United States Army Corps of Engineers

The United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE)[5] is a U.S. federal agency under the Department of Defense and a major Army command made up of some 37,000 civilian and military personnel,[1] making it one of the world's largest public engineering, design, and construction management agencies. Although generally associated with dams, canals and flood protection in the United States, USACE is involved in a wide range of public works throughout the world. The Corps of Engineers provides outdoor recreation opportunities to the public, and provides 24% of U.S. hydropower capacity.

The corps' mission is to "Deliver vital public and military engineering services; partnering in peace and war to strengthen our Nation's security, energize the economy and reduce risks from disasters."[6]

Their most visible missions include:

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
United States Army Corps of Engineers logo
Active11 June 1775 – present
Country United States of America
Branch United States Army
Size37,000 civilian and military (approx. 2%) members[1]
Garrison/HQWashington, D.C., U.S.
Motto(s)Essayons (Let Us Try)
ColorsScarlet and White[2]
Websitewww.USACE.Army.mil
Commanders
Current
commander
Lieutenant General Todd T. Semonite, Chief of Engineers[3]
Notable
commanders
COL Richard Gridley,
BG Louis Lebègue Duportail,
COL Joseph Swift,
COL Alexander Macomb, Jr.,
BG William Louis Marshall,
MG Richard Delafield,
BG Joseph Totten,
BG Henry Robert,
LTG Edgar Jadwin,
LTG Leif J. Sverdrup
Insignia
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers SSI
USA - Engineer Branch Insignia
US-Engineers-Regimental Insignia
Army Corps of Engineers Headquarters 2016
Army Corps of Engineer Headquarters in Norfolk, Virginia
OlmstedAerial 22May2012
Olmsted Locks and Dam has been under construction for over 20 years under the US Army Corps of Engineers' watch.
Colonel Debra Lewis, a district commander with the Army Corps of Engineers and Sheik O'rhaman Hama Raheem
Colonel Debra Lewis, the Gulf Region Division Central District commander with Sheik O'rhaman Hama Raheem, an Iraqi councilman, celebrate the opening of a new women's center in Assriya Village that the Corps helped construct in 2006.[4]
Dredge Tauracavor 3
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers dredge Tauracavor 3 in New York Harbor.
Mississippi River Improvement 1890
Mississippi River improvement, 1890
Proctor Lake, Texas
Proctor Lake, Texas, constructed by the Corps of Engineers to provide flood control, drinking water, and recreation

History

Early history

West Point, From Above Washington Valley Concept Plan
Plan of the military academy at West Point, New York

The history of United States Army Corps of Engineers can be traced back to 16 June 1775, when the Continental Congress organized an army with a chief engineer and two assistants.[7] Colonel Richard Gridley became General George Washington's first chief engineer. One of his first tasks was to build fortifications near Boston at Bunker Hill. The Continental Congress recognized the need for engineers trained in military fortifications and asked the government of King Louis XVI of France for assistance. Many of the early engineers in the Continental Army were former French officers. Louis Lebègue Duportail, a lieutenant colonel in the French Royal Corps of Engineers, was secretly sent to America in March 1777 to serve in Washington's Continental Army. In July 1777 he was appointed colonel and commander of all engineers in the Continental Army, and in November 17, 1777, he was promoted to brigadier general. When the Continental Congress created a separate Corps of Engineers in May 1779 Duportail was designated as its commander. In late 1781 he directed the construction of the allied U.S.-French siege works at the Battle of Yorktown.

On February 26, 1783, the Corps was disbanded. It was re-established during the Presidency of George Washington.

From 1794 to 1802 the engineers were combined with the artillery as the Corps of Artillerists and Engineers.[8]

The Corps of Engineers, as it is known today, came into existence on 16 March 1802, when President Thomas Jefferson signed the Military Peace Establishment Act whose aim was to "organize and establish a Corps of Engineers ... that the said Corps ... shall be stationed at West Point in the State of New York and shall constitute a military academy." Until 1866, the superintendent of the United States Military Academy was always an officer of engineer.

The General Survey Act of 1824 authorized the use of Army engineers to survey road and canal routes.[9] That same year, Congress passed an "Act to Improve the Navigation of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers" and to remove sand bars on the Ohio and "planters, sawyers, or snags" (trees fixed in the riverbed) on the Mississippi, for which the Corps of Engineers was the responsible agency.[10]

Formerly separate units

Separately authorized on 4 July 1838, the U.S. Army Corps of Topographical Engineers consisted only of officers and was used for mapping and the design and construction of federal civil works and other coastal fortifications and navigational routes. It was merged with the Corps of Engineers on 31 March 1863, at which point the Corps of Engineers also assumed the Lakes Survey District mission for the Great Lakes.[11]

In 1841, Congress created the Lake Survey. The survey, based in Detroit, Mich., was charged with conducting a hydrographical survey of the Northern and Northwestern Lakes and preparing and publishing nautical charts and other navigation aids. The Lake Survey published its first charts in 1852.[12]

In the mid-19th century, Corps of Engineers' officers ran Lighthouse Districts in tandem with U.S. Naval officers.

Civil War

Ponton Bridge across the James River, Virginia 1864
Pontoon bridge across the James River, Virginia, 1864

The Army Corps of Engineers played a significant role in the American Civil War. Many of the men who would serve in the top leadership in this institution were West Point graduates who rose to military fame and power during the Civil War. Some of these men were Union Generals George McClellan, Henry Halleck, George Meade, and Confederate generals Robert E. Lee, Joseph Johnston, and P.G.T. Beauregard.[7] The versatility of officers in the Army Corps of Engineers contributed to the success of numerous missions throughout the Civil War. They were responsible for building pontoon and railroad bridges, forts and batteries, the destruction of enemy supply lines, and the construction of roads.[7] The Union forces were not the only ones to employ the use of engineers throughout the war, and on 6 March 1861, once the South had seceded from the Union, among the different acts passed at the time, a provision was included that called for the creation of a Confederate Corps of Engineers.[13]

The progression of the war demonstrated the South's disadvantage in engineering expertise; of the initial 65 cadets who resigned from West Point to accept positions with the Confederate Army, only seven were placed in the Corps of Engineers.[13] To overcome this obstacle, the Confederate Congress passed legislation that gave a company of engineers to every division in the field; by 1865, they actually had more engineer officers serving in the field of action than the Union Army.[13] One of the main projects for the Army Corps of Engineers was constructing railroads and bridges, which Union forces took advantage of because railroads and bridges provided access to resources and industry. One area where the Confederate engineers were able to outperform the Union Army was in the ability to build fortifications that were used both offensively and defensively along with trenches that made them harder to penetrate. This method of building trenches was known as the zigzag pattern.[13]

20th century

Ledo Road, Burma 1944, Sgt. CG McCutcheon of 1304th Engineer Construction Battalion
A bulldozer operated by Sgt. C. G. McCutcheon of the 1304th Engineer Construction Battalion on the Ledo Road, Burma, 1944

From the beginning, many politicians wanted the Corps of Engineers to contribute to both military construction and works of a civil nature. Assigned the military construction mission on 1 December 1941 after the Quartermaster Department struggled with the expanding mission,[14] the Corps built facilities at home and abroad to support the U.S. Army and Air Force. During World War II the mission grew to more than 27,000 military and industrial projects in a $15.3 billion mobilization program. Included were aircraft, tank assembly, and ammunition plants, camps for 5.3 million soldiers, depots, ports, and hospitals, as well as the Manhattan Project, and the Pentagon.

In civilian projects, the Corps of Engineers became the lead federal flood control agency and significantly expanded its civil works activities, becoming among other things, a major provider of hydroelectric energy and the country's leading provider of recreation; its role in responding to natural disasters also grew dramatically. In the late 1960s, the agency became a leading environmental preservation and restoration agency.

In 1944, specially trained army combat engineers were assigned to blow up underwater obstacles and clear defended ports during the invasion of Normandy.[15][16] During World War II, the Army Corps of Engineers in the European Theater of Operations was responsible for building numerous bridges, including the first and longest floating tactical bridge across the Rhine at Remagen, and building or maintaining roads vital to the Allied advance across Europe into the heart of Germany. In the Pacific theater, the Pioneer troops were formed, a hand-selected unit of volunteer Army combat engineers trained in jungle warfare, knife fighting, and unarmed jujitsu (hand-to-hand combat) techniques.[17] Working in camouflage, the Pioneers cleared jungle and prepared routes of advance and established bridgeheads for the infantry as well as demolishing enemy installations.[17]

Five commanding generals (chiefs of staff after the 1903 reorganization) of the United States Army held engineer commissions early in their careers. All transferred to other branches before rising to the top. They were Alexander Macomb, George B. McClellan, Henry W. Halleck, Douglas MacArthur, and Maxwell D. Taylor.[18]

Notable dates and projects

Gatun Lock Construction, Panama Canal, March 12, 1912
Gatun Lock construction, Panama Canal, 12 March 1912
Aerial View of Launch Complex 39
An aerial view of the Kennedy Space Center

Occasional civil disasters, including the Great Mississippi Flood of 1927, resulted in greater responsibilities for the Corps of Engineers. The aftermath of Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans provides another example of this.

Organization

Headquarters

The Chief of Engineers and Commanding General of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers works under the civilian oversight of the Assistant Secretary of the Army (Civil Works). Three deputy commanding generals report to the chief of engineers, who have the following titles: Deputy Commanding General, Deputy Commanding General for Civil and Emergency Operation, and Deputy Commanding General for Military and International Operations.[23] The Corps of Engineers headquarters is located in Washington, D.C. The headquarters staff is responsible for Corps of Engineers policy and plans the future direction of all other USACE organizations. It comprises the executive office and 17 staff principals. USACE has two directors who head up Military Programs and Civil Works, Director of Military Programs and Director of Civil Works.

Divisions and districts

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is organized geographically into eight permanent divisions, one provisional division, one provisional district, and one research command reporting directly to the HQ. Within each division, there are several districts.[24] Districts are defined by watershed boundaries for civil works projects and by political boundaries for military projects.

USACE-District-Map
Map of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Civil Engineer divisions and districts

The Engineer Regiment

U.S. Army Engineer units outside of USACE Districts and not listed below fall under the Engineer Regiment of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Army engineers include both combat engineers and support engineers more focused on construction and sustainment. The vast majority of military personnel in the United States Army Corps of Engineers serve in this Engineer Regiment. The Engineer Regiment is headquartered at Fort Leonard Wood, MO and is commanded by the Engineer Commandant, currently a position filled by an Army Brigadier General from the Engineer Branch.

The Engineer Regiment includes the U.S. Army Engineer School (USAES) which publishes its mission as: Generate the military engineer capabilities the Army needs: training and certifying Soldiers with the right knowledge, skills, and critical thinking; growing and educating professional leaders; organizing and equipping units; establishing a doctrinal framework for employing capabilities; and remaining an adaptive institution in order to provide Commanders with the freedom of action they need to successfully execute Unified Land Operations.

Other USACE organizations

There are several other organizations within the Corps of Engineers:[5][25]

  • Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) — the Corps of Engineers research and development command. ERDC comprises seven laboratories. (see research below)
  • U.S. Army Engineering and Support Center (CEHNC) — provides engineering and technical services, program and project management, construction management, and innovative contracting initiatives, for programs that are national or broad in scope or not normally provided by other Corps of Engineers elements
  • Finance Center, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (CEFC) — supports the operating finance and accounting functions throughout the Corps of Engineers
  • Humphreys Engineer Center Support Activity (CEHEC) — provides administrative and operational support for Headquarters, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and various field offices.
  • Army Geospatial Center (AGC)  — provides geospatial information, standards, systems, support, and services across the Army and the Department of Defense.
  • Marine Design Center (CEMDC) — provides total project management including planning, engineering, and shipbuilding contract management in support of USACE, Army, and national water resource projects in peacetime, and augments the military construction capacity in time of national emergency or mobilization
  • Institute for Water Resources (IWR) — supports the Civil Works Directorate and other Corps of Engineers commands by developing and applying new planning evaluation methods, policies and data in anticipation of changing water resources management conditions.
  • USACE Logistics Activity (ULA)- Provides logistics support to the Corps of Engineers including supply, maintenance, readiness, materiel, transportation, travel, aviation, facility management, integrated logistics support, management controls, and strategic planning.
  • Enterprise Infrastructure Services (CEEIS) — designs information technology standards for the Corps, including automation, communications, management, visual information, printing, records management, and information assurance. CEEIS outsources the maintenance of its IT services, forming the Army Corps of Engineers Information Technology (ACE-IT). ACE-IT is made up of both civilian government employees and contractors.
  • Deployable Tactical Operations System (DTOS) — provides mobile command and control platforms in support of the quick ramp-up of initial emergency response missions for the Corps. DTOS is a system designed to respond to District, Division, National, and International events.
  • Until 2001 local Directorates of Engineering and Housing (DEH), being constituents of the USACE, had been responsible for the housing, infrastructure and related tasks as environmental protection, garbage removal and special fire departments or fire alarm coordination centers in the garrisons of the U.S. Army abroad as in Europe (e.g. Germany, as in Berlin, Wiesbaden, Karlsruhe etc.) Subsequently, a similar structure called DPWs (Directorates of Public Works), subordinate to the United States Army Installation Management Command, assumed the tasks formerly done by the DEHs.

Directly reporting military units

Mission areas

Warfighting

20 ENG BDE Bridge
20th Engineer Brigade soldiers construct a bridge on the Euphrates River.

USACE provides support directly and indirectly to the warfighting effort.[27] They build and help maintain much of the infrastructure that the Army and the Air Force use to train, house, and deploy troops. USACE built and maintained navigation systems and ports provide the means to deploy vital equipment and other material. Corps of Engineers Research and Development (R&D) facilities help develop new methods and measures for deployment, force protection, terrain analysis, mapping, and other support.

USACE directly supports the military in the battle zone, making expertise available to commanders to help solve or avoid engineering (and other) problems. Forward Engineer Support Teams, FEST-A's or FEST-M's, may accompany combat engineers to provide immediate support, or to reach electronically into the rest of USACE for the necessary expertise. A FEST-A team is an eight-person detachment; a FEST-M is approximately 36. These teams are designed to provide immediate technical-engineering support to the warfighter or in a disaster area. Corps of Engineers' professionals use the knowledge and skills honed on both military and civil projects to support the U.S. and local communities in the areas of real estate, contracting, mapping, construction, logistics, engineering, and management experience. This work currently includes support for rebuilding Iraq, establishing Afghanistan infrastructure, and supporting international and inter-agency services.

In addition, the work of almost 26,000 civilians on civil-works programs throughout USACE provide a training ground for similar capabilities worldwide. USACE civilians volunteer for assignments worldwide. For example, hydropower experts have helped repair, renovate, and run hydropower dams in Iraq in an effort to help get Iraqis to become self-sustaining.[25][28]

Homeland security

USACE supports the United States' Department of Homeland Security and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) through its security planning, force protection, research and development, disaster preparedness efforts, and quick response to emergencies and disasters.[29]

The CoE conducts its emergency response activities under two basic authorities — the Flood Control and Coastal Emergency Act (Pub.L. 84–99), and the Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (Pub.L. 93–288). In a typical year, the Corps of Engineers responds to more than 30 Presidential disaster declarations, plus numerous state and local emergencies. Emergency responses usually involve cooperation with other military elements and Federal agencies in support of State and local efforts.

Infrastructure support

HESCOBarrierAssembleFargoMar2409
Soldiers assembling sections of a HESCO collapsible barrier device in Fargo, North Dakota

Work comprises engineering and management support to military installations, global real estate support, civil works support (including risk and priorities), operations and maintenance of Federal navigation and flood control projects, and monitoring of dams and levees.[30]

More than 67 percent of the goods consumed by Americans and more than half of the nation's oil imports are processed through deepwater ports maintained by the Corps of Engineers, which maintains more than 12,000 miles (19,000 km) of commercially navigable channels across the U.S.

In both its Civil Works mission and Military Construction program, the Corps of Engineers is responsible for billions of dollars of the nation's infrastructure. For example, USACE maintains direct control of 609 dams, maintains or operates 257 navigation locks, and operates 75 hydroelectric facilities generating 24% of the nation's hydropower and three percent of its total electricity. USACE inspects over 2,000 Federal and non-Federal levees every two years.

Four billion gallons of water per day are drawn from the Corps of Engineers' 136 multi-use flood control projects comprising 9,800,000 acre feet (12.1 km3) of water storage, making it one of the United States' largest water supply agencies.[25]

The 249th Engineer Battalion (Prime Power), the only active duty unit in USACE, generates and distributes prime electrical power in support of warfighting, disaster relief, stability and support operations as well as provides advice and technical assistance in all aspects of electrical power and distribution systems. The battalion deployed in support of recovery operations after 9/11 and was instrumental in getting Wall Street back up and running within a week.[31] The battalion also deployed in support of post-Katrina operations.

All of this work represents a significant investment in the nation's resources.

Water resources

MV Gelberman USACE Hudson with debris jeh
Removing a hazard to navigation on the Hudson River
Linthicum surveys channels near Fort McHenry
The survey vessel Linthicum in a channel near Fort McHenry

Through its Civil Works program, USACE carries out a wide array of projects that provide coastal protection, flood protection, hydropower, navigable waters and ports, recreational opportunities, and water supply.[32][33] Work includes coastal protection and restoration, including a new emphasis on a more holistic approach to risk management. As part of this work, USACE is the number one provider of outdoor recreation in the U.S., so there is a significant emphasis on water safety.

Army involvement in works "of a civil nature," including water resources, goes back almost to the origins of the U.S. Over the years, as the nation's needs have changed, so have the Army's Civil Works missions.

Major areas of emphasis include the following:

  • Navigation. Supporting navigation by maintaining and improving channels was the Corps of Engineers' earliest Civil Works mission, dating to Federal laws in 1824 authorizing the Corps to improve safety on the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers and several ports. Today, the Corps of Engineers maintains more than 12,000 miles (19,000 km) of inland waterways and operates 235 locks. These waterways—a system of rivers, lakes and coastal bays improved for commercial and recreational transportation—carry about ​16 of the nation's inter-city freight, at a cost per ton-mile about ​12 that of rail or ​110 that of trucks. USACE also maintains 300 commercial harbors, through which pass 2,000,000,000 short tons (1.8×109 metric tons) of cargo a year, and more than 600 smaller harbors. New locks are needed, according to the Corps and barge shippers, where existing locks are in poor condition, requiring frequent closures for repairs, and/or because a lock’s size causes delays for barge tows.[34]
  • Flood Risk Management. The Engineers were first called upon to address flood problems along the Mississippi river in the mid-19th century. They began work on the Mississippi River and Tributaries Flood Control Project in 1928, and the Flood Control Act of 1936 gave the Corps the mission to provide flood protection to the entire country.
  • Recreation. The Corps of Engineers is the nation's largest provider of outdoor recreation, operating more than 2,500 recreation areas at 463 projects (mostly lakes) and leasing an additional 1,800 sites to state or local park and recreation authorities or private interests. USACE hosts about 360 million visits a year at its lakes, beaches and other areas, and estimates that 25 million Americans (one in ten) visit a Corps' project at least once a year. Supporting visitors to these recreation areas generates 600,000 jobs.
  • Hydroelectric Power. The Corps of Engineers was first authorized to build hydroelectric plants in the 1920s, and today operates 75 power plants, producing one fourth of the nation's hydro-electric power—or three percent of its total electric energy. This makes USACE the fifth largest electric supplier in the United States.
  • Shore Protection. With a large proportion of the U.S. population living near our sea and lake shores, and an estimated 75% of U.S. vacations being spent at the beach, there has been Federal interest — and a Corps of Engineers mission — in protecting these areas from hurricane and coastal storm damage.
  • Dam Safety. The Corps of Engineers develops engineering criteria for safe dams, and conducts an active inspection program of its own dams.[25]
  • Water Supply. The Corps first got involved in water supply in the 1850s, when they built the Washington Aqueduct. Today USACE reservoirs supply water to nearly 10 million people in 115 cities. In the drier parts of the Nation, water from Corps reservoirs is also used for agriculture.[7][25][35]
  • Water Safety. The Corps of Engineers has taken an interest in recreational water safety, with current initiatives for increasing the use rate of life jackets and preventing the use of alcohol while boating.

Environment

Martis Creek Wetland Project, California
The Martis Creek Wetland Project in California

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers environmental mission has two major focus areas: restoration and stewardship. The Corps supports and manages numerous environmental programs, that run the gamut from cleaning up areas on former military installations contaminated by hazardous waste or munitions to helping establish/reestablish wetlands that helps endangered species survive.[36] Some of these programs include Ecosystem Restoration, Formerly Used Defense Sites, Environmental Stewardship, EPA Superfund, Abandoned Mine Lands, Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, Base Realignment and Closure, 2005, and Regulatory.

This mission includes education as well as regulation and cleanup.

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers has an active environmental program under both its Military and Civil Programs.[36] The Civil Works environmental mission that ensures all USACE projects, facilities and associated lands meet environmental standards. The program has four functions: compliance, restoration, prevention, and conservation. The Corps also regulates all work in wetlands and waters of the United States.

The Military Programs Environmental Program manages design and execution of a full range of cleanup and protection activities:

Test Pit, USACE
A member of the Radiation Safety Support Team, wearing a hazmat suit, tests excavated soil.
  • cleans up sites contaminated with hazardous waste, radioactive waste, or ordnance
  • complies with federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations
  • strives to minimize our use of hazardous materials
  • conserves our natural and cultural resources

The following are major areas of environmental emphasis:

  • Wetlands and Waterways Regulation and Permitting
  • Ecosystem Restoration
  • Environmental Stewardship
  • Radioactive site cleanup through the Formerly Used Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP)
  • Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC)
  • Formerly Used Defense Sites (FUDS)
  • Support to EPA's Superfund Program

See also Environmental Enforcement below.

Operational facts and figures

Summary of facts and figures as of 2007, provided by the Corps of Engineers:[25]

  • One HQ, 8 Divisions, 2 Provisional Division, 45 Districts, 6 Centers, one active-duty unit, 2 Engineer Reserve Command
  • At work in more than 90 countries
  • Supports 159 Army installations and 91 Air Force installations
  • Owns and operates 609 dams
  • Owns or operates 257 navigation lock chambers at 212 sites
  • Largest owner-operator of hydroelectric plants in the US. Owns and operates 75 plants—24% of U.S. hydropower capacity (3% of the total U.S. electric capacity)[37]
  • Operates and maintains 12,000 miles (19,000 km) of commercial inland navigation channels
  • Maintains 926 coast, Great Lakes, and inland harbors
  • Dredge 255,000,000 cubic yards (195,000,000 m3) annually for construction or maintenance
  • Nation's number one provider of outdoor recreation with more than 368 million visits annually to 4,485 sites at 423 USACE projects (383 major lakes and reservoirs)[38]
  • Total water supply storage capacity of 329,900,000 acre feet (406.9 km3)
  • Average annual damages prevented by Corps flood risk management projects (1995–2004) of $21 billion (see "Civil works controversies" below)
  • Approximately 137 environmental protection projects under construction (September 2006 figure)
  • Approximately 38,700 acres (157,000,000 m2) of wetlands restored, created, enhanced, or preserved annually under the Corps' Regulatory Program
  • Approximately $4 billion in technical services to 70 non-DoD Federal agencies annually
  • Completed (and continuing work on) thousands of infrastructure projects in Iraq at an estimated cost over $9 billion: school projects (324,000 students), crude oil production 3 million barrels per day (480,000 m3/d), potable water projects (3.9 million people (goal 5.2 million)), fire stations, border posts, prison/courthouse improvements, transportation/communication projects, village road/expressways, railroad stations, postal facilities, and aviation projects. More than 90 percent of the USACE construction contracts have been awarded to Iraqi-owned businesses — offering employment opportunities, boosting the economy, providing jobs, and training, promoting stability and security where before there was none. Consequently, the mission is a central part of the U.S. exit strategy.
  • The Corps of Engineers has one of the strongest Small Business Programs in the Army—Each year, approximately 33% of all contract dollars are obligated with Small Businesses, Small Disadvantaged Businesses, Service Disabled Veteran Owned Small Businesses, Women Owned Small Businesses, Historically Underutilized Business Zones, and Historically Black Colleges and Universities. Jackie Robinson-Burnette was named the Chief of the Corps' Small Business Program in May 2010. The program is managed through an integrated network of over 60 Small Business Advisors, 8 Division Commanders, 4 Center Directors, and 45 District Commanders.

Environmental protection and regulatory program

The regulatory program is authorized to protect the nation's aquatic resources. USACE personnel evaluate permit applications for essentially all construction activities that occur in the nation's waters, including wetlands. Two primary authorities granted to the Army Corps of Engineers by Congress fall under Section 10 of the Rivers and Harbors Act and Section 404 of the Clean Water Act.

Section 10 of the Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899 (codified in Chapter 33, Section 403 of the United States Code) gave the Corps authority over navigable waters of the United States, defined as "those waters that are subject to the ebb and flow of the tide and/or are presently being used, or have been used in the past, or may be susceptible for use to transport interstate or foreign commerce." Section 10 covers construction, excavation, or deposition of materials in, over, or under such waters, or any work that would affect the course, location, condition or capacity of those waters. Actions requiring section 10 permits include structures (e.g., piers, wharfs, breakwaters, bulkheads, jetties, weirs, transmission lines) and work such as dredging or disposal of dredged material, or excavation, filling or other modifications to the navigable waters of the United States. The Coast Guard also has responsibility for permitting the erection or modification of bridges over navigable waters of the U.S.

Another of the major responsibilities of the Army Corps of Engineers is administering the permitting program under Section 404 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972, also known as the Clean Water Act. The Secretary of the Army is authorized under this act to issue permits for the discharge of dredged and fill material in waters of the United States, including adjacent wetlands.[25] The geographic extent of waters of the United States subject to section 404 permits fall under a broader definition and include tributaries to navigable waters and adjacent wetlands. The engineers must first determine if the waters at the project site are jurisdictional and subject to the requirements of the section 404 permitting program. Once jurisdiction has been established, permit review and authorization follows a sequence process that encourages avoidance of impacts, followed by minimizing impacts and, finally, requiring mitigation for unavoidable impacts to the aquatic environment. This sequence is described in the section 404(b)(1) guidelines.

There are three types of permits issued by the Corps of Engineers: Nationwide, Regional General, and Individual. 80% of the permits issued are nationwide permits, which include 50 general type of activities for minimal impacts to waters of the United States, as published in the Federal Register. Nationwide permits are subject to a reauthorization process every 5 years, with the most recent reauthorization occurring in March, 2012. To gain authorization under a nationwide permit, an applicant must comply with the terms and conditions of the nationwide permit. Select nationwide permits require preconstruction notification to the applicable corps district office notifying them of his or her intent, type and amount of impact and fill in waters, and a site map. Although the nationwide process is fairly simple, corps approval must be obtained before commencing with any work in waters of the United States. Regional general permits are specific to each corps district office. Individual permits are generally required for projects that impact greater than 0.5 acres (2,000 m2) of waters of the United States. Individual permits are required for activities that result in more than minimal impacts to the aquatic environment.

Research

The Corps of Engineers has two research organizations, the Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) and the Army Geospatial Center (AGC).

ERDC provides science, technology, and expertise in engineering and environmental sciences to support both military and civil/civilian customers. ERDC research support includes:

AGC coordinates, integrates, and synchronizes geospatial information requirements and standards across the Army and provides direct geospatial support and products to warfighters. See also Geospatial Information Officer.

Insignia

Castle-gold
The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers gold castle branch insignia, worn by engineer officers

The Corps of Engineers branch insignia, the Corps Castle, is believed to have originated on an informal basis. In 1841, cadets at West Point wore insignia of this type. In 1902, the Castle was formally adopted by the Corps of Engineers as branch insignia.[39] The "castle" is actually the Pershing Barracks at the United States Military Academy in West Point, New York[40]

A current tradition was established with the "Gold Castles" branch insignia of General of the Army Douglas MacArthur, West Point Class of 1903, who served in the Corps of Engineers early in his career and had received the two pins as a graduation gift of his family. In 1945, near the conclusion of World War II, General MacArthur gave his personal pins to his Chief Engineer, General Leif J. Sverdrup. On 2 May 1975, upon the 200th anniversary of the Corps of Engineers, retired General Sverdrup, who had civil engineering projects including the landmark 17-mile (27 km)-long Chesapeake Bay Bridge-Tunnel to his credit, presented the Gold Castles to then-Chief of Engineers Lieutenant General William C. Gribble, Jr., who had also served under General MacArthur in the Pacific. General Gribble then announced a tradition of passing the insignia along to future Chiefs of Engineers, and it has been done so since.[41]

Controversies

Civil works

Secretary Harvey and Brig. Gen. Crear, Oct. 2 2006, in New Orleans
Secretary of the Army Francis J. Harvey (r) discusses U.S. Army Corps of Engineers operations in New Orleans with Brigadier General Robert Crear, commander, Mississippi Valley Division, USACE in New Orleans, 2006.

Some of the Corps of Engineers' civil works projects have been characterized in the press as being pork barrel or boondoggles such as the New Madrid Floodway Project and the New Orleans flood protection.[42][43] Projects have allegedly been justified based on flawed or manipulated analyses during the planning phase. Some projects are said to have created profound detrimental environmental effects or provided questionable economic benefit such as the Mississippi River– Gulf Outlet in southeast Louisiana.[44] Faulty design and substandard construction have been cited in the failure of levees in the wake of Hurricane Katrina that caused flooding of 80% of the city of New Orleans.

Review of Corps of Engineers' projects has also been criticized for its lack of impartiality. The investigation of levee failure in New Orleans during Hurricane Katrina was sponsored by the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) but funded by the Corps of Engineers and involved its employees.[45][46]

Corps of Engineers projects can be found in all fifty states,[47] and are specifically authorized and funded directly by Congress. Local citizen, special interest, and political groups lobby Congress for authorization and appropriations for specific projects in their area.[48]

Senator Russ Feingold and Senator John McCain sponsored an amendment requiring peer review of Corps projects to the Water Resources Development Act of 2006,[49] proclaiming "efforts to reform and add transparency to the way the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers receives funding for and undertakes water projects." A similar bill, the Water Resources Development Act of 2007, which included the text of the original Corps' peer review measure, was eventually passed by Congress in 2007, overriding Presidential veto.[50]

USACE Project map 2005
USACE civil works activities 2005

Military construction

A number of Army camps and facilities designed by the Corps of Engineers, including the former Camp O'Ryan in New York State, have reportedly had a negative impact on the surrounding communities. Camp O'Ryan, with its rifle range, has possibly contaminated well and storm runoff water with lead. This runoff water eventually runs into the Niagara River and Lake Ontario, sources of drinking water to millions of people. This situation is exacerbated by a failure to locate the engineering and architectural plans for the camp, which were produced by the New York District in 1949.[51][52]

Greenhouse whistleblower suit

Bunnatine "Bunny" Greenhouse, a formerly high-ranking official in the Corps of Engineers, won a lawsuit against the United States government in July 2011. Greenhouse had objected to the Corps accepting cost projections from KBR in a no-bid, noncompetitive contract. After she complained, Greenhouse was demoted from her Senior Executive Service position, stripped of her top secret security clearance, and even, according to Greenhouse, had her office booby-trapped with a trip-wire from which she sustained a knee injury. A U.S. District court awarded Greenhouse $970,000 in full restitution of lost wages, compensatory damages, and attorney fees.[53]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "About -- Headquarters U.S. Army Corps of Engineers". usace.army.mil. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
  2. ^ "Historical Vignette 009 — How the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Became a Major Army Command". U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Retrieved 11 June 2011.
  3. ^ http://www.usace.army.mil/About/Leadership/Bio-Article-View/Article/776561/lieutenant-general-todd-t-semonite/
  4. ^ "Biography of Debra M. Lewis". Retrieved 8 October 2014.
  5. ^ a b "Headquarters U.S. Army Corps of Engineers". army.mil.
  6. ^ "Mission and Vision -- Headquarters U.S. Army Corps of Engineers". army.mil.
  7. ^ a b c d The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers: A Brief History, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Headquarters.
  8. ^ Wade, Arthur P. (2011). Artillerists and Engineers: The Beginnings of American Seacoast Fortifications, 1794-1815. CDSG Press. pp. 22–84. ISBN 978-0-9748167-2-2.
  9. ^ "Committee Reports". loc.gov.
  10. ^ "Headquarters U.S. Army Corps of Engineers > About > History > Brief History of the Corps > Improving Transportation". army.mil.
  11. ^ Charting the Inland Seas: A History of the U.S. Lake Survey, Arthur M. Woodford, 1991
  12. ^ "Lake Survey". Greatlakesmaps.org. Retrieved 9 October 2012.
  13. ^ a b c d First Lieutenant Shaun Martin, Confederate Engineers in the American Civil War, Engineer: The Professional Bulletin for Army Engineers. Technology Industry. U.S. Civil War Center
  14. ^ USACE Office of History vignettes Archived 15 April 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  15. ^ Yung, Christopher D., Gators of Neptune: naval amphibious planning for the Normandy invasion, Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, ISBN 1-59114-997-5 (2006), pp. 99-103
  16. ^ Beck, Alfred M., United States Army in World War 2: The Technical Services, Ch. 14: Preparing For D-Day Landings, CMH Pub. 10-22, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office (1985), p. 305
  17. ^ a b Whittaker, Wayne, Tough Guys, Popular Mechanics, February 1943, Vol. 79 No. 2, pp. 41, 44-45
  18. ^ Bell, William Gardner, Commanding Generals and Chiefs of Staff, 1775–2005: Portraits & Biographical Sketches of the United States Army's Senior Officer (Washington, D.C.: Center of Military History, U.S. Army, 2006). ISBN 0-16-072376-0.
  19. ^ Improving Transportation Archived 6 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  20. ^ "Historical Vignette 113 - Hide the development of the atomic bomb". US Army Corps of Engineers Official Website. Retrieved 31 October 2012.
  21. ^ "Historical Vignette 034 - the Corps Built the Pentagon in 16 Months". US Army Corps of Engineers Official Website. Retrieved 31 October 2012.
  22. ^ smith, Jeffery Craig (1991). NIGA-PROJECT CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT: THE CORPS OF ENGINEERS AND BECHTEL GROUP IN SAUDI ARABIA. MIT. p. 1.
  23. ^ "Headquarters". U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Retrieved 22 October 2012.
  24. ^ "Map -- Headquarters U.S. Army Corps of Engineers". U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Retrieved 27 April 2018.
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o From Serving The Armed Forces and The Nation 2007 edition (October 2007), and data from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
  26. ^ "Honolulu District Corps of Engineers". Poh.usace.army.mil. Retrieved 9 October 2012.
  27. ^ USACE Warfighting Mission webpage Archived 13 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  28. ^ Engineer Update Story on Iraqi Hydropower
  29. ^ USACE Homeland Security Mission webpage Archived 16 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  30. ^ USACE Infrastructure Mission webpage Archived 14 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  31. ^ "''Engineer Magazine'' article "Disaster Relief"" (PDF). Retrieved 9 October 2012.
  32. ^ "USACE Institute for Water Resources: Programs Overview". Iwr.usace.army.mil. Retrieved 9 October 2012.
  33. ^ Carter, Nicole T. (1 June 2018). Army Corps of Engineers: Water Resource Authorization and Project Delivery Processes (PDF). Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 5 June 2018.
  34. ^ Frittelli, John (1 June 2018). Prioritizing Waterway Lock Projects: Barge Traffic Changes (PDF). Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 8 June 2018.
  35. ^ USACE History webpage Archived 19 March 2006 at the Wayback Machine
  36. ^ a b USACE Environmental Mission webpage Archived 18 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  37. ^ "USACE largest owner operator of hydroelectric power". Operations.sam.usace.army.mil. Archived from the original on 9 January 2009. Retrieved 9 October 2012.
  38. ^ "Infrastructure Report Card". Infrastructure Report Card. Retrieved 9 October 2012.
  39. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 29 March 2006. Retrieved 16 March 2006.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  40. ^ "Branch eBook - Military Science and Leadership". Sites.google.com. Retrieved 9 October 2012.
  41. ^ USACE History Vignette 89 Archived 11 January 2006 at the Wayback Machine
  42. ^ Grunwald, Michael (2 August 2007). "''Time'' Magazine article". Time.com. Retrieved 9 October 2012.
  43. ^ St Louis Today, Missouri State News
  44. ^ "Close the Mississippi River Gulf Outlef — The Hurricane Highway". Mrgomustgo.org. Retrieved 9 October 2012.
  45. ^ Colley Charpentier. "Critics of Corps investigation". Blog.nola.com. Retrieved 9 October 2012.
  46. ^ "IPET Leadership" (PDF). Retrieved 16 January 2017.
  47. ^ "U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Home website". Usace.army.mil. 25 September 2012. Retrieved 9 October 2012.
  48. ^ Army Corps of Engineers is Broken(See "Skewed Priorities")
  49. ^ Feingold, McCain, Coburn Work to Reform Army Corps of Engineers Archived 19 January 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  50. ^ Terry Baquet, The Times-Picayune. "Water bill passes despite Bush veto". Blog.nola.com. Retrieved 9 October 2012.
  51. ^ FOIA Request to the Army Corps of Engineers, New York District, "records pertaining to the former Camp O'Ryan site, previously the Wethersfield Range", 21 February 2007
  52. ^ "State of New York Annual Report of the Chief of Staff to the Governor for the Division of Military and Naval Affairs for the Year 1949 ", Karl F. Hausauer, Major General, N.Y.N.G., Chief of Staff to the Governor, 31 December 1949, pages 57–59
  53. ^ Davidson, Joe, "A Bittersweet Win For A Whistleblower", Washington Post, 27 July 2011, p. B4.

Further reading

External links

Ball Mountain Dam

Ball Mountain Dam (National ID # VT00001) is a dam in Jamaica, Windham County, Vermont, in the southeastern part of the state.

The earthen and gravel gravity dam was constructed between 1957 and 1961 by the United States Army Corps of Engineers, with a height of 247 feet and a length of 915 feet at its crest. It impounds the West River of Vermont for flood control. The dam is owned and operated by the Army Corps of Engineers. The Corps identified safety and seepage problems with the dam in 2009, and has assigned it a Dam Safety Action Class rating of DSAC II, or "Urgent".The reservoir it creates, Ball Mountain Reservoir, has a normal water surface of 20 acres, a maximum capacity of 52,450 acre-feet, and a normal capacity of 240 acre-feet. Recreation includes fishing (for stocked Atlantic salmon, smallmouth bass, and trout), camping at 111 campsites in nearby Winhall and Jamaica, and activities at the adjacent Jamaica State Park. The river between Ball Mountain Lake and downstream Townshend Lake (also operated by the Army Corps of Engineers) is used for white water boating during releases from the Ball Mountain Dam, usually occurring during one weekend in April and one weekend in September.

Blackwater Dam

For the dam and lake in Scotland, see Blackwater ReservoirBlackwater Dam is a dam in the town of Webster, Merrimack County, New Hampshire.

The earthen dam was constructed in 1941 by the United States Army Corps of Engineers with a height of 69 feet (21 m) and 1,150 feet (350 m) long at its crest. It impounds the Blackwater River for flood control and storm water management as one of five related projects in the Merrimack River basin. The dam is owned and operated by the New England District, North Atlantic Division, Army Corps of Engineers.

The seasonal flood-control reservoir created by the dam has a maximum capacity of 93,400 acre-feet, but is normally dry, apart from the normal flow of the Blackwater. The site includes 8 miles (13 km) of river popular for canoeing and kayaking, and fishing for brown and rainbow trout.

Dalecarlia Reservoir

Dalecarlia Reservoir is the primary storage basin for drinking water in Washington, D.C., fed by an underground aqueduct in turn fed by low dams which divert portions of the Potomac River near Great Falls and Little Falls.

The reservoir is located between Spring Valley and the Palisades, two neighborhoods in Northwest Washington, and Brookmont, a neighborhood in Montgomery County, Maryland.

The 50-acre (200,000 m2) reservoir was completed in 1858 by the United States Army Corps of Engineers as part of the Washington Aqueduct project. It began providing water on January 3, 1859. Initially the reservoir provided water to the city from the adjacent Little Falls Branch until the aqueduct construction was completed. Regular water service from the Potomac River source through the aqueduct commenced in 1864. The reservoir was modified in 1895 and 1935 to improve water quality and increase water supply.The Capital Crescent Trail runs adjacent to the reservoir and through the center of the pumping campus. The boundary between Maryland and the District of Columbia passes through the reservoir. A historic D.C. boundary marker (Northwest No. 5) is located in a woodland east of the reservoir. Another (Northwest No. 4) is located a short distance east of the Capital Crescent Trail, near the Dalecarlia water purification facility.

The reservoir is maintained by the Washington Aqueduct division of the Army Corps of Engineers.

Dewey Lake

Dewey Lake, located near Prestonsburg, Kentucky in Floyd County, is part of the integrated flood reduction system operated by the United States Army Corps of Engineers for the entire Ohio River Basin.The 1,100-acre (4 km2) lake was formed by impounding John's Creek in 1949, and was named for Admiral George Dewey. Dewey Dam (National ID # KY03029) is an earthen dam, 18 feet high.

Jenny Wiley State Resort Park is located on Dewey Lake.

East Potomac Park

East Potomac Park is a park located on a man-made island in the Potomac River in Washington, D.C., in the United States. The park lies southeast of the Jefferson Memorial and the 14th Street Bridge, and the park lies between the Washington Channel and the Potomac River. Amenities in East Potomac Park include the East Potomac Park Golf Course, a miniature golf course, a public swimming pool (the East Potomac Park Aquatic Center), tennis courts, and several athletic fields (some configured for baseball and softball, others for soccer, rugby, or American football). The park is a popular spot for fishermen, and cyclists, walkers, inline skaters, and runners heavily use the park's roads and paths. A portion of Ohio Drive SW runs along the perimeter of the park.

East Potomac Park is accessible primarily by road via Ohio Drive SW. The DC Circulator's National Mall Route, which began service in June 2015, provides the best public transportation option for reaching East Potomac Park. The closest Circulator stop is at East Basin Drive SW south of the Jefferson Memorial, which is within easy walking distance of Ohio Drive SW and the north end of the park. Metrobus does not serve the park, and there is no Washington Metro stop close to the park. The nearest Metro stop is the Smithsonian station at Independence Avenue SW and 12th Street SW, about six blocks away. (Walking from Metro requires accessing the park via Raoul Wallenberg Place SW, Maine Avenue SW, and Ohio Drive SW.)

Fishtrap Lake

Fishtrap Lake is a 1,130-acre (5 km2) reservoir in Pike County, Kentucky. Dedicated by President Lyndon B. Johnson in 1968, the lake was formed by the impounding of the Levisa Fork of the Big Sandy River at the 195-foot-high Fishtrap Dam (37°25′55″N 82°24′55″W) by the United States Army Corps of Engineers.It is the primary attraction of Fishtrap Lake State Park.

Franklin Falls Dam

The Franklin Falls Dam is located on the Pemigewasset River in the city of Franklin, New Hampshire, in the United States. The dam was constructed between 1939 and 1943 by the Army Corps of Engineers and extends for 0.75 miles (1.21 km) across the river. During its construction, the neighboring residents of the town of Hill were forced to relocate to higher ground due to rising water levels created by the dam. The reservoir formed by the dam has a permanent pool covering 440 acres (180 ha), and the total flood storage capacity is 2,800 acres (1,100 ha). The total area of the project, including surrounding managed lands, is 3,683 acres (1,490 ha). The stretch of the Pemigewasset River potentially impounded by the dam extends 12.5 miles (20 km) north to Ayers Island Dam in the town of Bristol, and the watershed flowing to the dam extends north all the way into the White Mountains.

The Franklin Falls Reservoir hosts a variety of recreational activities, including hiking, mountain biking, fishing, kayaking, hunting, and snowshoeing.

Gavins Point Dam

Gavins Point Dam is a 1.9 mi (3 km) long embankment rolled-earth and chalk-fill dam which spans the Missouri River and impounds Lewis and Clark Lake. The dam joins Cedar County, Nebraska with Yankton County, South Dakota a distance of 811.1 river miles (1,305 km) upstream of St. Louis, Missouri, where the river joins the Mississippi River. The dam and hydroelectric power plant were constructed as the Gavins Point Project from 1952 to 1957 by the United States Army Corps of Engineers as part of the Pick-Sloan Plan. The dam is located approximately 4 miles (6.4 km) west or upstream of Yankton, South Dakota.

George W. Andrews Lake

George W. Andrews Lake is a U.S. Army Corps of Engineers lake 29 miles south of Walter F. George Lake and north of Lake Seminole. The lake is very riverine in nature but is noted for good fishing. The purpose of the dam is for river navigation via the lock at George W. Andrews Dam. There is no hydroelectric generation at this location. The lake is named for George W. Andrews.

List of United States Army Corps of Engineers Chiefs of Engineers

The Chief of Engineers is a principal Army staff officer at The Pentagon. The Chief advises the Army on engineering matters and serves as the Army's topographer and proponent for real estate and other related engineering programs. The Chief of Engineers is the senior service Engineer for the Department of Defense responsible for integrating all aspects of combat, general, and geospatial engineering across the Joint Force.

The Chief of Engineers also commands the US Army Corps of Engineers. As commander of the US Army Corps of Engineers, the Chief of Engineers leads a major Army command that is the world's largest public engineering, design and construction management agency. This office defines policy and guidance and plans direction for the organizations within the Corps. The Chief of Engineers currently holds the rank of lieutenant general but in the past has been ranked as low as major.

Civilian oversight of the Chief of Engineers is provided by the Assistant Secretary of the Army (Civil Works).

North Hartland Dam

North Hartland Dam (National ID # VT00002) is a dam in Hartland, Windsor County, Vermont.

The earthen dam was constructed between 1958-1961 by the United States Army Corps of Engineers, with a height of 182 feet, and a length of 1640 feet at its crest. It impounds the Ottauquechee River for flood control and storm water management. The dam is owned and operated by the New England District, North Atlantic Division, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.

The riverine reservoir it creates, North Hartland Lake, has a normal water surface of 215 acres, a maximum capacity of 94,600 acre-feet, and a much smaller normal capacity of 2350 acre-feet. Recreation includes fishing, swimming and boating in the summer, and winter sports such as snowmobiling, cross country skiing, and snowshoeing.

Ompompanoosuc River

The Ompompanoosuc River is a river, about 25 mi (40 km) long, in eastern Vermont in the United States. It is a tributary of the Connecticut River, which flows to Long Island Sound. According to the Geographic Names Information System, the river has also been known by the names "Om-pom-pa-noos-uc" and "Pompanoosuc."The Ompompanoosuc River rises in eastern Orange County in the town of Vershire, and flows generally southwardly through the towns of West Fairlee and Thetford into northeastern Windsor County, where it joins the Connecticut River in the village of Pompanoosuc which is located in the town of Norwich.In Thetford the river is dammed by the Union Village Dam, which was built from 1946 to 1950 as part of a U.S. Army Corps of Engineers project for flood control. The structure is a 170-foot-high earthen dam, creating a seasonal lake in the winter.The West Branch Ompompanoosuc River flows generally southeastwardly through the towns of Vershire and Strafford to Thetford, where it joins the main stem of the river.

Paintsville Lake

Paintsville Lake is a 1,139-acre (4.61 km2) reservoir in Johnson and Morgan counties in eastern Kentucky. It was impounded from Paint Creek in 1983 by the United States Army Corps of Engineers. It is the major attraction of Paintsville Lake State Park.

Stonewall Jackson Lake

Stonewall Jackson Lake is an 2,630-acre (10.6 km2) impoundment on the West Fork River in Lewis County, West Virginia. The lake is a flood control project of the Pittsburgh District of the United States Army Corps of Engineers and named for Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson, a native of Lewis County. Stonewall Resort is located along the lake's shore. Facilities provided by the Corps of Engineers included a visitors center with public restrooms, a hiking trail, and fishing access.

Downstream towns and cities protected by the lake include Weston, Clarksburg, Shinnston, and Fairmont, all in West Virginia

The lake is a popular spot for largemouth bass fishing. A list of fishing species in the lake include:

Crappie

Walleye

Bluegill

Yellow perch

Muskellunge

Channel catfish

Bullhead

CarpTrout is stocked in the lake's tailwaters.

Summersville Lake

Summersville Lake is a reservoir located in the US state of West Virginia. The lake is formed by a rock-fill dam (Summersville Dam) on the Gauley River, south of Summersville in Nicholas County. It is the largest lake in West Virginia, with 2,700 acres (1,100 ha) of water and over 60 miles (97 km) of shoreline at the summer pool water level. Its maximum depth is 327 feet.

Surry Mountain Lake

Surry Mountain Lake is a 353-acre (1.43 km2) impoundment on the Ashuelot River in Cheshire County in southwestern New Hampshire, United States, in the town of Surry.

The reservoir was built to protect downstream communities, such as Keene, from flooding. Surry Mountain Dam was built by the United States Army Corps of Engineers in 1941 as an earthen rock-fill structure. Its height is 83 feet (25 m), its length is 1,800 feet (550 m) at the crest, with a maximum capacity of 44,000 acre-feet and a normal capacity of 1,320 acre-feet. Both dam and reservoir are owned by the Corps of Engineers.The lake is classified as a warmwater fishery, with observed species including rainbow trout, brown trout, smallmouth and largemouth bass, chain pickerel, horned pout, and black crappie.

Townshend Dam

Townshend Dam is a dam in Townshend, Windham County, Vermont.

The earthen dam was constructed in 1961 by the United States Army Corps of Engineers with a height of 126 feet and a length of 1700 feet at its crest. It impounds Vermont's West River for flood control and seasonal storm water management. The dam is owned and operated by the Corps of Engineers. Its National ID number is VT00004.

The riverine reservoir it creates, Townshend Lake, has a normal water surface of 95 acres, a maximum storage capacity of 54,300 acre-feet, and a normal storage capacity of 800 acre-feet. Recreation includes fishing (for smallmouth bass, brown and rainbow trout), boating and hiking, along with facilities at the nearby Townshend State Park.

Yatesville Lake State Park

Yatesville Lake State Park in Kentucky is a recreational facility in the eastern part of the commonwealth, close to the town of Louisa, Kentucky in Lawrence County. The park occupies a peninsula on Yatesville Lake, an impoundment of Blaine Creek that covers 2,300 acres (930 ha), has three islands, and averages 40 feet in depth. The park features an 18-hole golf course, boating, fishing and swimming, campsites, and hiking trails.

Youghiogheny River Lake

The Youghiogheny River Lake is a flood control reservoir in southwestern Pennsylvania and western Maryland.

The lake was formed in 1944 by the damming of the Youghiogheny River upstream from Confluence, Pennsylvania. Youghiogheny Dam is an earthen structure, 184 feet high and 1,610 feet long at its crest, owned and operated by the United States Army Corps of Engineers. The reservoir's normal surface area is about 4.4 square miles, and it has a maximum capacity of 300,000 acre-feet, although its normal storage level is 149,300 acre-feet.

The town of Somerfield, Pennsylvania, was abandoned, razed, and inundated when the reservoir was filled. The stone Great Crossings Bridge of the National Road, which crossed the Youghiogheny at Somerfield, is visible at extremely low water levels.

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