operations in fiscal year 1980, its mission has included promoting student achievement and ensuring equal access to educational opportunity. To do so, Education partners with state and local governments, which provide most of the resources to school districts for K-12 programs".
Civil Rights and Equal Opportunity is one of the most forefront issues that is discussed about within the U.S. Department of Education’s four walls. The goal of this agency is to make sure that every student in primary and secondary education has the tools that they need to succeed. Not all of their ideas always work out in the best favor of the students. Throughout recent history, the educational system has not always been focused on furthering the development of all students (in regards to race and gender). However, coming out of the 20th century this ideal has been turned around and many new legislations have been put in place to break down these invisible walls that were surrounding the people who were affected by this hindrance. “The U.S., like other countries in the 21st century, is increasingly operating in an interconnected world. New structures require that teachers and our next generations of students prepare and expand ideas about their responsibilities as citizens".
|Budget of the Department of Education for FY 2015, showing its largest components|
For 2006, the ED discretionary budget was $56 billion and the mandatory budget contained $23 billion. In 2009 it received additional ARRA funding of $102 billion. As of 2011, the discretionary budget is $70 billion.
A previous Department of Education was created in 1867 but was soon demoted to an Office in 1868. As an agency not represented in the president's cabinet, it quickly became a relatively minor bureau in the Department of the Interior. In 1939, the bureau was transferred to the Federal Security Agency, where it was renamed the Office of Education. In 1953, the Federal Security Agency was upgraded to cabinet-level status as the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.
In 1979, President Carter advocated for creating a cabinet-level Department of Education. Carter's plan was to transfer most of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare's education-related functions to the Department of Education. Carter also planned to transfer the education-related functions of the departments of Defense, Justice, Housing and Urban Development, and Agriculture, as well as a few other federal entities. Among the federal education-related programs that were not proposed to be transferred were Headstart, the Department of Agriculture's school lunch and nutrition programs, the Department of the Interior's Native Americans' education programs, and the Department of Labor's education and training programs.
Upgrading Education to cabinet level status in 1979 was opposed by many in the Republican Party, who saw the department as unconstitutional, arguing that the Constitution doesn't mention education, and deemed it an unnecessary and illegal federal bureaucratic intrusion into local affairs. However, many see the department as constitutional under the Commerce Clause, and that the funding role of the Department is constitutional under the Taxing and Spending Clause. The National Education Association supported the bill, while the American Federation of Teachers opposed it.
As of 1979, the Office of Education had 3,000 employees and an annual budget of $12 billion. Congress appropriated to the Department of Education an annual budget of $14 billion and 17,000 employees when establishing the Department of Education. During the 1980 presidential campaign, Gov. Reagan called for the total elimination of the U.S. Department of Education, severe curtailment of bilingual education, and massive cutbacks in the federal role in education. Once in office, President Reagan significantly reduced its budget.
The Republican Party platform of 1980 called for the elimination of the Department of Education created under Carter and President Ronald Reagan promised during the 1980 presidential election to eliminate it as a cabinet post, but he was not able to do so with a Democratic House of Representatives. In the 1982 State of the Union Address, he pledged: "The budget plan I submit to you on Feb. 8 will realize major savings by dismantling the Department of Education."
By 1984 the GOP had dropped the call for elimination from its platform, and with the election of President George H. W. Bush in 1988, the Republican position evolved in almost lockstep with that of the Democrats, with Goals 2000 a virtual joint effort.
After the Newt Gingrich-led "revolution" in 1994 had taken control of both Houses of Congress, federal control of and spending on education soared. That trend continued unabated despite the fact that the Republican Party made abolition of the Department a cornerstone of 1996 platform and campaign promises, calling it an inappropriate federal intrusion into local, state, and family affairs. The GOP platform read: "The Federal government has no constitutional authority to be involved in school curricula or to control jobs in the market place. This is why we will abolish the Department of Education, end federal meddling in our schools, and promote family choice at all levels of learning."
In 2000, the Republican Liberty Caucus passed a resolution to abolish the Department of Education. Abolition of the organization was not pursued under the George W. Bush administration, which made reform of federal education a key priority of the President's first term. In 2008 and 2012, presidential candidate Ron Paul campaigned in part on an opposition to the Department.
Under President George W. Bush, the Department primarily focused on elementary and secondary education, expanding its reach through the No Child Left Behind Act. The Department's budget increased by $14 billion between 2002 and 2004, from $46 billion to $60 billion.
On March 23, 2007, President George W. Bush signed into law H.R. 584, which designates the ED Headquarters building as the Lyndon Baines Johnson Department of Education Building.
In the time after George W. Bush’s presidency and towards the end of President Barack Obama’s presidency, there was an extremely noticeable problem within the education system that was excluding many children from receiving the striving opportunities that they should have been given throughout their schooling careers. So, In December 2015 President Barack Obama had instituted the Every Student Succeeds Act, which reauthorized the Elementary Secondary Education Act. “In December 2015, the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) was signed into law, reauthorizing the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) and replacing the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). ESEA, the federal law that authorizes federal funding for K-12 schools, represents the nation’s commitment to equal educational opportunity for all students and has influenced the education of millions of children."
On February 7, 2017, Representative Thomas Massie (R-KY) introduced H.R. 899, a bill to abolish the department. Massie's bill, which is one sentence long, states, "The Department of Education shall terminate on December 31, 2018."
|Secretary of Education||Office of Communications and Outreach|
|Office of the General Counsel|
|Office of Inspector General|
|Office of Legislation and Congressional Affairs|
|Office for Civil Rights|
|Office of Educational Technology|
|Institute of Education Sciences|
*National Center for Education Statistics
**National Assessment of Educational Progress
**Education Resources Information Center
|Office of Innovation and Improvement|
|Office of the Chief Financial Officer|
|Office of Management|
|Office of the Chief Information Officer|
|Office of Planning, Evaluation and Policy Development|
|Risk Management Service|
|Deputy Secretary of Education||Office of Elementary and Secondary Education|
*Education Facilities Clearinghouse
*Office of Migrant Education
*Office of Safe and Healthy Students
*Student Achievement and School Accountability Programs
*White House Initiative on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders
*White House Initiative on Educational Excellence for Hispanics
*White House Initiative on American Indian and Alaska Native Education
*White House Initiative on Educational Excellence for African Americans
|Office of English Language Acquisition|
|Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services|
*National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research
*Office of Special Education Programs
*Rehabilitation Services Administration
|Office of Innovation and Improvement|
|Under Secretary of Education||Office of Postsecondary Education|
|Office of Career, Technical, and Adult Education|
|Office of Federal Student Aid|
|President's Advisory Board on Tribal Colleges and Universities|
|President's Advisory Board on Historically Black Colleges and Universities|
|Associated federal organizations||Advisory Councils and Committees|
|National Assessment Governing Board (NAGB)|
|National Advisory Council on Indian Education|
|Federal Interagency Committee on Education|
|Advisory Commission on Accessible Instructional Materials in Postsecondary Education for Students with Disabilities|
|National Board for Education Sciences|
|National Board of the Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education|
|Federally aided organizations||Gallaudet University|
|National Technical Institute for the Deaf|
This article originally appeared in National Review Online on February 11, 2004.
Academy of Our Lady of Good Counsel is an all-girls, private, Roman Catholic high school in White Plains, New York, United States. It is located within the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of New York.
The school provides clubs, athletic teams and special events. Good Counsel was honored by the United States Department of Education for its "outstanding progress in excellence in education."
There are 400 students and 37 members of the faculty.Center for International Business Education and Research
The Centers for International Business Education and Research (CIBERs) are resources for international business education in the United States funded by through the United States Department of Education. The centers were established in 1988 as part of the Omnibus Foreign Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988 As part of the legislation, CIBERs are mandated to provide six specific services among their services. There are CIBERs at 17 universities in the United States.Chemical physics
Chemical physics is a subdiscipline of chemistry and physics that investigates physicochemical phenomena using techniques from atomic and molecular physics and condensed matter physics; it is the branch of physics that studies chemical processes from the point of view of physics. While at the interface of physics and chemistry, chemical physics is distinct from physical chemistry in that it focuses more on the characteristic elements and theories of physics. Meanwhile, physical chemistry studies the physical nature of chemistry. Nonetheless, the distinction between the two fields is vague, and workers often practice in both fields during the course of their research.The United States Department of Education defines chemical physics as "A program that focuses on the scientific study of structural phenomena combining the disciplines of physical chemistry and atomic/molecular physics. Includes instruction in heterogeneous structures, alignment and surface phenomena, quantum theory, mathematical physics, statistical and classical mechanics, chemical kinetics, and laser physics."Education Resources Information Center
The Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) is an online digital library of education research and information. ERIC is sponsored by the Institute of Education Sciences of the United States Department of Education.Gary Bauer
Gary Lee Bauer (born May 4, 1946) is an American politician and activist.
He served in President Ronald Reagan's administration as Under Secretary of Education and Chief Domestic Policy Advisor, and later became president of the Family Research Council and a senior vice president of Focus on the Family - both conservative Christian organizations. In 2000, he participated in the Republican presidential contest and took part in five national debates. He is known for his advocacy of religious liberty, support for Israel, and his dedication to electing conservative candidates to Congress.
Currently, Bauer is president of the advocacy organization American Values. In May 2018, President Donald Trump appointed him to the United States Commission on International Religious Freedom.Higher Learning Commission
The Higher Learning Commission (HLC) is a regional accreditor in the United States. It accredits post-secondary education institutions in the central United States: Arkansas, Arizona, Colorado, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, North Dakota, Nebraska, Ohio, Oklahoma, New Mexico, South Dakota, Wisconsin, West Virginia, and Wyoming. The headquarters of the organization is in Chicago, Illinois.
The United States Department of Education and the Council for Higher Education Accreditation recognize the commission as the assigned regional accrediting organization. HLC grew out of the higher education division of the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools (NCA). The NCA dissolved in 2014.Institute of Education Sciences
The Institute of Education Sciences (IES) is the independent, non-partisan statistics, research, and evaluation arm of the U.S. Department of Education. IES' stated mission is to provide scientific evidence on which to ground education practice and policy and to share this information in formats that are useful and accessible to educators, parents, policymakers, researchers, and the public. It was created as part of the Education Sciences Reform Act of 2002.
The first director of IES was Grover Whitehurst, who was appointed in November 2002 and served for six years. Dr. Mark Schneider is currently the Director of IES.IES is divided into four major research and statistics centers:
National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance (NCEE)—NCEE conducts large-scale evaluations and provides research-based technical assistance and information about high-quality research to educators and policymakers in a variety of different formats. NCEE’s work includes evaluations of education programs and practices supported by federal funds; the Regional Educational Laboratory Program; the Education Resources Information Center (ERIC); the What Works Clearinghouse; and the National Library of Education. Dr. Matthew Soldner is the Commissioner of NCEE.
National Center for Education Research (NCER)—NCER supports research to improve student outcomes and education quality in the United States and pursue workable solutions to the challenges faced by educators and the education community. NCER also supports training programs to prepare researchers to conduct high quality, scientific education research. Dr. Elizabeth Albro is the Commissioner of NCER.
National Center for Education Statistics (NCES)—NCES is the primary federal entity that collects and analyzes data related to education in the United States and other nations. Among the programs and initiatives that NCES oversees is the National Assessment of Educational Progress. Dr. James Lynn Woodworth is the Commissioner of NCES.
National Center for Special Education Research (NCSER)—NCSER sponsors and supports comprehensive research that is designed to expand the knowledge and understanding of infants, toddlers, and children with disabilities, or those who are at risk of developing disabilities. NCSER also supports training programs to prepare researchers to conduct high quality, scientific special education research. Dr. Joan E. McLaughlin is the commissioner of NCSER.John H. Hager
John Henry Hager (born August 28, 1936) is an American entrepreneur and politician who served as the chairman of the Republican Party of Virginia from August 2007 until May 2008. He also served as the 37th Lieutenant Governor of Virginia from 1998 to 2002, and as an assistant secretary within the United States Department of Education from 2004 to 2007.List of colleges and universities in Delaware
There are eight colleges and universities in Delaware. These institutions include two research universities, one master's university, one baccalaureate college, two associate's colleges, and two special-focus institutions. Five of Delaware's post-secondary institutions are private and three are public.
Delaware's oldest post-secondary institution is the University of Delaware, which was chartered by the Delaware General Assembly as a degree-granting college in 1833. The University of Delaware is also the state's largest institution of higher learning in terms of enrollment, as it had 23,009 students as of late 2014. According to the United States Department of Education Institute of Education Sciences, the Delaware College of Art and Design is the state's smallest institution of higher learning with an enrollment of 170. Wilmington University is Delaware's largest private post-secondary institution, with an enrollment of 15,316.Delaware has two land-grant universities: Delaware State University and the University of Delaware. The University of Delaware is also the state's sole participant in the National Sea Grant College Program and the National Space Grant College and Fellowship Program. In addition, Delaware State University is the one historically black college and university in the state, and is a member of the Thurgood Marshall College Fund. Delaware previously had two private post-secondary institutions for men and women respectively: St. Mary's College and Wesleyan Female College respectively.The state does not have a medical school, but the Delaware Institute of Medical Education and Research reserves spaces for Delaware students at two medical schools in Philadelphia. Delaware has one law school, Widener University Delaware Law School. All eight of Delaware's post-secondary institutions are regionally accredited by the Middle States Commission on Higher Education.Middle States Commission on Higher Education
The Middle States Commission on Higher Education (abbreviated as MSCHE and legally incorporated as the Mid-Atlantic Region Commission on Higher Education) is a voluntary, peer-based, non-profit association that performs peer evaluation and accreditation of public and private universities and colleges in selected regions of the United States and foreign institutions of American origin. It is one of the seven regional accreditation organizations dating back 125 years and is recognized by the United States Department of Education and the Council for Higher Education Accreditation.
Its headquarters are in Center City, Philadelphia.Morthland College
Morthland College (MC) was a private Christian liberal arts college in West Frankfort, Illinois. The school was founded in 2009 by Dr. Tim Morthland and opened in 2011 as a small, co-educational liberal arts college. The college had an initial enrollment of forty students and 300-400 students prior to its closure in 2018. Morthland College athletic teams were known as the Patriots. The college was a member of the NCCAA in the Division-I Mid-East Region.
In January 2017 the United States Department of Education and state investigators began investigating the college for financial irregularities. As a result, the college closed in 2018.National Blue Ribbon Schools Program
The National Blue Ribbon Schools Program is a United States government program created in 1982 to honor schools that have achieved high levels of student achievement or made significant improvements in closing the achievement gap among student subgroups. One-third of all schools nominated in any state must serve student populations of at least 40% from disadvantaged backgrounds.
More than 8,000 schools have been honored as National Blue Ribbon Schools since the program's founding in 1982.National Center for Education Statistics
The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) is the part of the United States Department of Education's Institute of Education Sciences (IES) that collects, analyzes, and publishes statistics on education and public school district finance information in the United States. It also conducts international comparisons of education statistics and provides leadership in developing and promoting the use of standardized terminology and definitions for the collection of those statistics. NCES is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System.North Central Association of Colleges and Schools
The North Central Association of Colleges and Schools (NCA), also known as the North Central Association, was a membership organization, consisting of colleges, universities, and schools in 19 U.S. states engaged in educational accreditation. It was one of six regional accreditation bodies in the U.S. and its Higher Learning Commission was recognized by the United States Department of Education and the Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA) as a regional accreditor for higher education institutions.The organization was dissolved in 2014. The primary and secondary education accreditation functions of the association have been merged into AdvancED with the postsecondary education accreditation functions vested in the Higher Learning Commission.Notre Dame High School (Sherman Oaks, California)
Notre Dame High School (NDHS) in Sherman Oaks, Los Angeles, California, is a co-ed Catholic college preparatory high school founded by the Congregation of Holy Cross in 1947.
Located in the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Los Angeles, Notre Dame has been awarded the United States Department of Education Blue Ribbon Schools Program.Pell Grant
A Pell Grant is a subsidy the U.S. federal government provides for students who need it to pay for college. Federal Pell Grants are limited to students with financial need, who have not earned their first bachelor's degree, or who are enrolled in certain post-baccalaureate programs, through participating institutions. The Pell Grant is named after Democratic U.S. Senator Claiborne Pell of Rhode Island, and was originally known as the Basic Educational Opportunity Grant. A Pell Grant is generally considered the foundation of a student's financial aid package, to which other forms of aid are added. The Federal Pell Grant program is administered by the United States Department of Education, which determines the student's financial need and through it, the student's Pell eligibility. The U.S. Department of Education uses a standard formula to evaluate financial information reported on the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) for determining the student's expected family contribution (EFC).Pell Grants were created by the Higher Education Act of 1965. These federal funded grants are not like loans, and need not be repaid. Students may use their grants at any one of approximately 5,400 participating postsecondary institutions. These federally funded grants help about 5.4 million full-time and part-time college and vocational school students nationally. As of 2016, six of the top ten colleges by total Pell Grant money awarded were for-profit (proprietary) institutions.Social studies
In the United States education system, social studies is the integrated study of multiple fields of social science and the humanities, including history, geography, and political science. The term was first coined by American educators around the turn of the twentieth century as a catch-all for these subjects, as well as others which did not fit into the traditional models of lower education in the United States, such as philosophy and psychology.In 1912, the Bureau of Education (not to be confused with its successor agency, the United States Department of Education) was tasked by then Secretary of the Interior Franklin Knight Lane with completely restructuring the American education system for the twentieth century. In response, the Bureau of Education, together with the National Education Association, created the Commission on the Reorganization of Secondary Education. The Commission was made up of 16 committees (a 17th was established two years later, in 1916), each one tasked with the reform of a specific aspect of the American Education system. Notable among these was the Committee on Social Studies, which was created to consolidate and standardize various subjects which did not fit within normal school curricula into a new subject, to be called "the social studies."United States Deputy Secretary of Education
The Deputy Secretary of Education oversees and manages the development of policies in the United States Department of Education. The deputy secretary focuses primarily on K–12 education policy, such as No Child Left Behind, the High School Initiative, and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. The deputy secretary also has responsibility for carrying out the intergovernmental relations of the department. The deputy secretary becomes Acting Secretary of Education in the event of the secretary's absence, disability, or a vacancy in the Office of Secretary.The office of the deputy secretary coordinates the work of the Office of Elementary and Secondary Education, the Office of Innovation and Improvement, the Office of English Language Acquisition, the Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services, and the Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools. The deputy secretary also oversees the department's LEP Partnership, the Office for Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization, and the department's partnership with The History Channel.The deputy secretary is appointed by the president and confirmed by the United States Senate. The deputy secretary is paid at level II of the Executive Schedule, meaning as of 2006, he or she receives a basic annual salary of $162,000.On October 5, 2017, President Donald Trump announced his intention to nominate Mick Zais to serve as the Deputy Secretary of Education. Zais was confirmed by the U.S. Senate to serve as deputy secretary on May 16, 2018, and assumed the duties of the office the next day.United States Secretary of Education
The United States Secretary of Education is the head of the United States Department of Education. The Secretary advises the President of the United States, and the federal government, on federal policies, programs, and activities related to all education in the United States. As a member of the President's Cabinet, the Secretary is fifteenth in the line of succession to the presidency.
The current, and 111th, Secretary of Education is Betsy DeVos, who was nominated by President Donald Trump and approved by the United States Senate on February 7, 2017.
Agencies under the United States Department of Education
|Secretary of Education|
|Deputy Secretary of Education|
|Under Secretary of Education|