United States Department of Commerce

The United States Department of Commerce is the Cabinet department of the United States government concerned with promoting economic growth. Among its tasks are gathering economic and demographic data for business and government decision-making, and helping to set industrial standards. This organization's main purpose is to create jobs, promote economic growth, encourage sustainable development and improve standards of living for all Americans.[3] The Department of Commerce headquarters is the Herbert C. Hoover Building in Washington, D.C.

Wilbur Ross is the current Commerce secretary.

United States Department of Commerce
Seal of the United States Department of Commerce
Seal of the U.S. Department of Commerce
Flag of the United States Department of Commerce
Flag of the U.S. Department of Commerce
Commerce Building view from Mall 2

The Herbert C. Hoover Building, the headquarters of the U.S. Department of Commerce.
Agency overview
FormedFebruary 14, 1903
JurisdictionUnited States of America
HeadquartersHerbert C. Hoover Building
1401 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, D.C., U.S.
38°53′39.48″N 77°0′58.08″W / 38.8943000°N 77.0161333°WCoordinates: 38°53′39.48″N 77°0′58.08″W / 38.8943000°N 77.0161333°W
Employees46,608 (2018)[1]
Annual budgetUS$9.67 billion (2018)
US$14.2 billion (est. 2010)
US$9.3 billion (est. 2011)
US$8.6 billion (2014)[2]
Agency executives
Websitewww.commerce.gov
Footnotes

History

The department was originally created as the United States Department of Commerce and Labor on February 14, 1903. It was subsequently renamed the Department of Commerce on March 4, 1913, as the bureaus and agencies specializing in labor were transferred to the new Department of Labor. The United States Patent and Trademark Office was transferred from the Interior Department into Commerce, and the Federal Employment Stabilization Office existed within the department from 1931 to 1939. In 1940, the Weather Bureau (now the National Weather Service) was transferred from the Agriculture Department, and the Civil Aeronautics Authority was merged into the department. In 1949, the Public Roads Administration was added to the department due to the dissolution of the Federal Works Agency. In 1958, the independent Federal Aviation Agency was created and the Civil Aeronautics Authority was abolished. The United States Travel Service was established by the United States Secretary of Commerce on July 1, 1961 pursuant to the International Travel Act of 1961 (75 Stat. 129; 22 U.S.C. 2121 note)[4] The Economic Development Administration was created in 1965. In 1966, the Bureau of Public Roads was transferred to the newly created Department of Transportation. The Minority Business Development Agency (MBDA) was created on March 5, 1969, originally established by President Richard M. Nixon as the Office of Minority Business Enterprise. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) was created on October 3, 1970.[5]

Organization

Structure

Program
Secretary of Commerce
(Deputy Secretary of Commerce)
Economic Development Administration
Minority Business Development Agency
National Technical Information Service
National Telecommunications and Information Administration
Office of Business Liaison
Office of the Chief Financial Officer and Assistant Secretary for Administration
Office of the Chief Information Officer
Office of Executive Secretariat
Office of the General Counsel
Office of Inspector General
Office of Legislative and Intergovernmental Affairs
Office of Security
Office of Policy and Strategic Planning
Office of Public Affairs
Office of White House Liaison
Under Secretary of Commerce for Economic Affairs Bureau of the Census
Bureau of Economic Analysis
Economics and Statistics Administration
Office of the Chief Economist
Under Secretary of Commerce for Industry and Security Bureau of Industry and Security
Office of Export Enforcement
Under Secretary of Commerce for Intellectual Property Patent and Trademark Office
Under Secretary of Commerce for International Trade International Trade Administration
United States Commercial Service
Under Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere National Marine Fisheries Service
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Commissioned Corps
National Ocean Service
National Weather Service
Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research
Office of Marine and Aviation Operations
Under Secretary of Commerce for Standards and Technology National Institute of Standards and Technology

Budget and finances

The Department of Commerce was authorized a budget for Fiscal Year 2015 of $14.6 billion. The budget authorization is broken down as follows:[6]

Program Funding
(in millions)
Management and Finance
Departmental Management $73.2
Office of the Inspector General $35.5
Operating Divisions
Economic Development Administration $248.1
Census Bureau $1,240.0
Bureau of Economic Analysis $111.0
International Trade and Investment Administration $497.3
Bureau of Industry and Security $110.5
Minority Business Development Agency $28.3
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration $5,684.7
Patent and Trademark Office $3,439.5
National Institute of Standards and Technology $904.9
National Telecommunications and Information Administration $51
Mandatory Spending
Public Safety Broadband Network $2,275
TOTAL $14,565

Reorganization proposals

Proposals to reorganize the Department go back many decades.[3] The Department of Commerce was one of three departments that Texas governor Rick Perry advocated eliminating during his 2012 presidential campaign, along with the Department of Education and Department of Energy. Perry's campaign cited the frequency with which agencies had historically been moved into and out of the department and its lack of a coherent focus, and advocated moving its vital programs into other departments such as the Department of the Interior, Department of Labor, and Department of the Treasury. The Economic Development Administration would be completely eliminated.[7]

On January 13, 2012, President Obama announced his intentions to ask the United States Congress for the power to close the department and replace it with a new cabinet-level agency focused on trade and exports. The new agency would include the Office of the United States Trade Representative, currently part of the Executive Office of the President, as well as the Export-Import Bank of the United States, the Overseas Private Investment Corporation, the United States Trade and Development Agency, and the Small Business Administration, which are all currently independent agencies. The Obama administration projected that the reorganization would save $3 billion and would help the administration's goal of doubling U.S. exports in five years.[8] The new agency would be organized around four "pillars": a technology and innovation office including the United States Patent and Trademark Office and the National Institute of Standards and Technology; a statistical division including the United States Census Bureau and other data-collection agencies currently in the Commerce Department, and also the Bureau of Labor Statistics which would be transferred from the Department of Labor; a trade and investment policy office; and a small business development office. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) would be transferred from the Department of Commerce into the Department of the Interior.[9] Later that year, shortly before the 2012 presidential election, Obama invoked the idea of a "secretary of business" in reference to the plan.[10] The reorganization was part of a larger proposal which would grant the President the authority to propose mergers of federal agencies, which would then be subject to an up-or-down Congressional vote. This ability had existed from the Great Depression until the Reagan presidency, when Congress rescinded the authority.[11]

The Obama administration plan faced criticism for some of its elements. Some Congress members expressed concern that the Office of the United States Trade Representative would lose focus if it were included in a larger bureaucracy, especially given its status as an "honest broker" between other agencies, which tend to advocate for specific points of view.[8][12] The overall plan has also been criticized as an attempt to create an agency similar to Japan's powerful Ministry of International Trade and Industry, which was abolished in 2001 after some of its initiatives failed and it became seen as a hindrance to growth.[12] NOAA's climate and terrestrial operations and fisheries and endangered species programs would be expected to integrate well with agencies already in the Interior Department, such as the United States Geological Survey and the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. However, environmental groups such as the Natural Resources Defense Council feared that the reorganization could distract the agency from its mission of protecting the nation's oceans and ecosystems.[13] The plan was reiterated in the Obama administration's FY2016 budget proposal that was released in February 2015.[14]

See also

References

  1. ^ "About the Department Of Commerce".
  2. ^ "Department Of Commerce – FY 2014 Budget" (PDF). www.tamuc.edu. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 8, 2013. Retrieved October 15, 2017.
  3. ^ a b Steve Charnovitz, "Reinventing the Commerce Dept.," Journal of Commerce, July 12, 1995.
  4. ^ "United States Travel and Tourism Administration (1961-1996)". Department of Commerce Digitization Repository Project. Pennsylvania State University. Retrieved November 20, 2014.
  5. ^ "Milestones". United States Department of Commerce. July 20, 2010. Retrieved January 19, 2012.
  6. ^ 2015 Department of Commerce Budget-in-Brief, United States Department of Commerce, Accessed July 16, 2015
  7. ^ "Uproot and Overhaul Washington: Eliminate and Restructure Wasteful Federal Agencies". RickPerry.org, Inc. Retrieved January 19, 2012.
  8. ^ a b MacInnis, Laura (January 13, 2012). "Obama wants export agency, closing of Commerce Department". Reuters. Retrieved January 19, 2012.
  9. ^ Mervis, Jeffrey (January 13, 2012). "What Would Wiping Out the Commerce Department Mean for Science?". ScienceInsider. American Association for the Advancement of Science. Retrieved January 19, 2012.
  10. ^ Schroeder, Peter (October 29, 2012). "Obama floats plan for a 'secretary of Business' if he wins second term". The Hill. Retrieved May 23, 2014.
  11. ^ Landler, Mark; Lowrey, Annie (January 14, 2012). "Obama Bid to Cut the Government Tests Congress". The New York Times. p. A1. Retrieved January 19, 2012.
  12. ^ a b Bartlett, Bruce (January 17, 2012). "The Pros and Cons of Obama's Reorganization Plan". The New York Times. Economix. Retrieved January 19, 2012.
  13. ^ Malakoff, David (January 13, 2012). "Rough Sailing for Plan to Move NOAA?". ScienceInsider. American Association for the Advancement of Science. Retrieved January 19, 2012.
  14. ^ Hicks, Josh (February 3, 2015). "Six ways the White House budget would affect federal workers". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 3, 2015.

External links

Bureau of Corporations

The Bureau of Corporations, predecessor to the Federal Trade Commission, was created as an investigatory agency within the Department of Commerce and Labor in the United States. The Bureau and the Department were created by Congress on February 14, 1903, during the Progressive Era.

The main role of the Bureau was to study and report on industry, looking especially for monopolistic practices. Its 1906 report on petroleum transportation made recommendations that became part of the Hepburn Act of 1906, and was used when the Justice Department successfully prosecuted and broke up Standard Oil in 1911.

In 1912 the Bureau issued a report on the development of water power in the United States, including its ownership or control, and fundamental economic principles involved in utilization of this new and rapidly growing energy source. The report noted an increasing concentration of ownership and control of widely separated waterpower developments in the hands of a few; a substantial interrelationship among leading water-power interests, as well as a significant and increasing affiliation between water-power companies and street-railway and electric-lighting companies. The report stressed the importance of promptly adopting a definitive public policy concerning water-power development. The various concerns expressed would initially be regulated by the Federal Water Power Act of 1920. The business, managerial, and financial practices of these early utility holding companies would proliferate, but remain largely unregulated until the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935.

The Bureau also conducted studies of tobacco, steel, lumber and other industries.

The Bureau became part of the new Federal Trade Commission in 1915. The new Commission took over both staff and ongoing investigations from the Bureau. Commissioner of Corporations, Joseph E. Davies, became the FTC's first Chairman and Davies' deputy Francis Walker became the chief economist of the FTC

Bureau of Economic Analysis

The Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) of the United States Department of Commerce is a U.S. government agency that provides official macroeconomic and industry statistics, most notably reports about the gross domestic product (GDP) of the United States and its various units—states, cities/towns/townships/villages/counties and metropolitan areas. They also provide information about personal income, corporate profits, and government spending in their National Income and Product Accounts (NIPAs).

Established in 1972 under the administration of 37th President Richard M. Nixon after a government agencies reorganization and reshuffling from older previous bureaus, the BEA is part of the Economics and Statistics Administration in the presidential cabinet level United States Department of Commerce and is one of the principal agencies of the U.S. Federal Statistical System. Its stated mission is to "promote a better understanding of the U.S. economy by providing the most timely, relevant, and accurate economic data in an objective and cost-effective manner".BEA has about 500 employees and an annual budget of approximately $96.5 million.

Bureau of Navigation

The Bureau of Navigation, later the Bureau of Navigation and Steamboat Inspection and finally the Bureau of Marine Inspection and Navigation — not to be confused with the United States Navy's Bureau of Navigation — was an agency of the United States Government established in 1884 to enforce laws relating to the construction, equipment, operation, inspection, safety, and documentation of merchant vessels. The bureau also investigated marine accidents and casualties; collected tonnage taxes and other navigation fees; and examined, certified, and licensed merchant mariners.

When established, the Bureau of Navigation was a part of the United States Department of the Treasury. In 1903, the organization was transferred to the newly formed United States Department of Commerce and Labor. In 1913 that department was split into the United States Department of Commerce and the United States Department of Labor, and the bureau was assigned to the new Department of Commerce. In 1932 the bureau was combined with the Steamboat Inspection Service to form the Bureau of Navigation and Steamboat Inspection. The Bureau of Navigation and Steamboat Inspection was in turn renamed the Bureau of Marine Inspection and Navigation in 1936.In 1942, Executive Order 9083 transferred many functions of the bureau to two other agencies: Merchant vessel documentation was transferred to the United States Customs Service, while functions relating to merchant vessel inspection, safety of life at sea, and merchant mariners were transferred to the United States Coast Guard. The merchant vessel documentation functions were also transferred to the Coast Guard in 1946.

With all its functions having been absorbed by the U.S. Customs Service and the U.S. Coast Guard, the Bureau of Marine Inspection and Navigation was abolished as unnecessary and redundant by Reorganization Plan No. III of 1946.

David J. Ryder

David J. Ryder (born October 14, 1955) is the current Director of the United States Mint. He formerly was in the same position from 1992 to 1993.

Department of Commerce Gold Medal

The Department of Commerce Gold Medal is the highest honor award of the United States Department of Commerce. Since 1949, the Gold Medal is presented by the Secretary of Commerce for distinguished performance. The award may be presented to an individual, group, or organization in the Commerce Department for extraordinary, noble, or prestigious contributions that impact the mission of the department and/or one or more operating units, which reflects favorable on the department.The annual Department of Commerce Gold Medal Awards ceremony is held each fall at the Ronald Reagan Amphitheater in Washington, D.C.. An Individual and members of a group which is awarded the Gold Medal Award are each presented a framed certificate signed by the Secretary and medal. An organization receiving the award is presented one framed certificate signed by the Secretary and medal.

Economic Development Administration

The Economic Development Administration (EDA) is an agency in the United States Department of Commerce that provides grants and technical assistance to economically distressed communities in order to generate new employment, help retain existing jobs and stimulate industrial and commercial growth through a variety of investment programs.

Economics and Statistics Administration

The Economics and Statistics Administration (ESA) is an agency within the United States Department of Commerce (DOC) that analyzes, disseminates, and reports on national economic and demographic data.

Its three primary missions are the following:

Release and disseminate U.S. National Economic Indicators.

Oversee the missions of the United States Census Bureau (Census) and the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA).

Analyze and produce economic reports for the Department of Commerce and the Executive Branch.

Gross metropolitan product

Gross metropolitan product (GMP) is a monetary measure of the value of all final goods and services produced within a metropolitan statistical area during a specified period (e.g., a quarter, a year). GMP estimates are commonly used to compare the relative economic performance among such areas.

ICANN

The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN EYE-kan) is a nonprofit organization responsible for coordinating the maintenance and procedures of several databases related to the namespaces and numerical spaces of the Internet, ensuring the network's stable and secure operation. ICANN performs the actual technical maintenance work of the Central Internet Address pools and DNS root zone registries pursuant to the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) function contract. The contract regarding the IANA stewardship functions between ICANN and the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) of the United States Department of Commerce ended on October 1, 2016, formally transitioning the functions to the global multistakeholder community.Much of its work has concerned the Internet's global Domain Name System (DNS), including policy development for internationalization of the DNS system, introduction of new generic top-level domains (TLDs), and the operation of root name servers. The numbering facilities ICANN manages include the Internet Protocol address spaces for IPv4 and IPv6, and assignment of address blocks to regional Internet registries. ICANN also maintains registries of Internet Protocol identifiers.

ICANN's primary principles of operation have been described as helping preserve the operational stability of the Internet; to promote competition; to achieve broad representation of the global Internet community; and to develop policies appropriate to its mission through bottom-up, consensus-based processes.ICANN's creation was announced publicly on September 17, 1998, and it formally came into being on September 30, 1998, incorporated in the U.S. state of California. Originally headquartered in Marina del Rey in the same building as the University of Southern California's Information Sciences Institute (ISI), its offices are now in the Playa Vista neighborhood of Los Angeles.

International Trade Administration

For a list of other uses see ITA (disambiguation)The International Trade Administration (ITA) is an agency in the United States Department of Commerce that promotes United States exports of nonagricultural U.S. services and goods.

Internet Assigned Numbers Authority

The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) is a function of ICANN, a nonprofit private American corporation that oversees global IP address allocation, autonomous system number allocation, root zone management in the Domain Name System (DNS), media types, and other Internet Protocol-related symbols and Internet numbers.Before ICANN was established primarily for this purpose in 1998, IANA was administered principally by Jon Postel at the Information Sciences Institute (ISI) of the University of Southern California (USC) situated at Marina Del Rey (Los Angeles), under a contract USC/ISI had with the United States Department of Defense, until ICANN was created to assume the responsibility under a United States Department of Commerce contract. Following ICANN's transition to a global multistakeholder governance model, the IANA functions were transferred to Public Technical Identifiers, an affiliate of ICANN.In addition, five regional Internet registries delegate number resources to their customers, local Internet registries, Internet service providers, and end-user organizations. A local Internet registry is an organization that assigns parts of its allocation from a regional Internet registry to other customers. Most local Internet registries are also Internet service providers.

Minority Business Development Agency

The Minority Business Development Agency (MBDA) is an agency in the United States Department of Commerce that promotes growth and competitiveness of the United States' minority-owned businesses, including Hispanic and Latino American, Asian Pacific American, African American, and Native American businesses. The current National Director is Henry Childs II.

MBDA's stated mission is to promote the growth and competitiveness of minority-owned businesses by providing access to capital, access to contracts and access to market opportunities - both domestic and global. The main feature of the organization and its site is to provide business consulting services to minority business owners.

National Institute of Standards and Technology

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is a physical sciences laboratory, and a non-regulatory agency of the United States Department of Commerce. Its mission is to promote innovation and industrial competitiveness. NIST's activities are organized into laboratory programs that include nanoscale science and technology, engineering, information technology, neutron research, material measurement, and physical measurement. The American AI initiative has called NIST to lead the development of appropriate technical standards for reliable, robust, trustworthy, secure, portable, and interoperable AI systems.

National Telecommunications and Information Administration

The National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) is an agency of the United States Department of Commerce that serves as the President's principal adviser on telecommunications policies pertaining to the United States' economic and technological advancement and to regulation of the telecommunications industry.

Among its stated goals are:

Working to ensure that all Americans have affordable phone and cable TV service.

Helping to bring the benefits of advanced telecommunications technologies to millions of Americans in rural and underserved urban areas through its information infrastructure grants.

Providing the hardware that enables public radio and television broadcasters to extend and maintain the reach of their programming.

Advocating competition and liberalization of telecommunications policies around the world.

Participating in international government-to-government negotiations to open markets for U.S. companies.

Negotiating with foreign governments to ensure adequate spectrum for national defense, public safety, and U.S. business needs.

Promoting efficient use of federal radio spectrum and encouraging the development and implementation of new and emerging telecommunications technologies.

Performing long-term research to explore uses of higher frequency spectrum.

Working with Federal, state, and local public safety agencies to address future spectrum requirements.

Steamboat Inspection Service

The Steamboat Inspection Service was a United States agency created in 1871 to safeguard lives and property at sea. It merged with the Bureau of Navigation in 1932 to form the Bureau of Navigation and Steamboat Inspection which, in 1936, was reorganized into the Bureau of Marine Inspection and Navigation, which in turn came under the control of the United States Coast Guard in 1942 and was abolished, with its functions transferred to the Coast Guard, in 1946.

Title 47 of the United States Code

Title 47 of the United States Code defines the role and structure of the Federal Communications Commission, an independent agency of the United States government, and the National Telecommunications and Information Administration, part of the United States Department of Commerce. It also criminalizes damage by ships to underwater cables and defines how candidates for political office receive special access to broadcast stations. The Communications Act of 1934, the Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act, and the Launching Our Communities' Access to Local (LOCAL) Television Act of 2000 are codified in this title.

Chapter 1: Telegraphs

Chapter 2: Submarine Cables

Chapter 3: Radiotelegraphs

Chapter 4: Radio Act of 1927

Chapter 5: Wire or Radio Communication

Chapter 6: Communications Satellite System

Chapter 7: Campaign Communications

Chapter 8: National Telecommunications and Information Administration

Chapter 9: Interception of Digital and Other Communications

Chapter 10: Local TV

Chapter 11: Commercial Mobile Service Alerts

Chapter 12: Broadband

United States Department of Commerce and Labor

The United States Department of Commerce and Labor was a short-lived Cabinet department of the United States government, which was concerned with controlling the excesses of big business.

It was created on February 14, 1903, during the administration of President Theodore Roosevelt. Investigations were the province of its Bureau of Corporations. The department was renamed the Department of Commerce on March 4, 1913, and its bureaus and agencies specializing in labor were transferred to the new Department of Labor. In 1915, the Bureau of Corporations was spun off as an independent agency, the Federal Trade Commission

The United States Secretary of Commerce and Labor was the head of the department. The secretary was a member of the President's Cabinet. Corresponding with the division of the department in 1913, the Secretary of Commerce and Labor's position was divided into separate positions of United States Secretary of Commerce and United States Secretary of Labor.

In 2011, in response to federal budget-cutting efforts, Senator Richard Burr (R-NC), sponsored S. 1116, a proposal to re-combine two departments as the "Department of Commerce and the Workforce". To date no action on this proposal has been taken beyond referral to committee.

United States Deputy Secretary of Commerce

The Deputy Secretary of Commerce is a high-ranking position within the U.S. Department of Commerce. It was created on December 13, 1979, when President Jimmy Carter sent a letter to the U.S. Senate and nominated Luther H. Hodges, Jr., who then currently held the title of Under Secretary of Commerce. The deputy secretary serves as the department’s chief operating officer, with responsibility for the day-to-day management of its approximately $6.5 billion budget, 13 operating units, and 38,000 employees. In that capacity, the deputy secretary is also a member of the President’s Management Council.

WPRO (AM)

WPRO (630 AM) is a talk station in Providence, Rhode Island. The station is owned by Cumulus Media. WPRO's studio and transmitter (along with the studios for Cumulus' other Providence stations) are located in East Providence, at the Salty Brine Broadcast Center, named after WPRO's longtime morning host. WPRO programming is also heard on 99.7 WEAN-FM. The station is affiliated with the Westwood One Network, a subsidiary of parent company Cumulus Media.

Agencies under the United States Department of Commerce
Deputy Secretary of Commerce
Under Secretary of Commerce for Economic Affairs
Under Secretary of Commerce for Industry and Security
Under Secretary of Commerce for Intellectual Property
Under Secretary of Commerce for International Trade
Under Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere
Under Secretary of Commerce for Standards and Technology
Current
Former

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