United States Code

The Code of Laws of the United States of America[1] (variously abbreviated to Code of Laws of the United States, United States Code, U.S. Code, U.S.C., or USC) is the official compilation and codification of the general and permanent federal statutes of the United States. It contains 53 titles (Titles 1–54, excepting Title 53, it being reserved).[2][3] The main edition is published every six years by the Office of the Law Revision Counsel of the House of Representatives, and cumulative supplements are published annually.[4][5] The official version of those laws not codified in the United States Code can be found in United States Statutes at Large.

United States Code
Uscatitle11
A few volumes of an annotated version of the United States Code
EditorOffice of the Law Revision Counsel
PublisherGovernment Printing Office
OCLC2368380
TextUnited States Code at Wikisource

Codification

Process

The official text of an Act of Congress is that of the "enrolled bill" (traditionally printed on parchment) presented to the President for his signature or disapproval. Upon enactment of a law, the original bill is delivered to the Office of the Federal Register (OFR) within the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA).[6] After authorization from the OFR,[7] copies are distributed as "slip laws" by the Government Printing Office (GPO). The Archivist assembles annual volumes of the enacted laws and publishes them as the United States Statutes at Large. By law, the text of the Statutes at Large is "legal evidence" of the laws enacted by Congress.[8] Slip laws are also competent evidence.[9]

The Statutes at Large, however, is not a convenient tool for legal research. It is arranged strictly in chronological order so that statutes addressing related topics may be scattered across many volumes. Statutes often repeal or amend earlier laws, and extensive cross-referencing is required to determine what laws are in force at any given time.

The United States Code is the result of an effort to make finding relevant and effective statutes simpler by reorganizing them by subject matter, and eliminating expired and amended sections. The Code is maintained by the Office of the Law Revision Counsel (LRC) of the U.S. House of Representatives. The LRC determines which statutes in the United States Statutes at Large should be codified, and which existing statutes are affected by amendments or repeals, or have simply expired by their own terms. The LRC updates the Code accordingly.

Because of this codification approach, a single named statute (like the Taft–Hartley Act or the Embargo Act) may or may not appear in a single place in the Code. Often, complex legislation bundles a series of provisions together as a means of addressing a social or governmental problem; those provisions often fall in different logical areas of the Code. For example, an Act providing relief for family farms might affect items in Title 7 (Agriculture), Title 26 (Tax), and Title 43 (Public Lands). When the Act is codified, its various provisions might well be placed in different parts of those various Titles. Traces of this process are generally found in the Notes accompanying the "lead section" associated with the popular name, and in cross-reference tables that identify Code sections corresponding to particular Acts of Congress.

Usually, the individual sections of a statute are incorporated into the Code exactly as enacted; however, sometimes editorial changes are made by the LRC (for instance, the phrase "the date of enactment of this Act" is replaced by the actual date). Though authorized by statute, these changes do not constitute positive law.[4]

Legal status

The authority for the material in the United States Code comes from its enactment through the legislative process and not from its presentation in the Code. For example, the United States Code omitted 12 U.S.C. § 92 for decades, apparently because it was thought to have been repealed. In its 1993 ruling in U.S. National Bank of Oregon v. Independent Insurance Agents of America, the Supreme Court ruled that § 92 was still valid law.[10]

By law, those titles of the United States Code that have not been enacted into positive law are "prima facie evidence"[11] of the law in effect. The United States Statutes at Large remains the ultimate authority. If a dispute arises as to the accuracy or completeness of the codification of an unenacted title, the courts will turn to the language in the United States Statutes at Large. In case of a conflict between the text of the Statutes at Large and the text of a provision of the United States Code that has not been enacted as positive law, the text of the Statutes at Large takes precedence.

In contrast, if Congress enacts a particular title (or other component) of the Code into positive law, the enactment repeals all of the previous Acts of Congress from which that title of the Code derives; in their place, Congress gives the title of the Code itself the force of law. This process makes that title of the United States Code "legal evidence"[12] of the law in force. Where a title has been enacted into positive law, a court may neither permit nor require proof of the underlying original Acts of Congress.[13]

The distinction between enacted and unenacted titles is largely academic because the Code is nearly always accurate. The United States Code is routinely cited by the Supreme Court and other federal courts without mentioning this theoretical caveat. On a day-to-day basis, very few lawyers cross-reference the Code to the Statutes at Large. Attempting to capitalize on the possibility that the text of the United States Code can differ from the United States Statutes at Large, Bancroft-Whitney for many years published a series of volumes known as United States Code Service (USCS), which used the actual text of the United States Statutes at Large.

Uncodified statutes

Only "general and permanent" laws are codified in the United States Code; the Code does not usually include provisions that apply only to a limited number of people (a private law) or for a limited time, such as most appropriation acts or budget laws, which apply only for a single fiscal year. If these limited provisions are significant, however, they may be printed as "notes" underneath related sections of the Code. The codification is based on the content of the laws, however, not the vehicle by which they are adopted; so, for instance, if an appropriations act contains substantive, permanent provisions (as is sometimes the case), these provisions will be incorporated into the Code even though they were adopted as part of a non-permanent enactment.[14]

Versions and history

Early compilations

Early efforts at codifying the Acts of Congress were undertaken by private publishers; these were useful shortcuts for research purposes, but had no official status. Congress undertook an official codification called the Revised Statutes of the United States approved June 22, 1874, for the laws in effect as of December 1, 1873. Congress re-enacted a corrected version in 1878. The Revised Statutes were enacted as positive law, but subsequent enactments were not incorporated into the official code, so that over time researchers once again had to delve through many volumes of the Statutes at Large.

According to the preface to the Code, "From 1897 to 1907 a commission was engaged in an effort to codify the great mass of accumulating legislation. The work of the commission involved an expenditure of over $300,000, but was never carried to completion." Only the Criminal Code of 1909 and the Judicial Code of 1911 were enacted. In the absence of a comprehensive official code, private publishers once again collected the more recent statutes into unofficial codes. The first edition of the United States Code (published as Statutes at Large Volume 44, Part 1) includes cross-reference tables between the U.S.C. and two of these unofficial codes, United States Compiled Statutes Annotated by West Publishing Co. and Federal Statutes Annotated by Edward Thompson Co.

Official code

During the 1920s, some members of Congress revived the codification project, resulting in the approval of the United States Code by Congress in 1926.[15]

The official version of the Code is published by the LRC as a series of paper volumes. The first edition of the Code was contained in a single bound volume; today, it spans several large volumes. Normally, a new edition of the Code is issued every six years, with annual cumulative supplements identifying the changes made by Congress since the last "main edition" was published.[5]

Digital and Internet versions

Both the LRC and the GPO offer electronic versions of the Code to the public. The LRC electronic version used to be as much as 18 months behind current legislation, but as of 2014 it is one of the most current versions available online. The United States Code is available from the LRC at uscode.house.gov in both HTML and XML bulk formats.[16][17] The "United States Legislative Markup" (USLM) schema of the XML was designed to be consistent with the Akoma Ntoso project (from the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs) XML schema,[18] and the OASIS LegalDocML technical committee standard will be based upon Akoma Ntoso.[19]

A number of other online versions are freely available, such as Cornell's Legal Information Institute.

Annotated codes

Practicing lawyers who can afford them almost always use an annotated version of the U.S. Code from a private company. The two leading annotated versions are the United States Code Annotated, abbreviated as U.S.C.A., and the United States Code Service, abbreviated as U.S.C.S. The U.S.C.A. is published by West (part of Thomson Reuters), and U.S.C.S. is published by LexisNexis (part of Reed Elsevier), which purchased the publication from the Lawyers Co-operative Publishing Co. in 1997 as a result of an antitrust settlement.[20] These annotated versions contain notes following each section of the law, which organize and summarize court decisions, law review articles, and other authorities that pertain to the code section, and may also include uncodified provisions that are part of the Public Laws. The publishers of these versions frequently issue supplements that contain newly enacted laws, which may not yet have appeared in an official published version of the Code, as well as updated secondary materials such as new court decisions on the subject. When an attorney is viewing an annotated code on an online service, such as Westlaw or LexisNexis, all the citations in the annotations are hyperlinked to the referenced court opinions and other documents.

Organization

Divisions

The Code is divided into 53 titles (listed below), which deal with broad, logically organized areas of legislation. Titles may optionally be divided into subtitles, parts, subparts, chapters, and subchapters. All titles have sections (represented by a §), as their basic coherent units, and sections are numbered sequentially across the entire title without regard to the previously-mentioned divisions of titles. Sections are often divided into (from largest to smallest) subsections, paragraphs, subparagraphs, clauses, subclauses, items, and subitems.[21] Congress, by convention, names a particular subdivision of a section according to its largest element. For example, "subsection (c)(3)(B)(iv)" is not a subsection but a clause, namely clause (iv) of subparagraph (B) of paragraph (3) of subsection (c); if the identity of the subsection and paragraph were clear from the context, one would refer to the clause as "subparagraph (B)(iv)".

Not all titles use the same series of subdivisions above the section level, and they may arrange them in different order. For example, in Title 26 (the tax code), the order of subdivision runs:

  • Title
    • Subtitle
      • Chapter
        • Subchapter
          • Part
            • Subpart
              • Section
                • Subsection
                  • Paragraph
                    • Subparagraph
                      • Clause
                        • Subclause
                          • Item
                            • Subitem

The "Section" division is the core organizational component of the Code, and the "Title" division is always the largest division of the Code. Which intermediate levels between Title and Section appear, if any, varies from Title to Title. For example, Title 38 (Veteran's Benefits) the order runs Title – Part – Chapter – Subchapter – Section.

The word "title" in this context is roughly akin to a printed "volume," although many of the larger titles span multiple volumes. Similarly, no particular size or length is associated with other subdivisions; a section might run several pages in print, or just a sentence or two. Some subdivisions within particular titles acquire meaning of their own; for example, it is common for lawyers to refer to a "Chapter 11 bankruptcy" or a "Subchapter S corporation" (often shortened to "S corporation").

According to one legal style manual,[22] a sample citation would be "Privacy Act of 1974, 5 U.S.C. § 552a (2006)", read aloud as "Title five, United States Code, section five fifty-two A" or simply "five USC five fifty-two A".

Titles

Titles that have been enacted into positive law are indicated by blue shading below. Titles whose laws have been repealed are indicated by red shading below.

Title 1 General Provisions
Title 2 The Congress
Title 3 The President
Title 4 Flag and Seal, Seat of Government, and the States
Title 5 Government Organization and Employees*
Title 6
(original)
Surety Bonds (repealed)
(Enacted into positive law by the 80th Congress in 1947; combined into Title 31 when it was enacted into positive law.)
Title 6 Domestic Security
Title 7 Agriculture
Title 8 Aliens and Nationality
Title 9 Arbitration
Title 10 Armed Forces (including the Uniform Code of Military Justice)
Title 11 Bankruptcy
Title 12 Banks and Banking
Title 13 Census
Title 14 Coast Guard
Title 15 Commerce and Trade
Title 16 Conservation
Title 17 Copyrights
Title 18 Crimes and Criminal Procedure*
Title 19 Customs Duties
Title 20 Education
Title 21 Food and Drugs
Title 22 Foreign Relations and Intercourse
Title 23 Highways
Title 24 Hospitals and Asylums
Title 25 Indians
Title 26 Internal Revenue Code
Title 27 Intoxicating Liquors
Title 28 Judiciary and Judicial Procedure
Title 29 Labor
Title 30 Mineral Lands and Mining
Title 31 Money and Finance
Title 32 National Guard
Title 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters
Title 34 Navy (repealed all of Title 34 in 1956 when Navy was moved into Title 10 subtitle C)
Title 34 Crime Control and Law Enforcement
Title 35 Patents
Title 36 Patriotic Societies and Observances
Title 37 Pay and Allowances of the Uniformed Services
Title 38 Veterans' Benefits
Title 39 Postal Service
Title 40 Public Buildings, Properties, and Works
Title 41 Public Contracts
Title 42 The Public Health and Welfare
Title 43 Public Lands
Title 44 Public Printing and Documents
Title 45 Railroads
Title 46 Shipping
Title 47 Telecommunications
Title 48 Territories and Insular Possessions
Title 49 Transportation
(enacted into positive law in stages; Title IV in 1978, Title I in 1983, and Titles II, III, and V-X in 1994)
Title 50 War and National Defense
Title 51 National and Commercial Space Programs
Title 52 Voting and Elections
Title 54 National Park Service and Related Programs

Note: The OLRC has produced a draft version of the codification of Title 35 (subtitles III and IV).

* Includes Appendix of provisions not yet enacted into positive law.

Proposed titles

The Office of Law Revision Counsel has produced draft text for three additional titles of federal law. The subject matters of these proposed titles exists today in one or several existing titles.

Title 53 Small Business [23]
Title 55 Environment
Title 56 Wildlife

The OLRC announced an "editorial reclassification" of the federal laws governing voting and elections that went into effect on September 1, 2014. This reclassification involved moving various laws previously classified in Titles 2 and 42 into a new Title 52, which has not been enacted into positive law. [5]

Treatment of repealed laws

When sections are repealed, their text is deleted and replaced by a note summarizing what used to be there. This is so that lawyers reading old cases can understand what the cases are talking about. As a result, some portions of the Code consist entirely of empty chapters full of historical notes. For example, Title 8, Chapter 7 is labeled "Exclusion of Chinese". This contains historical notes relating to the Chinese Exclusion Act, which is no longer in effect.

Number and growth of criminalized actions

There are conflicting opinions on the number of federal crimes,[24][25] but many have argued that there has been explosive growth and it has become overwhelming.[26][27][28] In 1982, the U.S. Justice Department could not come up with a number, but estimated 3,000 crimes in the United States Code.[24][25][29] In 1998, the American Bar Association (ABA) said that it was likely much higher than 3,000, but didn't give a specific estimate.[24][25] In 2008, the Heritage Foundation published a report that put the number at a minimum of 4,450.[25] When staff for a task force of the U.S. House Judiciary Committee asked the Congressional Research Service (CRS) to update its 2008 calculation of criminal offenses in the U.S.C. in 2013, the CRS responded that they lack the manpower and resources to accomplish the task.[30]

Related codifications

The U.S. Code generally contains only those Acts of Congress, or statutes, designated as public laws. The Code itself does not include Executive Orders or other executive-branch documents related to the statutes, or rules promulgated by the courts. However, such related material is sometimes contained in notes to relevant statutory sections or in appendices. The U.S. Code does not include statutes designated at enactment as private laws, nor statutes that are considered temporary in nature, such as appropriations. These laws are included in the Statutes at Large for the year of enactment.

Regulations promulgated by executive agencies through the rulemaking process set out in the Administrative Procedure Act are published chronologically in the Federal Register and then codified in the Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.). Similarly, state statutes and regulations are often codified into state-specific codes.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Title 1 of the Code Archived March 8, 2011, at the Wayback Machine as published by the Office of the Law Revision Counsel
  2. ^ Public Law No: 113-287, Enacted title 54, United States Code, "National Park Service and Related Programs", as positive law.
  3. ^ Title 34 (Navy) was repealed, but the numbering system was retained until the creation of a new Title 34 in 2017. See USC Table of Contents.
  4. ^ a b "United States Code". Archived from the original on February 16, 2008. Retrieved February 25, 2008.
  5. ^ a b c About United States Code. Gpo.gov. Retrieved on 2013-07-19.
  6. ^ Public and Private Laws: About, United States Government Printing Office, archived from the original on January 5, 2010, retrieved March 12, 2010, After the President signs a bill into law, it is delivered to the Office of the Federal Register (OFR), National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) …
  7. ^ Public and Private Laws: About, United States Government Printing Office, archived from the original on January 5, 2010, retrieved March 12, 2010, Public and private laws are prepared and published by the Office of the Federal Register (OFR) … The database for the current session of Congress is updated when the publication of a slip law is authorized by OFR.
  8. ^ 1 U.S.C. § 112
  9. ^ 1 U.S.C. § 113
  10. ^ U.S. National Bank of Oregon v. Independent Insurance Agents of America, Inc., 508 U.S. 439, 440 (1993).
  11. ^ See 1 U.S.C. § 204.
  12. ^ "[ … ] whenever titles of such Code shall have been enacted into positive law the text thereof shall be legal evidence of the laws therein contained, in all the courts of the United States [ … ]" 1 U.S.C. § 204.
  13. ^ See, e.g., United States v. Zuger, 602 F. Supp. 889, 891 (D. Conn. 1984) ("Where a title has, however, been enacted into positive law, the Code title itself is deemed to constitute conclusive evidence of the law; recourse to other sources is unnecessary and precluded.")
  14. ^ For example, the Department of Defense Appropriations Act of 2006, Pub.L. 109–148, 119 Stat. 2680 (2005)—a time-specific appropriations act that the President signed into law on December 30, 2005—contains in its Division A, Title X the Detainee Treatment Act of 2005 ("DTA"). The DTA set out, among other things, permanent provisions governing standards for interrogation of persons in Defense Department custody, prohibitions on cruel and unusual punishment, and procedures for status review of extraterritorial detainees. See id. at div. A, tit. X, §§ 1001–1006, 119 Stat. 2739–44. Notably, DTA section 1002 was printed as a note to 10 U.S.C. § 801; DTA section 1003 was codified as 42 U.S.C. § 2000dd (though the section has not yet been enacted into positive law); and DTA section 1005(e)(1) codified a new subsection (e) of 28 U.S.C. § 2241 (which became positive law upon the DTA's enactment). Congress also enacted a nearly identical version of the DTA as a component of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2006, see Pub.L. 109–163, div. A, tit. XIV, §§ 1401–1406, 119 Stat. 3136, 3474–80 (2006)—an authorization act that the President signed into law on January 6, 2006 (a week after he signed the original DTA into law). The December 2005 and January 2006 versions of the DTA are generally identical except for certain provisions in the section relating to training of Iraqi security forces (section 1006 of the Dec. '05 DTA and section 1406 of the Jan. '06 DTA). As a result, both the Dec. '05 and Jan. '06 DTAs appear to have made essentially simultaneous and duplicative amendments to the Code and its notes. But see the legislative history notes under 28 U.S.C. § 2241 (to the effect that two subsection (e)s of that statutory section have apparently been enacted). As of 17 April 2019, there has been no litigation challenging the validity of either of the DTA statutes on these grounds.
  15. ^ Pub.L. 69–440, 44 Stat. 777, enacted June 30, 1926; Pub.L. 69–441, 44 Stat. 778, enacted June 30, 1926
  16. ^ Howard, Alexander B. (July 30, 2013). "U.S. House of Representatives publishes U.S. Code as open government data". e-pluribusunum.com. Retrieved August 21, 2013.
  17. ^ Schuman, Daniel (November 13, 2012). "Testers wanted: Beta Website for US Code Now Online". Sunlight Foundation. Retrieved August 21, 2013.
  18. ^ "United States Legislative Markup: User Guide for the USLM Schema" (PDF). Office of the Law Revision Counsel. July 2013. Retrieved August 25, 2013.
  19. ^ Gheen, Tina (April 23, 2012). "OASIS Puts Akoma Ntoso on the Standards Track". Library of Congress.
  20. ^ Final Judgment : U.S. et al. v. The Thomson Corporation and West Publishing Company. Usdoj.gov. Retrieved on 2013-07-19.
  21. ^ Bellis MD. (2008). Statutory Structure and Legislative Drafting Conventions: A Primer for Judges Archived January 20, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. Federal Judicial Center.
  22. ^ The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation 102 (Columbia Law Review Ass'n et al. eds., 18th ed. 2005)
  23. ^ House Bill: 2009 CONG US HR 1983. New Title 53 - Small Business
  24. ^ a b c Fields, Gary; Emshwiller, John R. (July 23, 2011). "Many Failed Efforts to Count Nation's Federal Criminal Laws". The Wall Street Journal.
  25. ^ a b c d Baker, John S. (June 16, 2008), Revisiting the Explosive Growth of Federal Crimes, The Heritage Foundation
  26. ^ Fields, Gary; Emshwiller, John R. (July 23, 2011). "As Criminal Laws Proliferate, More Are Ensnared". The Wall Street Journal.
  27. ^ Neil, Martha (June 14, 2013). "ABA leader calls for streamlining of 'overwhelming' and 'often ineffective' federal criminal law". ABA Journal.
  28. ^ Savage, David G. (January 1, 1999). "Rehnquist Urges Shorter List of Federal Crimes". Los Angeles Times.
  29. ^ Weiss, Debra Cassens (July 25, 2011). "Federal Laws Multiply: Jail Time for Misappropriating Smokey Bear Image?". ABA Journal.
  30. ^ Ruger, Todd (June 14, 2013), "Way Too Many Criminal Laws, Lawyers Tell Congress", Blog of Legal Times, ALM

External links

Chapter 11, Title 11, United States Code

Chapter 11 is a chapter of Title 11, the United States Bankruptcy Code, which permits reorganization under the bankruptcy laws of the United States. Chapter 11 bankruptcy is available to every business, whether organized as a corporation, partnership or sole proprietorship, and to individuals, although it is most prominently used by corporate entities. In contrast, Chapter 7 governs the process of a liquidation bankruptcy, though liquidation can be done under Chapter 11 also; while Chapter 13 provides a reorganization process for the majority of private individuals.

Chapter 7, Title 11, United States Code

Chapter 7 of the Title 11 of the United States Code (Bankruptcy Code) governs the process of liquidation under the bankruptcy laws of the United States (in contrast, Chapters 11 and 13 govern the process of reorganization of a debtor in bankruptcy). Chapter 7 is the most common form of bankruptcy in the United States.

Code of Federal Regulations

The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) is the codification of the general and permanent rules and regulations (sometimes called administrative law) published in the Federal Register by the executive departments and agencies of the federal government of the United States. The CFR is divided into 50 titles that represent broad areas subject to federal regulation.

The CFR annual edition is the codification of the general and permanent rules published by the Office of the Federal Register (part of the National Archives and Records Administration) and the Government Publishing Office. In addition to this annual edition, the CFR is published in an unofficial format online on the Electronic CFR website, which is updated daily.

Internal Revenue Code

The Internal Revenue Code (IRC), formally the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, is the domestic portion of federal statutory tax law in the United States, published in various volumes of the United States Statutes at Large, and separately as Title 26 of the United States Code (USC). It is organized topically, into subtitles and sections, covering income tax (see Income tax in the United States), payroll taxes, estate taxes, gift taxes, and excise taxes; as well as procedure and administration. Its implementing agency is the Internal Revenue Service.

Office of the Law Revision Counsel

The Office of the Law Revision Counsel of the United States House of Representatives prepares and publishes the United States Code, which is a consolidation and codification by subject matter of the general and permanent laws of the United States. The Office was created in 1974 when the provisions of Title II, sec. 205, of H. Res. 988, 93rd United States Congress, were enacted by Public Law 93-554, 88 Stat. 1777.

The counsel is appointed by the Speaker of the House and must

prepare, and submit to the Committee on the Judiciary one title at a time, a complete compilation, restatement, and revision of the general and permanent laws of the United States which conforms to the understood policy, intent, and purpose of the Congress in the original enactments, with such amendments and corrections as will remove ambiguities, contradictions, and other imperfections both of substance and of form, separately stated, with a view to the enactment of each title as positive law."

The counsel takes each Act of Congress that covers more than one subject, and makes the revisions indicated to each title of the United States Code. The counsel also regularly reviews the United States Code and proposes new titles to be enacted as positive law (meaning that they would displace all prior statutes on the same subject and become the law itself). Some proposed titles are simply updates of U.S.C. titles that were previously codified as prima facie evidence of the statutory law but have not yet been enacted as positive law. Other proposed titles collect the substance of all existing statutes on a particular subject from across the U.S.C. and the Statutes at Large into a new title.

The current counsel, Ralph V. Seep, was appointed by Speaker John Boehner, effective June 2, 2011.

Third Enforcement Act

The Enforcement Act of 1871 (17 Stat. 13), also known as the Civil Rights Act of 1871, Force Act of 1871, Ku Klux Klan Act, Third Enforcement Act, or Third Ku Klux Klan Act, is an Act of the United States Congress which empowered the President to suspend the writ of habeas corpus to combat the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) and other white supremacy organizations. The act was passed by the 42nd United States Congress and signed into law by President Ulysses S. Grant on April 20, 1871. The act was the last of three Enforcement Acts passed by the United States Congress from 1870 to 1871 during the Reconstruction Era to combat attacks upon the suffrage rights of African Americans. The statute has been subject to only minor changes since then, but has been the subject of voluminous interpretation by courts.

This legislation was asked for by President Grant and passed within one month of when the president sent the request to Congress. Grant's request was a result of the reports he was receiving of widespread racial threats in the Deep South, particularly in South Carolina. He felt that he needed to have his authority broadened before he could effectively intervene. After the act's passage, the president had the power for the first time to both suppress state disorders on his own initiative and to suspend the right of habeas corpus. Grant did not hesitate to use this authority on numerous occasions during his presidency, and as a result the first era KKK was completely dismantled and did not resurface in any meaningful way until the first part of the 20th century. Several of its provisions still exist today as codified statutes. The most important of these is 42 U.S.C. § 1983: Civil action for deprivation of rights.

Title 10 of the United States Code

Title 10 of the United States Code outlines the role of armed forces in the United States Code.

It provides the legal basis for the roles, missions and organization of each of the services as well as the United States Department of Defense. Each of the five subtitles deals with a separate aspect or component of the armed services.

Subtitle A—General Military Law, including Uniform Code of Military Justice

Subtitle B—Army

Subtitle C—Navy and Marine Corps

Subtitle D—Air Force

Subtitle E—Reserve ComponentsThe current Title 10 was the result of an overhaul and renumbering of the former Title 10 and Title 34 into one title by an act of Congress on August 10, 1956.

Title 32 outlines the related but different legal basis for the roles, missions and organization of the United States National Guard in the United States Code.

Title 11 of the United States Code

Title 11 of the United States Code, also known as the United States Bankruptcy Code, is the source of bankruptcy law in the United States Code.

Title 14 of the United States Code

Title 14 of the United States Code outlines the role of the United States Coast Guard in the United States Code.

Part I—Regular Coast Guard

Part II—Coast Guard Reserve and Auxiliary

Title 17 of the United States Code

Title 17 of the United States Code is the United States Code that outlines United States copyright law. It was codified into positive law on July 30, 1947. The latest version is from December 2016.

17 U.S.C. ch. 1—Subject Matter and Scope of Copyright

17 U.S.C. ch. 2—Copyright Ownership and Transfer

17 U.S.C. ch. 3—Duration of Copyright

17 U.S.C. ch. 4—Copyright Notice, Deposit, and Registration

17 U.S.C. ch. 5— Infringement and Remedies

17 U.S.C. ch. 6—Manufacturing Requirements and Importation

17 U.S.C. ch. 7—Copyright Office

17 U.S.C. ch. 8—Proceedings by Copyright Royalty Judges

17 U.S.C. ch. 9—Protection of Semiconductor Chip Products

17 U.S.C. ch. 10—Digital Audio Recording Devices and Media

17 U.S.C. ch. 11—Sound Recordings and Music Videos

17 U.S.C. ch. 12—Copyright Protection and Management Systems

17 U.S.C. ch. 13—Protection of Original Designs

Title 18 of the United States Code

Title 18 of the United States Code is the main criminal code of the federal government of the United States. The Title deals with federal crimes and criminal procedure. In its coverage, Title 18 is similar to most U.S. state criminal codes, which typically are referred to by such names as Penal Code, Criminal Code, or Crimes Code. Typical of state criminal codes is the California Penal Code. Many U.S. state criminal codes, unlike the federal Title 18, are based on the Model Penal Code promulgated by the American Law Institute.

Title 21 of the United States Code

Title 21 of the United States Code governs Food and Drugs in the United States Code (U.S.C.).

Title 28 of the United States Code

Title 28 (Judiciary and Judicial Procedure) is the portion of the United States Code (federal statutory law) that governs the federal judicial system.

It is divided into six parts:

Part I: Organization of Courts

Part II: Department of Justice

Part III: Court Officers and Employees

Part IV: Jurisdiction and Venue

Part V: Procedure

Part VI: Particular Proceedings

Title 32 of the United States Code

Title 32 of the United States Code outlines the role of the United States National Guard in the United States Code.

32 U.S.C. ch. 1—Organization

32 U.S.C. ch. 3—Personnel

32 U.S.C. ch. 5—Training

32 U.S.C. ch. 7—Service, Supply, And Procurement

32 U.S.C. ch. 9—Homeland Defense Activities

Title 50 of the United States Code

Title 50 of the United States Code outlines the role of War and National Defense in the United States Code.

Chapter 1: Council of National Defense

Chapter 2: Board of Ordnance and Fortification

Chapter 3: Alien Enemies

Chapter 4: Espionage

Chapter 4a: Photographing, Sketching, Mapping, Etc., Defensive Installations

Chapter 4b: Disclosure of Classified Information

Chapter 4c: Atomic Weapons and Special Nuclear Materials Information Rewards

Chapter 5: Arsenals, Armories, Arms, And War Material Generally

Chapter 6: Willful Destruction, Etc., Of War Or National-Defense Material

Chapter 7: Interference With Homing Pigeons Owned by United States

Chapter 8: Explosives; Manufacture, Distribution, Storage, Use, And Possession Regulated

Chapter 9: Aircraft

Chapter 10: Helium Gas

Chapter 11: Acquisition Of And Expenditures On Land For National-Defense Purposes

Chapter 12: Vessels In Territorial Waters of United States

Chapter 13: Insurrection

Chapter 14: Wartime Voting by Land and Naval Forces

Chapter 15: National Security

Chapter 16: Defense Industrial Reserves

Chapter 17: Arming American Vessels

Chapter 18: Air-Warning Screen

Chapter 19: Guided Missiles

Chapter 20: Wind Tunnels

Chapter 21: Abaca Production

Chapter 22: Uniform Code of Military Justice Repealed – see Title 10 of the United States Code

Chapter 22a: Representation Of Armed Forces Personnel Before Foreign Judicial Tribunals

Chapter 23: Internal Security

Chapter 24: National Defense Facilities

Chapter 25: Armed Forces Reserve

Chapter 26: Gifts for Defense Purposes

Chapter 27: Reserve Officer Personnel Program

Chapter 28: Status of Armed Forces Personnel Appointed to Service Academies

Chapter 29: National Defense Contracts

Chapter 30: Federal Absentee Voting Assistance

Chapter 31: Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations

Chapter 32: Chemical and Biological Warfare Program

Chapter 33: War Powers Resolution

Chapter 34: National Emergencies

Chapter 35: International Emergency Economic Powers

Chapter 36: Foreign Intelligence Surveillance

Chapter 37: National Security Scholarships, Fellowships, and Grants

Chapter 38: Central Intelligence Agency Retirement and Disability

Chapter 39: Spoils of War

Chapter 40: Defense Against Weapons of Mass Destruction

Chapter 41: National Nuclear Security Administration

Chapter 42: Atomic Energy Defense Provisions

Chapter 43: Preventing Weapons of Mass Destruction Proliferation and Terrorism

Title 5 of the United States Code

Title 5 of the United States Code outlines the role of government organization and employees in the United States Code. It also is the Title that specifies Federal holidays (5 U.S.C. § 6103).

Part I: The Agencies Generally

Part II: Civil Service Functions and Responsibilities

Part III: Employees

5 U.S.C. §§ 5311–5318—Executive Schedule

5 U.S.C. §§ 5331–5338—General Schedule

5 U.S.C. §§ 6101–6133—Work Hours

5 U.S.C. §§ 6101–6106—Holidays

Title 8 of the United States Code

Title 8 of the United States Code codifies statutes relating to aliens and nationality in the United States Code.

United States Statutes at Large

The United States Statutes at Large, commonly referred to as the Statutes at Large and abbreviated Stat., are an official record of Acts of Congress and concurrent resolutions passed by the United States Congress. Each act and resolution of Congress is originally published as a slip law, which is classified as either public law (abbreviated Pub.L.) or private law (Pvt.L.), and designated and numbered accordingly. At the end of a Congressional session, the statutes enacted during that session are compiled into bound books, known as "session law" publications. The session law publication for U.S. Federal statutes is called the United States Statutes at Large. In that publication, the public laws and private laws are numbered and organized in chronological order. U.S. Federal statutes are published in a three-part process, consisting of slip laws, session laws (Statutes at Large), and codification (United States Code).

United States Code
Constitutional law
and legislation
Courts of the
United States
Education
Types of law

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