United States Africa Command

The United States Africa Command (USAFRICOM, U.S. AFRICOM, and AFRICOM),[4] is one of ten unified combatant commands of the United States Armed Forces, headquartered at Kelley Barracks, Stuttgart, Germany. It is responsible for U.S. military operations, including fighting regional conflicts[5] and maintaining military relations with 53 African nations. Its area of responsibility covers all of Africa except Egypt, which is within the area of responsibility of the United States Central Command. U.S. AFRICOM headquarters operating budget was $276 million in fiscal year 2012.[2]

The Commander of U.S. AFRICOM reports to the Secretary of Defense.[6] In individual countries, U.S. Ambassadors continue to be the primary diplomatic representative for relations with host nations.

United States Africa Command
Seal of the United States Africa Command
Emblem of United States Africa Command
ActiveEstablished: 1 October 2007
Activated: 1 October 2008[1]
Country United States of America
TypeUnified combatant command
Size2,000 (1,500 stationed at HQ in Germany)[2]
Part ofUnited States Department of Defense Seal.svg Department of Defense
HeadquartersKelley Barracks, Stuttgart, Germany
Nickname(s)U.S. AFRICOM, USAFRICOM
Engagements2011 military intervention in Libya
Operation Juniper Shield
Websitewww.africom.mil
Commanders
CommanderGeneral Thomas D. Waldhauser,
USMC
Deputy for Military OperationsLieutenant General James C. Vechery, USAF
Deputy for
Civil-Military Engagement
Ambassador Alexander M. Laskaris,
U.S. Department of State[3]

Function

In 2007, the White House announced, "[AFRICOM] will strengthen our security cooperation with Africa and create new opportunities to bolster the capabilities of our partners in Africa. Africa Command will enhance our efforts to bring peace and security to the people of Africa and promote our common goals of development, health, education, democracy, and economic growth in Africa."[7]

General Carter F. Ham said in a 2012 address at Brown University that U.S. strategy for Sub-Saharan Africa is to strengthen democratic institutions and boost broad-based economic growth.[2]

The U.S. Africa Command is currently operating along five lines of effort:

  1. Neutralize al-Shabaab and transition the security responsibilities of the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) to the Federal Government of Somalia (FGS)
  2. Degrade violent extremist organizations in the Sahel Maghreb and contain instability in Libya
  3. Contain and degrade Boko Haram
  4. Interdict illicit activity in the Gulf of Guinea and Central Africa with willing and capable African partners
  5. Build peacekeeping, humanitarian assistance and disaster response capacity of African partners[8]

History (2000–2006)

Prior to the creation of AFRICOM, responsibility for U.S. military operations in Africa was divided across three unified commands: United States European Command (EUCOM) for West Africa, United States Central Command (CENTCOM) for East Africa, and United States Pacific Command (PACOM) for Indian Ocean waters and islands off the east coast of Africa.

A U.S. military officer wrote the first public article calling for the formation of a separate African command in November 2000.[9] Following a 2004 global posture review, the United States Department of Defense began establishing a number of Cooperative Security Locations (CSLs) and Forward Operating Sites (FOSs) across the African continent, through the auspices of EUCOM which had nominal command of West Africa at that time. These locations, along with Camp Lemonnier in Djibouti, would form the basis of AFRICOM facilities on the continent. Areas of military interest to the United States in Africa include the Sahara/Sahel region,[10] over which Joint Task Force Aztec Silence is conducting anti-terrorist operations (Operation Enduring Freedom - Trans Sahara), Djibouti in the Horn of Africa, where Combined Joint Task Force – Horn of Africa is located (overseeing Operation Enduring Freedom - Horn of Africa), and the Gulf of Guinea.

The website Magharebia.com was launched by USEUCOM in 2004 to provide news about North Africa in English, French and Arabic.[11] When AFRICOM was created, it took over operation of the website.[12] Information operations of the United States Department of Defense was criticized by the Senate Armed Forces Committee and defunded by Congress in 2011. The site was closed down in February 2015.[13][14]

In 2007, the United States Congress approved $500 million for the Trans-Saharan Counterterrorism Initiative (TSCTI) over six years to support countries involved in counterterrorism against threats of Al Qaeda operating in African countries, primarily Algeria, Chad, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal, Nigeria, and Morocco.[15] This program builds upon the former Pan Sahel Initiative (PSI), which concluded in December 2004[16] and focused on weapon and drug trafficking, as well as counterterrorism.[17] Previous U.S. military activities in Sub-Saharan Africa have included Special Forces associated Joint Combined Exchange Training. Letitia Lawson, writing in 2007 for a Center for Contemporary Conflict journal at the Naval Postgraduate School, noted that U.S. policy towards Africa, at least in the medium-term, looks to be largely defined by international terrorism, the increasing importance of African oil to American energy needs, and the dramatic expansion and improvement of Sino-African relations since 2000.[18]

Creation of AFRICOM (2006–2008)

In mid-2006, Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld formed a planning team to advise on requirements for establishing a new Unified Command for the African continent. In early December, he made his recommendations to President George W. Bush.[19][20]

On 6 February 2007, Defense Secretary Robert Gates announced to the Senate Armed Services Committee that President George W. Bush had given authority to create the new African Command.[21] U.S. Navy Rear Admiral Robert Moeller, the director of the AFRICOM transition team, arrived in Stuttgart, Germany to begin creating the logistical framework for the command.[22][23] On 28 September, the U.S. Senate confirmed General William E. "Kip" Ward as AFRICOM's first commander and AFRICOM officially became operational as a sub-unified command of EUCOM with a separate headquarters.[24] On 1 October 2008, the command separated from USEUCOM and began operating on its own as a full-fledged combatant command.

Geographic scope

GCCMAP
In this map, U.S. AFRICOM Area of Responsibility is shown in green
USAFRICOM United States Africa Command Map Draft
February 2007 Draft Map of U.S. AFRICOM showing its creation from parts of USEUCOM, USCENTCOM and USINDOPACOM.

The territory of the command consists of all of the African continent except for Egypt, which remains under the direct responsibility of USCENTCOM, as it closely relates to the Middle East. USAFRICOM also covers island countries commonly associated with Africa:

The U.S. military areas of responsibility involved were transferred from three separate U.S. unified combatant commands. Most of Africa was transferred from the United States European Command with the Horn of Africa and Sudan transferred from the United States Central Command. Responsibility for U.S. military operations in the islands of Madagascar, the Comoros, the Seychelles and Mauritius was transferred from the United States Pacific Command.

Headquarters and facilities

The AFRICOM headquarters is located at Kelley Barracks, a small urban facility near Stuttgart, Germany, and is staffed by 1,500 personnel. In addition, the command has military and civilian personnel assigned at Camp Lemonnier, Djibouti; RAF Molesworth, United Kingdom; MacDill Air Force Base, Florida; and in Offices of Security Cooperation and Defense Attaché Offices in about 38 African countries.[2]

Selection of the headquarters

It was reported in June 2007 that African countries were competing to host the headquarters because it would bring money for the recipient country.[26] However, of all the African nations, only Liberia has publicly expressed a willingness to host AFRICOM's headquarters. The U.S. declared in February 2008 that AFRICOM would be headquartered in Stuttgart for the "foreseeable future". In August 2007, Dr. Wafula Okumu, a research fellow at the Institute for Security Studies in South Africa, testified before the United States Congress about the growing resistance and hostility on the African continent.[27] Nigeria announced it will not allow its country to host a base and opposed the creation of a base on the continent. South Africa and Libya also expressed reservations of the establishment of a headquarters in Africa.[28][29]

The Sudan Tribune considered it likely that Ethiopia, a strong U.S. ally in the region, will house USAFRICOM's headquarters due to the collocation of AFRICOM with the African Union's developing peace and security apparatus.[30] Prime Minister Meles Zenawi stated in early November that Ethiopia would be willing to work together closely with USAFRICOM.[31] This was further reinforced when a U.S. Air Force official said on 5 December 2007, that Addis Ababa was likely to be the headquarters.[32]

On 18 February 2008, General Ward told an audience at the Royal United Services Institute in London that some portion of that staff headquarters being on the continent at some point in time would be "a positive factor in helping us better deliver programs."[33] General Ward also told the BBC the same day in an interview that there are no definite plans to take the headquarters or a portion of it to any particular location on the continent.[34]

President Bush denied that the United States was contemplating the construction of new bases on the African continent.[35] U.S. plans include no large installations such as Camp Bondsteel in Kosovo, but rather a network of "cooperative security locations" at which temporary activities will be conducted. There is one U.S. base on the continent, Camp Lemonnier in Djibouti, with approximately 2,300 troops stationed there having been inherited from USCENTCOM upon standup of the command.

In general, U.S. Unified Combatant Commands have an HQ of their own in one location, subordinate service component HQs, sometimes one or two co-located with the main HQ or sometimes spread widely, and a wide range of operating locations, main bases, forward detachments, etc. USAFRICOM initially appears to be considering something slightly different; spreading the actually COCOM HQ over several locations, rather than having the COCOM HQ in one place and the putative "U.S. Army Forces, Africa", its air component, and "U.S. Naval Forces, Africa" in one to four separate locations. AFRICOM will not have the traditional J-type staff divisions, instead having outreach, plans and programs, knowledge development, operations and logistics, and resources branches.[36] AFRICOM went back to a traditional J-Staff in early 2011 after General Carter Ham took command.

Personnel

U.S. Africa Command completed fiscal year 2010 with approximately 2,000 assigned personnel, which includes military, civilian, contractor, and host nation employees. About 1,500 work at the command’s main headquarters in Stuttgart. Others are assigned to the command’s units in England and Florida, along with security cooperation officers posted at U.S. embassies and diplomatic missions in Africa to coordinate Defense Department programs within the host nation.

As of December 2010, the command has five Senior Foreign Service officers in key positions as well as more than 30 personnel from 13 U.S. Government Departments and Agencies serving in leadership, management, and staff positions. Some of the agencies represented are the United States Departments of State, Treasury, and Commerce, United States Agency for International Development, and the United States Coast Guard.

U.S. Africa Command has limited assigned forces and relies on the Department of Defense for resources necessary to support its missions.

Components

On 1 October 2008, the Seventeenth Air Force was established at Ramstein Air Base, Germany as the United States Air Force component of the Africa Command.[37] Brig. Gen. Tracey Garrett was named as commander of the new USMC component, U.S. Marine Corps Forces Africa (MARFORAF), in November 2008.[38][39] MARFORAF is a dual-mission arrangement for United States Marine Corps Forces, Europe.

On 3 December 2008, the U.S. announced that Army and Navy headquarters units of AFRICOM would be hosted in Italy. The AFRICOM section of the Army’s Southern European Task Force would be located in Vicenza and Naval Forces Europe in Naples would expand to include the Navy's AFRICOM component.[40] Special Operations Command, Africa (SOCAFRICA) is also established, gaining control over Joint Special Operations Task Force-Trans Sahara (JSOTF-TS) and Special Operations Command and Control Element – Horn of Africa (SOCCE-HOA).[41]

The U.S. Army has allocated a brigade to the Africa Command.[42]

U.S. Army Africa (USARAF)

U.S. Army Africa

Headquartered on Caserma Ederle in Vicenza, Italy, U.S. Army Africa, in concert with national and international partners, conducts sustained security engagement with African land forces to promote peace, stability, and security in Africa. As directed, it can deploy as a contingency headquarters in support of crisis response.[43]

The 2nd Brigade Combat Team, 1st Infantry Division, the "Dagger Brigade", is being aligned with AFRICOM.[44]

U.S. Naval Forces, Africa (NAVAF)

U.S. Naval Forces Africa

U.S. Naval Forces Europe - Naval Forces Africa (NAVEUR-NAVAF) area of responsibility (AOR) covers approximately half of the Atlantic Ocean, from the North Pole to Antarctica; as well as the Adriatic, Baltic, Barents, Black, Caspian, Mediterranean and North Seas.[45] NAVEUR-NAVAF covers all of Russia, Europe and nearly the entire continent of Africa. It encompasses 105 countries with a combined population of more than one billion people and includes a landmass extending more than 14 million square miles.

The area of responsibility covers more than 20 million square nautical miles of ocean, touches three continents and encompasses more than 67 percent of the Earth's coastline, 30 percent of its landmass, and nearly 40 percent of the world's population.[46]

Task Force 60 will normally be the commander of Naval Task Force Europe and Africa. Any naval unit within the USEUCOM or USAFRICOM AOR may be assigned to Task Force 60 as required upon by the Commander of the Sixth Fleet.

U.S. Air Forces Africa (AFAFRICA)

U.S. Air Forces Africa

Air Forces Africa (AFAFRICA) is located at Ramstein Air Base, Germany, and serves as the air and space component to U.S. Africa Command (AFRICOM) located at Stuttgart, Germany. Air Forces Africa shares a headquarters and units with United States Air Forces in Europe, and its component Air Force, 3AF (AFAFRICA) conducts sustained security engagement and operations as directed to promote air safety, security and development on the African continent. Through its Theater Security Cooperation (TSC) events, Air Forces Africa carries out AFRICOM's policy of seeking long-term partnership with the African Union and regional organizations as well as individual nations on the continent.[47]

Air Forces Africa works with other U.S. Government agencies, to include the State Department and the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), to assist African partners in developing national and regional security institution capabilities that promote security and stability and facilitate development.[48]

3AF succeeds the Seventeenth Air Force by assuming the AFAFRICA mission upon the 17AF's deactivation on 20 April 2012.[49]

U.S. Marine Corps Forces, Africa (MARFORAF)

U.S. Marine Corps Forces Africa

U.S. Marine Corps Forces, Africa conducts operations, exercises, training, and security cooperation activities throughout the AOR. In 2009, MARFORAF participated in 15 ACOTA missions aimed at improving partners’ capabilities to provide logistical support, employ military police, and exercise command and control over deployed forces.

MARFORAF conducted military to military events in 2009 designed to familiarize African partners with nearly every facet of military operations and procedures, including use of unmanned aerial vehicles, tactics, and medical skills. MARFORAF, as the lead component, continues to conduct Exercise AFRICAN LION in Morocco—the largest annual Combined Joint Chiefs of Staff (CJCS) exercise on the African continent—as well as Exercise SHARED ACCORD 10, which was the first CJCS exercise conducted in Mozambique.[50]

In 2013, the Special Purpose Marine Air-Ground Task Force - Crisis Response - Africa was formed to provide quick response to American interests in North Africa by flying marines in Bell Boeing V-22 Osprey aircraft from bases in Europe.[51]

Subordinate Commands

U.S. Special Operations Command, Africa

Special Operations Command Africa: United States Army Element Shoulder Sleeve Insignia and Combat Service Identification Badge

Special Operations Command Africa was activated on 1 October 2008 and became fully operationally capable on 1 October 2009. SOCAFRICA is a Subordinate-Unified Command of United States Special Operations Command, operationally controlled by U.S. Africa Command, collocated with USAFRICOM at Kelley Barracks, Stuttgart-Möhringen, Germany. Also on 1 October 2008, SOCAFRICA assumed responsibility for the Special Operations Command and Control Element – Horn of Africa, and on 15 May 2009, SOCAFRICA assumed responsibility for Joint Special Operations Task Force Trans – Sahara (JSOTF-TS) – the SOF component of Operation Enduring Freedom – Trans Sahara.

SOCAFRICA’s objectives are to build operational capacity, strengthen regional security and capacity initiatives, implement effective communication strategies in support of strategic objectives, and eradicate violent extremist organizations and their supporting networks. SOCAFRICA forces work closely with both U.S. Embassy country teams and African partners, maintaining a small but sustained presence throughout Africa, predominantly in the OEF-TS and CJTF-HOA regions. SOCAFRICA’s persistent SOF presence provides an invaluable resource that furthers USG efforts to combat violent extremist groups and builds partner nation CT capacity.[52]

On 8 April 2011, Naval Special Warfare Unit 10, operationally assigned and specifically dedicated for SOCAFRICA missions, was commissioned at Panzer Kaserne, near Stuttgart, Germany.[53] It is administratively assigned to Naval Special Warfare Group 2 on the U.S. East Coast.

Organizations included in SOCAFRICA include:[54]

  • Special Operations Command Forward—East (Special Operations Command and Control Element—Horn of Africa)
  • Special Operations Command Forward—Central (AFRICOM Counter—Lord's Resistance Army Control Element)
  • Special Operations Command Forward—West (Joint Special Operations Task Force—Trans Sahara)
  • Naval Special Warfare Unit 10, Joint Special Operations Air Component Africa, and SOCAFRICA Signal Detachment
  • Commander SOCAFRICA serves as the Special Operations Adviser to Commander, USAFRICOM.

Combined Joint Task Force – Horn of Africa

Combined Joint Task Force – Horn of Africa

Combined Joint Task Force – Horn of Africa (CJTF-HOA) conducts operations in the East Africa region to build partner nation capacity in order to promote regional security and stability, prevent conflict, and protect U.S. and coalition interests. CJTF-HOA's efforts, as part of a comprehensive whole-of-government approach, are aimed at increasing African partner nations' capacity to maintain a stable environment, with an effective government that provides a degree of economic and social advancement for its citizens.[55]

Programs and operations

Programs

Operations

List of commanders

No. Image Name Service Start End Time in office
1. General Kip Ward November 2009 General William E. Ward U.S. Army 1 October 2007 8 March 2011 1,254 days
2. GEN Carter F.Ham 2011 General Carter F. Ham U.S. Army 8 March 2011 5 April 2013 759 days
3. General David M Rodriguez USAFRICOM General David M. Rodriguez U.S. Army 5 April 2013 18 July 2016 1,200 days
4. Waldhauser Africom 2 General Thomas D. Waldhauser U.S. Marine Corps 18 July 2016 Incumbent 1,006 days

The current State Department Deputy to the Commander for Civil-Military Engagement is Ambassador Alexander Laskaris.

References

  1. ^ http://www.africom.mil/about-the-command
  2. ^ a b c d "About the Command". U.S. AFRICOM. Retrieved 24 June 2015.
  3. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 10 May 2016. Retrieved 10 May 2016.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  4. ^ DOD Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms. U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff - J7, 9999 Joint Staff Pentagon #2D932, Arlington VA 22202: U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) - Joint Chiefs of Staff - J7. August 2017. p. 372.
  5. ^ Mueller, Karl P. (8 July 2015). Precision and Purpose: Airpower in the Libyan Civil War. Rand Corporation. p. 83. ISBN 9780833087935.
  6. ^ "FACT SHEET: United States Africa Command". U.S. AFRICOM Office of Public Affairs. 15 April 2013. Retrieved 24 June 2015.
  7. ^ "President Bush Creates a Department of Defense Unified Combatant Command for Africa". Georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov. 6 February 2007. Retrieved 19 May 2011.
  8. ^ Waldhauser, General Thomas D. (9 March 2017). United States Africa Command 2017 Posture Statement. U.S. Senate Committee on Armed Services: U.S. Africa Command. p. 7. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  9. ^ "A CINC for Sub-Saharan Africa? Rethinking the Unified Command Plan". Parameters. US Army War College. Winter 2000–01. Archived from the original on 9 November 2017. Retrieved 9 November 2017.
  10. ^ Fellows, Catherine (8 August 2005). "US targets Sahara 'terrorist haven'". BBC News. Retrieved 24 June 2015.
  11. ^ "About This Site". 22 October 2004. Archived from the original on 4 December 2004.
  12. ^ Pincus, Walter (8 May 2015). "U.S. Africa Command Brings New Concerns". Washington Post. Retrieved 25 June 2015.
  13. ^ Pincus, Walter (6 December 2011). "A speed bump for Pentagon's information ops". Washington Post. Retrieved 25 June 2015.
  14. ^ Mazmanian, Adam (13 February 2015). "DOD shutters two 'influence' websites covering Africa". FCW. Retrieved 25 June 2015.
  15. ^ Lobe, Jim (31 January 2007). "POLITICS: Africa to Get Its Own U.S. Military Command". Inter Press Service. Retrieved 24 June 2015.
  16. ^ "Operations and Initiatives". EUCOM. Archived from the original on 9 January 2007. Retrieved 6 February 2007.
  17. ^ "Pan Sahel Initiative (PSI)". GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved 24 June 2015.
  18. ^ Lawson, Letitia (January 2007). "U.S. Africa Policy Since the Cold War" (PDF). Strategic Insights. Department of National Security Affairs Center on Contemporary Conflict. 6 (1). Retrieved 24 June 2015.
  19. ^ Northham, Jackie (7 February 2007). "Pentagon Creates Military Command for Africa". NPR Morning Edition. Retrieved 25 June 2015.
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  21. ^ Garamone, Jim (6 February 2007). "DoD Establishing U.S. Africa Command". American Forces Press Services. US Department of Defense. Retrieved 25 June 2015.
  22. ^ a b Crawley, Vince (6 February 2007). "U.S. Creating New Africa Command To Coordinate Military Efforts". USINFO. US Department of State. Retrieved 25 June 2015.
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  25. ^ Jelinek, Pauline (6 February 2007). "Pentagon setting up new U.S. command to oversee African missions". Independent Record. Associated Press. Retrieved 25 June 2015.
  26. ^ The Economist, "Policing the undergoverned spaces", 16–22 June 2007, p. 46
  27. ^ "Africa: Testimony of Dr. Wafula Okumu – U.S. House Africom Hearing". Allafrica.com.
  28. ^ "US AFRICOM headquarters to remain in Germany for "foreseeable future". International Herald Tribune. 19 February 2008.
  29. ^ "US drops Africa military HQ plan". BBC News. 18 February 2008.
  30. ^ "US army boss for Africa says no garrisons planned". SudanTribune article. Retrieved 19 May 2011.
  31. ^ "Ethiopia ready to cooperate with US Africa Command – Zenawi". SudanTribune article. Retrieved 19 May 2011.
  32. ^ Erik Holmes, Official: AFRICOM Will Need Air Force Aircraft, Air Force Times, 5 December 2007
  33. ^ "TRANSCRIPT: General Ward Outlines Vision for U.S. Africa Command" Archived 7 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine, 18 February 2008
  34. ^ "TRANSCRIPT: AFRICOM's General Ward Interviewed by the BBC's Nick Childs" Archived 27 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine, 18 February 2008
  35. ^ "Bush Says No New U.S. Bases in Africa"
  36. ^ Stars and Stripes, AFRICOM to depart from J-code structure, 12 August 2007
  37. ^ "U.S. AFRICOM Faces African Concerns – 10/01/07 17:39". DefenseNews.com. Retrieved 19 May 2011.
  38. ^ Garrett, Brigadier General Tracy L.; Ward, General William E. (14 November 2008). "TRANSCRIPT: Marine Corps Forces, Africa Officially Established". Archived from the original on 20 July 2011. Retrieved 21 November 2008.
  39. ^ "U.S. Military Official Pays Courtesy Call" (Press release). The Executive Mansion, The Republic of Liberia. 18 November 2008. Archived from the original on 23 August 2009. Retrieved 21 November 2008.
  40. ^ Novak, Lisa M., "Italy To Host AFRICOM Headquarters", Stars and Stripes, 5 December 2008.
  41. ^ Special Operations Technology, Q & A with Brigadier General Patrick M. Higgins Archived 16 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Vol. 6, Issue 6, 2008
  42. ^ Lt. Gen. William Grisoli, "The Army has now aligned a brigade with U.S. Africa Command." accessdate=2012-12-10
  43. ^ "Welcome Information – US Army Africa". Usaraf.army.mil. Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 19 May 2011.
  44. ^ "Dagger brigade readies for AFRICOM missions". Army.mil. Retrieved 2 March 2013.
  45. ^ "Commander, U.S. Naval Forces Europe-Africa/U.S. 6th Fleet". Naveur-navaf.navy.mil. 21 December 2008. Retrieved 19 May 2011.
  46. ^ "CNE NAV Left Navigation". Naveur-navaf.navy.mil. 21 December 2008. Retrieved 19 May 2011.
  47. ^ "17th Air Force – Home". 17af.usafe.af.mil. Archived from the original on 10 May 2011. Retrieved 19 May 2011.
  48. ^ "17th Air Force – Home". Newpreview.afnews.af.mil. Archived from the original on 19 January 2016. Retrieved 19 May 2011.
  49. ^ "17th Air Force stands down, AFAFRICA mission carries on". U.S. Air Forces in Europe Public Affairs. Archived from the original on 26 May 2012. Retrieved 1 May 2012.
  50. ^ "Mission". Marines.mil. 6 February 2007. Archived from the original on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 19 May 2011.
  51. ^ "SP-MAGTF Crisis Response ACE maintains readiness 24/ 7". Marforaf.marines.mil. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
  52. ^ "Report" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 July 2011. Retrieved 19 May 2011.
  53. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 23 October 2014. Retrieved 23 October 2014.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  54. ^ SOCOM 2015 Factbook
  55. ^ "CJTF-HOA Factsheet". Hoa.africom.mil. Archived from the original on 26 April 2009. Retrieved 19 May 2011.
  56. ^ Ham, Carter. "STATEMENT: AFRICOM Commander on Commencement of Military Strikes in Libya." AFRICOM, 19 March 2011.
  57. ^ "US AFRICOM ends military operation against IS radicals in Libya". Libyan Express. 21 December 2016. Retrieved 30 December 2016.

Further reading

External links

4th Psychological Operations Group

The 4th Psychological Operations Group (Airborne) (formerly the 4th Military Information Support Group (Airborne) or 4th POG)) is one of the United States Army's active military information support operations units along with the 8th Psychological Operations Group (Airborne), which was activated 26 August 2011 at Fort Bragg. The 8th Group has responsibility for the 1st, 5th and 9th Psychological Operations battalions. The 4th Group has responsibility for the 3rd, 6th, 7th and 8th battalions, with a total of about 800 soldiers.On 21 June 2010, an announcement was made that the military intends to rename psychological operations, or PSYOP, to Military Information Support Operations. The decision, made a few days earlier by Admiral Eric Olson, Commander, United States Special Operations Command and Army's Chief of Staff General George Casey, was propagated through a memo dated 23 June 2010. By October 2017, the U.S. Army Special Operations Command (USASOC) reverted its decision changing their name back to PSYOP stating, “Psychological operations refers to the name of units, while MISO refers to the function that soldiers in PSYOP units perform.”The unit is based at Fort Bragg, North Carolina and is a part of the 1st Special Forces Command (Airborne), under the United States Army Special Operations Command. The 4th POG was constituted 7 November 1967 in the Regular Army as Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 4th Psychological Operations Group. Activated 1 December 1967 in Vietnam. Inactivated 2 October 1971 at Fort Lewis, Washington. Activated 13 September 1972 at Fort Bragg.

Andrew Rodriguez (American football)

Andrew Scott Rodriguez (born May 12, 1990) is a former American football player for Army Black Knights of the United States Military Academy.

A graduate of Bishop Ireton High School in Alexandria, Virginia, Rodriguez started in twelve games as a sophomore for the Black Knights. Prior to his junior season, he suffered a serious back injury which caused him to miss the rest of the season but made a comeback for his senior year, for which he was voted captain by his teammates. He won the 2011 James E. Sullivan Award and the William V. Campbell Trophy.Rodriguez graduated in 2012, ranking third in his class. His father is General David M. Rodriguez, Commanding General of the United States Africa Command (AFRICOM).

Area of responsibility

Area of Responsibility (AOR) is a pre-defined geographic region assigned to Combatant commanders of the Unified Command Plan (UCP), that are used to define an area with specific geographic boundaries where they have the authority to plan and conduct operations; for which a force, or component commander bears a certain responsibility. The term may also be used in other countries worldwide but it originated within the United States Armed Forces. This system is designed to allow a single commander to exercise command and control of all military forces in the AOR, regardless of their branch of service.

The President of the United States signed the U.S. Unified Command Plan (UCP) 2008 on 17 December 2008, establishing the up-to-date boundaries for the newest Command, United States Africa Command (USAFRICOM), and all changes to boundaries of the other Commands.U.S Unified Command Plan (UCP) 2011 was signed on 6 April 2011. Boundaries were adjusted in the high northern latitudes between USEUCOM, USNORTHCOM and USPACOM. http://www.defense.gov/news/UCP_2011_Map4.pdf

Combatant commanders may designate theaters of war, theaters of operation, combat zones, and communications zones. Joint force commanders may define additional operational areas or joint areas to assist in the coordination and execution of joint warfare. The size of these areas and the types of forces used depend on the scope, nature, and projected duration of the operation.

Combatant commanders and other joint force commanders use the following organization of the battlespace at the operational level of war. Combatant commanders are assigned an area of responsibility in the Unified Command Plan.

Theater of war, the area of aerial, terrestrial, and naval/littoral that is, or may become, directly involved in the manner of combat; either defined by the National Command Authority or a combatant commander, This area doesn't normally encompass the combatant commander's entire area of responsibility.

Theater of operations, a sub-area within a theater of war defined by the force commander required to conduct or support specific operations. Different theaters of operations within the same theater of war will normally be geographically separate and focused on different enemy forces. Theaters of operations are usually of significant size, allowing for operations over extended periods of time.

Combat zone, areas required by combat forces for the conduct of operations.

Communication zone, the rear part of the theater of war or theater of operations (behind but contiguous to the combat zone) that contains lines of communications, establishments for supply or evacuation, and other agencies required for the immediate support and maintenance of the field forces. The Marine Corps component commander will normally focus his efforts to deploy, support, and sustain his forces, particularly the MAGTF, in the communications zone. He will normally locate his headquarters close to the joint force commander, who usually establishes his headquarters in the communications zone.Understanding the joint battlespace at the operational level of war in which forces will operate is an important step in setting the conditions for their success. Force commanders must understand the relationship between the Area of Operation (AO), Area of Interest, and Area of Influence.

By analyzing his AO in terms of his area of influence and area of interest, a force commander determines whether his assigned AO is appropriate. This analysis may include the forces’ capabilities to conduct actions across the warfighting functions.

Combined Joint Task Force – Horn of Africa

Combined Joint Task Force – Horn of Africa (CJTF-HOA) is a joint task force of United States Africa Command (AFRICOM). It originated under Operation Enduring Freedom – Horn of Africa (OEF-HOA) as part of the United States response to the September 11, 2001 attacks.

David M. Rodriguez

David M. "Rod" Rodriguez (born 23 May 1954) popularly known as "Rod" among his colleagues is a four star United States Army officer who served as the Commander of the United States Africa Command (AFRICOM) from April 2013.

Previously, Rodriguez served as the Commanding General of the U.S. Army Forces Command from 12 September 2011 until 15 March 2014. He has also served as Commander, International Security Assistance Force Joint Command (IJC) and Deputy Commander, U.S. Forces – Afghanistan (USFOR-A) from 12 November 2009 to 11 July 2011. Approved by the U.S. Senate on 5 March 2013, to take over AFRICOM from General Carter F. Ham, Rodriguez assumed command on 5 April 2013.

David R. Hogg

Lieutenant General David Richard Hogg (born December 1, 1958) is a retired United States Army officer. He served as a United States Military Representative to the NATO Military Committee (USMILREP). He relieved Vice Admiral Richard K. Gallagher and assumed the assignment in 2012. He retired in 2015. Prior to the assignment, General Hogg served as the Commanding General of United States Army Africa (USARAF) from June 10, 2010 to August 3, 2012.In a previous assignment, Hogg was the senior U.S. Army officer in Italy and commanded the Army component to United States Africa Command (USAFRICOM).

December 2017 Diffa Region clash

In the early morning hours of 6 December 2017 militants believed to be affiliated with the Islamic State in West Africa attacked a patrol of US Army Special Forces and Nigerien soldiers near Diffa, in the Lake Chad Basin Region in Niger. During the ensuing firefight, no Nigerien or American personal were killed or wounded while 11 militants including two wearing suicide vests died, an enemy weapons cache was also destroyed by the joint US/Nigerien force a United States Africa Command statement said. The firefight was not planned as the purpose of the mission was aimed at setting "The conditions for future parnter-led operations against violent extremist organizations in the region" the statement added.The attack came a little over two months after an ambush in the village of Tongo Tongo that left at least 30 dead including four Americans. The December firefight was first learned of after a declassified report made for Congress was obtained and reported by The New York Times. The firefight is just one of 10 other incidents involving American personal in Niger. During these previous firefights excluding the ambush that happened two months earlier only a few enemy combatants died while no Americans or Nigeriens were hurt.

This event and most prominently the October ambush led to security changes for US forces operating in the region such as armored vehicles instead of lightly armored SUV's, the arming of drones, and taking a closer look at when US forces conduct operations with local troops.

Kelley Barracks

Kelley Barracks (formerly Helenen-Kaserne) is a U.S. military installation and headquarters of United States Africa Command, and is a part of US Army Garrison Stuttgart in Stuttgart-Möhringen in Germany. The post is administered by IMCOM- Europe.

List of field armies of the United States Army

Below is a list of Field Armies of the United States

Mary Carlin Yates

Mary Carlin Yates (born 1946 in Portland, Oregon) is a Foreign Service Officer at the U.S. State Department and was one of two deputy commanders of the United States Africa Command until June 2009.

Yates earned her BA in English from Oregon State University and earned a Master's in Comparative East West Humanities from New York University, where she pursued her doctoral studies in Asian Affairs.

She served as U.S. Ambassador to the Republic of Burundi from 1999 until June 2002, and as U.S. Ambassador to the Republic of Ghana from November 2002 to 2005.Yates was named on September 28, 2008 as the Deputy to the Commander for Civil-Military Activities, United States Africa Command (USAFRICOM), headquartered in Stuttgart, Germany where she served most recently as the Principal Advisor to the Commander, United States European Command (USEUCOM). She has earned two State Department Superior Honor Awards and two Meritorious Honor Awards.

Her husband John M. Yates is U.S. Special Envoy to Somalia.

Ninth United States Army

The Ninth Army is a field army of the United States Army, garrisoned at Caserma Ederle, Vicenza, Italy. It is the United States Army Service Component Command of United States Africa Command (USAFRICOM or AFRICOM).

Activated just eight weeks before the June 1944 Normandy landings, the Ninth Army was one of the main U.S. Army combat commands used during the campaign in Northwest Europe in 1944 and 1945. It was commanded at its inception by Lieutenant General William Simpson. It had been designated Eighth Army, but on arrival in the United Kingdom it was renamed to avoid confusion with the famous British formation of the same designation. All American field armies in the European Theatre of Operation were designated with odd numbers, even numbered field armies served in the Pacific Theatre of Operations.

Operation Enduring Freedom – Horn of Africa

Operation Enduring Freedom – Horn of Africa (OEF-HOA) is the United States military operation to combat militant Islamism and piracy in the Horn of Africa. It is one component of Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF), which includes eight African states stretching from the far northeast of the continent to the oil-rich Gulf of Guinea in the west. The other OEF mission in Africa is known as Operation Enduring Freedom – Trans Sahara (OEF-TS), which, until the creation of the new United States Africa Command, was run from the United States European Command.The Combined Joint Task Force – Horn of Africa (CJTF-HOA) is the primary (but not sole) military component assigned to accomplish the objectives of the mission. The naval component is the multinational Combined Task Force 150 (CTF-150) which operates under the direction of the United States Fifth Fleet. Both of these organizations have been historically part of United States Central Command. In February 2007, United States President George W. Bush announced the establishment of the United States Africa Command which took over all of the area of operations of CJTF-HOA in October 2008.CJTF-HOA consists of about 2,000 servicemen and women from the United States military and allied countries. The official area of responsibility comprises Sudan, Somalia, Djibouti, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Seychelles and Kenya. Outside this Combined Joint Operating Area, the CJTF-HOA has operations in Mauritius, Comoros, Liberia, Rwanda, Uganda and Tanzania. The American contribution to the operation, aside from advisers, supplies, and other forms of non-combat support, consists mainly of drone strikes targeted at Al-Shabaab. These are estimated to have killed roughly 400 militants as well as 3 to 10 civilians. Other American combat operations include manned airstrikes, cruise missile strikes, and special forces raids.

Pan Sahel Initiative

The Pan-Sahel Initiative, according to a November 7, 2002, by the Office of Counterterrorism, U.S. Department of State, was "a State-led effort to assist Mali, Niger, Chad, and Mauritania in detecting and responding to suspicious movement of people and goods across and within their borders through training, equipment and cooperation. Its goals support two U.S. national security interests in Africa: waging the War on Terrorism and enhancing regional peace and security." It was in 2005 superseded by the larger-scope Trans-Saharan Counterterrorism Initiative, which in turn was incorporated into the United States Africa Command in 2008.

Phillip Carter (ambassador)

Phillip Carter III (born 1959) is a Senior Foreign Service American diplomat and was United States Ambassador to Ivory Coast from 2010 to 2013. Ambassador Carter holds the diplomatic rank of Minister Counselor. As of November, 2013 he is Deputy to the Commander for Civil Military Engagements, United States Africa Command (AFRICOM) in Stuttgart, Germany.

Ramón Colón-López

Command Chief Master Sergeant Ramón Colón-López (born: October 21, 1971) is a pararescueman with the U.S. Air Force. In 2007 he was the only Hispanic American amongst the first six airmen to be awarded the newly created Air Force Combat Action Medal. He is currently the Senior Enlisted Leader of United States Africa Command.

Seventeenth Expeditionary Air Force

Seventeenth Expeditionary Air Force (17 EAF) is a numbered air force of the United States Air Force located at Ramstein Air Base, Germany. The command served the United States Air Forces in Europe during (1953–1996) and United States Air Forces Africa during 2008-2012. Upon reactivation on 1 October 2008, it became the air and space component of United States Africa Command. In this capacity, Seventeenth Air Force was referred to as U.S. Air Forces Africa (AFAFRICA). 17 AF was reformed in April 2012 to become the 17th Expeditionary Air Force, sharing a commander and headquarters with the Third Air Force.Seventeenth Air Force housed the traditional A-staff and special staff functions which are responsible for developing strategy and plans to execute air and space operations in support of U.S. Africa Command objectives. In addition, 17 AF housed the "tailored" 617th Air and Space Operations Center (AOC) which provided command and control capabilities for the planning and execution of aerial missions on the African continent. Seventeenth Air Force also had a collaborative relationship with the 110th Air Operations Group, Michigan Air National Guard.

Thomas D. Waldhauser

Thomas David "Tom" Waldhauser (born December 16, 1953) is a United States Marine Corps general who is the Commander of United States Africa Command. He previously served as Director for Joint Force Development, J7 on the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Commanding General, I Marine Expeditionary Force, and Commanding General, U.S. Marine Corps Forces Central Command. Waldhauser is an alumnus of Bemidji State University.

United States Army Africa

United States Army Africa (USARAF), also known as the Southern European Task Force (SETAF), is the United States Army service component command of United States Africa Command (USAFRICOM or AFRICOM).USARAF's headquarters are located on Caserma Ederle and Caserma Del Din, Vicenza, Italy.

SETAF, now known as USARAF/SETAF has been stationed in Italy since 1955 and has a long history of operating on the African continent and partnering with African nations. During the past 15 years, SETAF has provided crisis response, disaster relief and humanitarian assistance on the continent.

On 3 December 2008 in Rome, Italy, an official announcement by the U.S. and Italian governments stated that SETAF would become USARAF, and one week later on 9 December 2008 USARAF was established as the Army Service Component Command of AFRICOM. According to the Army Times, this marked the end of the airborne chapter of the unit’s history and the beginning of its new role as the Army component of AFRICOM.

The vision for U.S. Army Africa is to be a trusted and respected partner, achieving long-term strategic effects in Africa. The command's mission statement explains that USARAF/SETAF employs Army forces as partners, builds sustainable capacity, and supports the joint force in order to disrupt transnational threats and promote regional stability in Africa.

United States Naval Forces Europe - Naval Forces Africa

United States Naval Forces Europe - Naval Forces Africa (NAVEUR-NAVAF) is the United States Navy component command of the United States European Command and United States Africa Command.

NAVEUR-NAVAF provides overall command, operational control, and coordination of U.S. Naval Forces in the European and African Command area of responsibility. As the Navy component in Europe, COMUSNAVEUR, plans, conducts, and supports naval operations in the European theater during peacetime, contingencies, in general war and as tasked by Commander, U.S. European Command. As the component command in Africa, NAVAF aims for cooperative solutions to security challenges in Africa and its surrounding waters by closely working with its Europe, African, and South American partners to disrupt terrorist networks, deter illicit trafficking, and defeat piracy and maritime crime.

With its headquarters now at Naval Support Activity Naples, Italy, NAVEUR-NAVAF directs all its naval operations through Commander, United States Sixth Fleet co-located in Naples, Italy, and support activities ashore through Commander, Navy Region Europe, Africa, and Southwest Asia (CNREURAFSWA), also headquartered in Naples, Italy.

Naval Forces Europe - Naval Forces Africa is commanded by Admiral James G. Foggo III, who also serves as NATO's Commander, Allied Joint Force Command Naples. The deputy commander is currently Vice Admiral Lisa Franchetti, who concurrently serves as the Sixth Fleet commander.

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Operations and history
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OEF–HOA
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