United States Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands

The United States Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands (琉球列島米国民政府 Ryūkyū-rettō Beikoku Minseifu), or "USCAR", was the government in Okinawa, Japan, after World War II from 1950 until 1972.

United States Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands

琉球列島米国民政府
(Ryūkyū-rettō Beikoku Minseifu)
1950–1972
Coat of arms of Ryukyu Islands
Coat of arms
Location of the Ryukyu Islands (shaded red) in the East China Sea.
Location of the Ryukyu Islands (shaded red)
in the East China Sea.
StatusMilitary occupation
CapitalNaha
Common languagesJapanese
Ryukyuan
English
GovernmentMilitary occupation
U.S. President 
• 1950–1953
Harry S. Truman (first)
• 1969–1972
Richard Nixon (last)
Governor 
• 1950–1951
GEN Douglas MacArthur (first)
• 1955–1957
GEN Lyman Lemnitzer (last)
High Commissioner 
• 1957–1958
LTG James Edward Moore (first)
• 1968–1972
LTG James Benjamin Lampert (last)
Historical eraCold War
April 1 – June 21 1945
• Founding of USCAoR
December 15 1950
• Returned to Japan
May 15 1972
CurrencyB yen (July 1948–Sep 1958)
U.S. dollar (1958–1972)
Preceded by
Succeeded by
United States Military Government of the Ryukyu Islands
Japan

History

The U.S. National Archives and Records Administration describes USCAR's history thus:[1]

Following signing of the Instrument of Surrender, September 2, 1945, Ryukyu Islands were administered by Department of the Navy, September 21, 1945-June 30, 1946, with Commanding Officer, Naval Operating Base, Okinawa functioning as chief military government officer under authority of Commander-in-Chief U.S. Pacific Fleet. Transfer of administration from Department of the Navy to War Department authorized by Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) approval, April 1, 1946, of JCS 819/11, March 5, 1946, with added proviso of JCS 819/12, March 22, 1946. Pursuant to implementing instructions of General Headquarters U.S. Army Forces in the Pacific (GHQ AFPAC), Okinawa Base Command redesignated Ryukyus Command, effective July 1, 1946, by General Order 162, Headquarters U.S. Army Forces, Western Pacific, and made responsible for administration under a Deputy Commander for Military Government. Ryukyu Islands administered successively by Ryukyus Command, July 1-November 30, 1946; Philippines-Ryukyus Command, December 1, 1946-July 31, 1948; and Ryukyuan Command, August 1, 1948-December 15, 1950. USCAR established, effective December 15, 1950, by a directive of Headquarters Far East Command (HQ FEC, formerly GHQ AFPAC), AG 091.1 (5 Dec 50) RCA, December 5, 1950, implementing a JCS memorandum, SM 2474-50, October 11, 1950, directing Commander-in-Chief Far East, Gen. Douglas MacArthur, to organize a civil administration for the Ryukyu Islands in accordance with JCS 1231/14, October 4, 1950. USCAR continued to function under Department of the Army (formerly War Department), 1950-71. Amami Island Group of Ryukyu Islands was returned to Japan by the Agreement between the United States of America and Japan concerning the Amami Islands, signed December 24, 1953, and made effective December 25, 1953. USCAR abolished following entrance into force, May 15, 1972, of the Agreement between the United States of America and Japan concerning the Ryukyu Islands and the Daito Islands, signed June 17, 1971, by which the remaining island groups of the Ryukyu Islands, including the Okinawa Island Group, were returned to Japan.

After the Battle of Okinawa in World War II, the United States Navy initially administered the Okinawa group while the other three groups came under Army control. On July 18, 1945 the Navy transferred control to U.S. Army Forces in the Pacific (AFPAC), but on September 21 assumed control again, organizing the United States Military Government of the Ryukyu Islands.[2] Finally on July 1, 1946, the Army took control again, organising the Ryukyu Command from the previous Okinawa Base Command. On January 1, 1947 AFPAC was reorganised as Far East Command and a unified Ryukyu Command, including a military government apparatus, was placed under General Headquarters, Far East Command (GHQ FECOM), in Tokyo.

In 1952, Japan signed the Treaty of San Francisco and admitted the control of Okinawa by the U.S. government.[3] USCAR, which was a subordinate organization of the forces of the United States, surveilled the Ryukyuan Government and could overrule all the decisions made by the Ryukyuan Government.

The official currency was the B yen from 1948–1958, when the B yen was abolished and the US dollar was brought into use.[4] The government printed Ryukyuan postage stamps and passports. Cars drove on the right in contrast to the main islands of Japan. The island switched to driving on the left in 1978 to bring it in line with Japan.

Peace treaty specifications

United States Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands Logo
The Logo of United States Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands, abolished May 15, 1972

Two important articles of the post-war peace treaty of April 28, 1952 are the following:

Article 3: Japan will concur in any proposal of the United States to the United Nations to place under its trusteeship system, with the United States as the sole administering authority, Nansei Shoto south of 29 degrees north latitude (including the Ryukyu Islands and the Daito Islands), Nanpo Shoto south of Sofu Gan (including the Bonin Islands, Rosario Island and the Volcano Islands) and Parece Vela and Marcus Island. Pending the making of such a proposal and affirmative action thereon, the United States will have the right to exercise all and any powers of administration, legislation and jurisdiction over the territory and inhabitants of these islands, including their territorial waters.

Article 4b: Japan recognizes the validity of dispositions of property of Japan and Japanese nationals made by or pursuant to directives of the United States Military Government in any of the areas referred to in Articles 2 and 3.

After a formal agreement reached on June 17, 1971, control of Okinawa was given back to Japan on May 15, 1972,[5] and USCAR was abolished. This completed the disposition of this Japanese property by USMG.

Government system

The post of Governor (民政長官 Minsei Chōkan) was created in 1950 and replaced in 1957 by the High Commissioner of the Ryukyu Islands (琉球列島高等弁務官 Ryūkyū-rettō Kōtō-benmukan) until 1972.

Governors and High Commissioners

Flag

Flag of US Occupied Ryukyu Islands
Civil ensign of Ryukyu.

The Criminal Code of Ryukyu restricted the flying of any national flags except the flag of the United States.[6] The protesters against the Ryukyu government flew the Hinomaru, the flag of Japan. Civil ships of Ryukyu flew an ensign derived from International maritime signal flag "D" instead of Japanese or American ensigns. The D ensign was not well known internationally, so the Ryukyuan ships were sometimes seized. The ensign changed to "Hinomaru below a triangular flag labeled "Ryukyu" and "琉球" (Japanese for "Ryukyu") in 1967.[7][8]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Records of U.S. Occupation Headquarters, World War II". National Archives. U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. 1995. Retrieved September 9, 2016. 260.12 Records of the U.S. Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands (USCAR) 1945-72
  2. ^ Eiji Takemae, The Allied Occupation of Japan, p.123
  3. ^ Shimamoto, Mayako; Ito, Koji; Sugita, Yoneyuki (2015). Historical Dictionary of Japanese Foreign Policy. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 22. ISBN 9781442250673. Retrieved September 9, 2016.
  4. ^ Ikeo, Aiko (2014). A History of Economic Science in Japan: The Internationalization of Economics in the Twentieth Century. Routledge. p. 227. ISBN 9781317747536. Retrieved September 9, 2016.
  5. ^ "Agreement between the United States of America and Japan Concerning the Ryukyu Islands and Daito Islands". United States Treaties and Other International Agreements, Volume 23, Part 1. US Department of State. 23: 449. 1973. Retrieved September 9, 2016.
  6. ^ "琉球刑法並びに訴訟手続法典(一九五五年) Criminal code of Ryukyu 1955" (in Japanese). Retrieved December 8, 2007.
  7. ^ "沖繩船舶旗問題(昭和42年 わが外交の近況) Okinawa Ships issue (Our diplomacy 1967)" (in Japanese). Retrieved December 8, 2007.
  8. ^ "那覇 泊港?那覇港? 全琉船舶に新船舶旗掲揚 1967年7月1日 All Ryukyuan ships hold new civil ensign at Tomari port or Naha port in Naha, July 1, 1967" (in Japanese). Archived from the original on August 1, 2009. Retrieved December 8, 2007.

Coordinates: 26°30′N 128°0′E / 26.500°N 128.000°E

Albert Watson II

Albert Watson II (January 5, 1909 – March 19, 1993) was a United States Army lieutenant general. He participated in World War II and fought in a number of significant battles in the Pacific Theater including the Battle of Okinawa. From May 1961 to January 1963, Watson served as Commandant of Berlin and commanded American military forces there when construction of the Berlin Wall began. A major diplomatic incident occurred when members of Watson's staff were refused access to East Berlin. Riots also broke out during his tenure following the death of Peter Fechter. From 1964 to 1965, Watson filled the position of Commissioner of the United States Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands. He increased Ryuku autonomy but ultimately spoke against the significant lessening of American administration authority in the Ryukyus. Watson received two Distinguished Service Medals during his career.

Amami Communist Party

The Amami Communist Party (Japanese: 奄美共産党) was a political party on the Amami Islands. It campaigned for an end to the American occupation of the islands and reunification with Japan, though it was not entirely in sync with the Japanese Communist Party on this issue. The American military government (later the United States Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands) banned the party and raided their headquarters and several of their members' houses on 27 March 1950. The next day, 17 members of the party's leadership were arrested for "planning a riot" and subversion of the military government.

B yen

B yen (B圓, B en) was a colloquial term used to refer to a form of military scrip used in post-war US-Occupied Okinawa from April 15, 1946, to September 1958. Officially, it was called B type military scrip (B型軍票, B-gata gunpyō).

Chinen Castle

Chinen Castle (知念城, Chinen jō) is a Ryukyuan gusuku in Nanjō, Okinawa. It is the second oldest castle in the Ryukyu Islands.

Far East Command (United States)

Far East Command (FECOM) was a United States military command from 1947 until 1957, functionally organised to undertake the occupation of Japan. It was created on 1 January 1947, and abolished, with functions transferred to Pacific Command, effective 1 July 1957, pursuant to Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) 1259/378. From 1947–51 it was commanded by General Douglas MacArthur, who was then succeeded by Generals Matthew Ridgway and Mark Clark. Later commanders were Generals John E. Hull, Maxwell D. Taylor, and finally Lyman Lemnitzer.

Its initial army forces in 1947 comprised Eighth Army, XXIV Corps/U.S. Army Forces in Korea, and the Ryukyus, Philippines and Marianas-Bonins Commands (MARBO). There was no overall headquarters for the ground elements within the Far East Command, and the five separate ground commands reported directly to CINCFE. Far East Air Forces and Naval Forces Far East also reported directly to CINCFE, initially giving MacArthur seven subordinate military headquarters.

The Marianas-Bonins Command (MARBO) was established in January 1947 as result a major reorganization of U.S. military forces in the Asia/Pacific region. The MARBO SSI was approved on 8 August 1948. Whether to place the Bonin and Mariana Islands under PACOM or FECOM became a bone of contention. The Navy saw all Pacific islands as one strategic entity, while the Army insisted that FECOM be able to draw upon military resources in the Bonin-Marianas during an emergency. Accordingly, the Commander in Chief, Far East (CINCFE), was given control over local forces and facilities in these islands, while naval administration and logistics there fell under Commander in Chief, Pacific (CINCPAC).

Following signing of the Japanese Instrument of Surrender, 2 September 1945, the Ryukyu Islands were administered by the Department of the Navy, 21 September 1945 – 30 June 1946, with Commanding Officer, Naval Operating Base, Okinawa functioning as chief military government officer under authority of Commander-in-Chief, U.S. Pacific Fleet. Transfer of administration from the Department of the Navy to the War Department was authorized by Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) approval, 1 April 1946. Pursuant to implementing instructions of General Headquarters U.S. Army Forces in the Pacific (GHQ AFPAC), the Okinawa Base Command was redesignated Ryukyus Command, effective 1 July 1946, by General Order 162, Headquarters U.S. Army Forces, Western Pacific, and made responsible for administration under a Deputy Commander for Military Government. The Ryukyu Islands was administered successively by Ryukyus Command, 1 July – 30 November 1946; and Philippines-Ryukyus Command, 1 December 1946 – 31 July 1948; and Ryukyuan Command, 1 August 1948 – 15 December 1950. All were seemingly headquartered at Fort Buckner.

The PHILRYCOM marriage of convenience did not last out 1948, as the command was separated into a Philippine Command (PHILCOM) and a Ryukyus Command (RYCOM) on 1 August 1948 (SCAP, GHQ General Order Number 18, 9 July 1948).In June 1950 GHQ, FEC, located in Tokyo, Japan, with main offices in the Dai Ichi Building, had Maj. Gen. Edward M. Almond as chief of staff and Maj. Gen. Doyle O. Hickey as deputy chief of staff. The major subordinate Army commands were Eighth Army, commanded by Lt. Gen. Walton H. Walker; Headquarters and Service Group, GHQ, commanded by Maj. Gen. Walter L. Weible; the Ryukyus Command (RYCOM) under Maj. Gen. Josef R. Sheetz; and the Marianas-Bonins Command (MARBO) headed by Maj. Gen. Robert S. Beightler. In the Philippines, the Thirteenth Air Force controlled U.S. installations through PHILCOM (AF), a small and rapidly diminishing headquarters commanded by Maj. Gen. Howard M. Turner USAF. Naval Forces, Far East, were commanded by Vice Adm. C. Turner Joy. Far East Air Forces came under Lt. Gen. George E. Stratemeyer. FEAF and NavFE headquarters were located in Tokyo in buildings separate from GHQ, FEC. XVI Corps was activated in April 1951 as the command reserve.In 1951, during the Korean War, the Joint Chiefs of Staff shifted responsibility for the Bonins and Marianas as well as the Philippines and Taiwan from FECOM to PACOM.The United States Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands (USCAR) was established, effective 15 December 1950, by a directive of Headquarters Far East Command. That directive ordered Commander-in-Chief Far East, Gen. Douglas MacArthur, to organize a civil administration for the Ryukyu Islands in accordance with JCS 1231/14 October 4, 1950. USCAR continued to function under the Department of the Army (formerly the War Department) from 1950 to 1971.

Ferdinand Thomas Unger

Ferdinand Thomas Unger (October 28, 1914 – January 31, 1999) was a United States Army Lieutenant General, High Commissioner of the United States Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands, and governor of the U.S. Soldiers' and Airmen's Home in Northwest Washington D.C.

Government of the Ryukyu Islands

The Government of the Ryukyu Islands (琉球政府, Ryūkyū Seifu) was the self-government of native Okinawans during the American occupation of Okinawa. It was created by proclamation of the United States Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands (USCAR) on April 1, 1952 and was abolished on May 14, 1972 when Okinawa was returned to Japan, in accordance with the 1971 Okinawa Reversion Agreement. The government consisted of an executive branch, a legislative branch, and a judicial branch. Members of legislature were elected. The legislature made its own laws, and often had conflicts with USCAR, who could overrule their decisions.

The government was headed by a Chief Executive (行政主席, Gyōsei Shuseki). From 1952 to 1960, the Chief Executive was assigned by USCAR. He was then assigned the leader of the dominant party of the legislature (1960–66), elected in the legislature (1966–68), and elected by the citizens (1968–72).

Gushikawa Castle (Itoman)

Gushikawa Castle (具志川城, Gushikawa jō, Okinawan: Gushichan Gushiku) is a Ryukyuan gusuku in Itoman, Okinawa.

Gushikawa Castle (Kume)

Gushikawa Castle (具志川城, Gushikawa jō, Okinawan: Gushichan Gushiku) is a Ryukyuan gusuku in Kumejima, Okinawa, on Kume Island. It was built in the 15th century. The Miifugaa rock formation can be seen from the castle.

Kitadaito Airport

Kitadaitō Airport (北大東空港, Kitadaitō Kūkō, (IATA: KTD, ICAO: RORK)) is located on the island of Kitadaitōjima in the village of Kitadaitō, Shimajiri District, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan.

The prefecture operates the airport, which is classified as a third class airport.

Only a round flight from Naha, to Kitadaitō and Minami Daito Airport, back to Naha is operated every day. The route differs on the day of the week. Flight from Kitadaitō to Minamidaitō is the shortest flight in Japan, costs JPY¥7,600, and is only 12 km (7.5 mi) long, takes 3 minutes in the air.Kitadaito Airport was opened in 1971 as an emergency 760 meter airstrip, constructed of crushed coral by the United States Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands. The runway was paved and extended to 800 meters in 1978, when scheduled passenger services commenced. The runway was extended to 1500 meters in 1997. At present, there is only one scheduled flight per day.

List of U.S. governors of the Ryukyu Islands

This article lists the U.S. governors of the Ryukyu Islands, which represented the United States in the Ryukyu Islands (Japanese: 琉球諸島, Hepburn: Ryūkyū-shotō, Okinawan: 琉球/ルーチュー Ruuchuu), an archipelago of Japanese islands within Kagoshima and Okinawa prefectures, centered on the Okinawa Islands and its main island, Okinawa (the smallest and least populated of the five Japanese home islands). The list encompasses the period of U.S. occupation, from the start of the Battle of Okinawa in 1945 until the return of the islands to Japanese sovereignty in 1972, in accordance with the 1971 Okinawa Reversion Agreement.

Okinawa Christian Junior College

Okinawa Christian Junior College (沖縄キリスト教短期大学, Okinawa Kirisuto-kyō Tanki Daigaku) is a private junior college in Nishihara, Okinawa, Japan. It was established in 1959 as a junior college for United States Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands, the predecessor of the school was founded in 1957. In 1972 it was changed to native college.

Okinawa Prefectural Assembly

The Okinawa Prefectural Assembly (沖縄県議会, Okinawa-kengikai) is the prefectural parliament of Okinawa.

Its 48 members are elected every four years in 14 districts by single non-transferable vote (SNTV). 13 electoral districts are multi-member district, one district is a single-member district where SNTV becomes equivalent to First-past-the-post voting.

The assembly is responsible for enacting and amending prefectural ordinances, approving the budget and voting on important administrative appointments made by the governor including the vice-governors.

Unlike most mainland prefectural assemblies (Hokkaidō is another exception) the Okinawa Prefectural Assembly was not in existence continuously since 1878. After the Battle of Okinawa, the United States military governed the prefecture. The civilian branch of the military government was the United States Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands; a Legislature of the Government of the Ryukyu Islands (立法院) was created in 1952. After Okinawa's return to the mainland in 1972, the Prefectural Assembly was restored. Since then, it had been one of three prefectures in the country that do not elect their assemblies in unified local elections (last round: 2011), the other two being Ibaraki and Tokyo (In 2011, another three prefectures hit by the Great East Japan earthquake postponed their elections).

Paul Caraway

Paul Wyatt Caraway (December 23, 1905 – December 13, 1985) was a United States Army Lieutenant General and the 3rd High Commissioner of the United States Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands. He was the son of two influential Arkansas Senators, Hattie Caraway and Thaddeus Caraway. Caraway graduated from the United States Military Academy in 1929. He also graduated from Georgetown University with a law degree and taught law at West Point. He served on the General Staff for the United States Department of War before becoming deputy chief-of-staff to General Albert Coady Wedemeyer during World War II. He served in numerous other positions, including accompanying Vice President Richard Nixon on a tour of Asia. Following the Korean War, he became head of Army Research and Development. He never saw combat.

Caraway held major influence as High Commissioner during the 1960s. He brought a new sense of economic prosperity to the island chain, turning it from one of the poorest area of Japan to one of the wealthier in east Asia. He lowered electric prices and arrested several prominent banking figures for fraud, revamping the local banking industry in the process. Despite this, many Okinawans saw him as autocratic. He refused to allow any increase in self-rule or autonomy, vetoing any bill from the local legislature that brought the islands closer to Japan and crushing autonomy movements. He resisted reform efforts from Ambassador to Japan Edwin O. Reischauer and President John F. Kennedy. He resigned from the office and the military in August 1964.

Tamagusuku Castle

Tamagusuku Castle (玉城城, Tamagusuku jō) is a Ryukyuan gusuku in Nanjō, Okinawa. It is the oldest castle on Okinawa; Chūzan Seikan says it was built by Amamikyu, the creation goddess of the Ryukyuan religion. It was the home of the Aji of Tamagusuku Magiri.

USCAR

USCAR means:

United States Council for Automotive Research

US Climate Action Report

United States Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands

Uegusuku Castle (Kume)

Uegusuku Castle (宇江城城, Uegusuku jō) is a Ryukyuan gusuku in Kumejima, Okinawa, on Kume Island. It was the home to the Aji of Kume Magiri before the 16th century. It is now a ruined castle.

Uegusuku Castle (Tomigusuku)

Uegusuku Castle (宇江城, Uegusuku jō) is a Ryukyuan gusuku in Tomigusuku, Okinawa. The castle is in ruins.

United States Military Government of the Ryukyu Islands

The United States Military Government of the Ryukyu Islands (琉球列島米国軍政府, Ryūkyū-rettō Beikoku Gunseifu), or "USMGR", was the government in Okinawa, Japan from 1945 to 1950, whereupon it was replaced by the United States Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands (USCAR).

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