United Russia (Russian: Еди́ная Росси́я, tr. Yedinaya Rossiya, IPA: [(j)ɪˈdʲinəjə rɐˈsʲijə]) is the ruling political party of the Russian Federation. United Russia is the largest party in Russia and as of 2018 it holds 335 (or 74.44%) of the 450 seats in the State Duma.
The United Russia party formed in December 2001 through a merger of the Unity and the Fatherland – All Russia parties. As of 2017, the United Russia party supports the policies of the presidential administration. Although the United Russia party's popularity declined from its peak of 64.4% in the 2007 Duma elections to 49.32% in the 2011 elections, it remained the most popular party in the country ahead of the second-placed Communist Party at 19.19%. In the 2016 elections, it received 54.2% while the second-place Communist Party received 13.3%.
The party has no coherent ideology, but it embraces specific politicians and officials with a variety of political views who support the administration. The party appeals mainly to non-ideological voters, therefore United Russia is often classified by political scientists as a "catch-all party" or as a "party of power". In 2009, it proclaimed Russian conservatism as its official ideology.
|Parliamentary Leader||Sergey Neverov|
|Founded||1 December 2001|
|Merger of||Fatherland – All Russia|
Our Home – Russia
|Headquarters||39 Kutuzovsky Avenue|
Moscow, Russia 121170
|Youth wing||Young Guard of United Russia|
|National affiliation||All-Russia People's Front|
|Colours||White Blue Red (Russian national colors)|
|Seats in the Federation Council|
128 / 170
|Seats in the State Duma|
341 / 450
75 / 85
|Seats in the Regional Parliaments|
3,091 / 3,980
20 / 31
United Russia's predecessor was the Unity bloc, which was created three months before the December 1999 Duma elections to counter the advance of the Fatherland – All Russia (OVR) party led by Yuri Luzhkov. The creation of the party was heavily supported by Kremlin insiders, who were wary of what looked like a certain OVR victory. They did not expect Unity to have much chance of success since President Boris Yeltsin was very unpopular and Prime Minister Vladimir Putin's ratings were still minuscule. The new party attempted to mimic OVR's formula of success, placing an emphasis on competence and pragmatism. Charismatic Minister of Emergency Situations Sergei Shoigu was appointed as the party leader.
In 1999, Prime Minister Putin's popularity soared to double digit figures after he decisively sent troops to the rebellious Chechnya republic as a retaliation for terrorist bombings in Moscow and other cities and in response for the Chechen invasion of Dagestan. Putin's war effort was hugely popular and portrayed positively by the Boris Berezovsky-owned Channel One Russia as well as by state-controlled RTR.
Contrary to its creators' expectations, Unity's election campaign was a huge success and the party received 23.3% of the votes, considerably more than OVR's 13.3% and within one percentage point of the Communist Party's 24.3%. The popularity of the prime minister proved decisive for Unity's victory. The election results also made clear that Putin was going to win the 2000 presidential election, which resulted in competitors Luzhkov and Yevgeni Primakov dropping out. Yeltsin also gave Putin a boost by resigning as President on 31 December 1999.
While Unity had initially had only one narrow purpose, limited only to the 1999 Duma elections, after the victory state officials began to transform the party into a permanent one. A large number of independent deputies who had been elected to the Duma were invited to join the party's delegation. Many OVR deputies also joined, including its leader Luzhkov. In April 2001, OVR and Unity leaders issued a joint declaration that they had started the process of unification. In July 2001, the unified party, called Union of Unity and Fatherland, held its founding congress and in December 2001 it became All-Russian Party of Unity and Fatherland, or more commonly, United Russia. In the second party congress in March 2003, Sergei Shoygu stood down and Boris Gryzlov was elected as the new party leader.
Instead of the "communism versus capitalism" dichotomy that had dominated the political discourse in the 1990s, in the 1999–2000 electoral cycle Putin started to emphasize another reason to vote for his party: stability, which was yearned for by Russian citizens after a decade of chaotic revolutionary change. With the exception of the continued fighting in the Northern Caucasus, Putin delivered it.
Throughout Putin's first years as President, the country's economy improved considerably, growing more each year than in all of the previous decade and Putin's approval ratings hovered well above 70%. Russia's economic recovery was helped by high prices for its primary exports such as oil, gas and raw materials.
The passage rate of law proposals increased considerably after United Russia became the dominant party in the Duma. In 1996–1999, only 76% of the legislation that passed the third reading was signed by the President while in 1999–2003 the ratio was 93%. While Yeltsin had often relied on his decree powers to enact major decisions, Putin almost never had to. United Russia's dominance in the Duma enabled Putin to push through a wide range of fundamental reforms, including a flat income tax of 13%, a reduced profits tax, an overhaul of the labour market, breakups of national monopolies and new land and legal codes. United Russia characterised itself as wholly supportive of Putin's agenda, which proved a recipe for success and resulted in the party scoring a major victory in the 2003 Duma elections, receiving more than a third of the popular vote.
Throughout its history, United Russia has been successful in using administrative resources to weaken its opponents. For example, state-controlled news media portrayed the Communist Party as hypocritical for accepting money from several "dollar millionaries" during the 2003 Duma election campaign. United Russia also introduced tougher party, candidate and voter registration requirements and increased the election threshold from 5% to 7% for the 2007 elections.
Opposition parties also made several strategic mistakes. For example, Yabloko and the Union of Right Forces seemed to spend more effort attacking each other than Putin, which made it easier for United Russia to win over liberal voters on the strength of market reforms under Putin. The opposition parties faltered in the 2003 elections, with the Communists gaining just 52 seats, a drop from 113 in 1999. Liberal opponents fared even worse, with Yabloko and Union of the Right Forces failing to cross the 5 percent threshold.
As the economy continued improving and Putin executed several popular moves, such as reining in the unpopular oligarchs, Putin's approval ratings stayed high and he won the 2004 presidential election with over 71% of the votes. The 2007 Duma elections proved a stunning victory for United Russia, which won 64.3% of the votes. The Communist Party became a distant second with 11.57% of the votes. Putin was the only name on United Russia's national list and his popularity helped the party to ensure victory.
The legislative agenda shifted somewhat after the 2007 elections. Anti-terrorism legislation, large increases in social spending and the creation of new state corporations became the dominant issues while less energy was devoted to economic reform.
For the 2008 presidential election, United Russia nominated Dmitry Medvedev to succeed Putin. Medvedev received Putin's blessing and scored a clear victory, receiving 71% of the votes. As President, Medvedev nominated Putin as his Prime Minister. On 15 April of the same year, Putin accepted a nomination to become the party's leader, but declared that this did not mean he would become a member. Medvedev has also refused to become a member.
During regional elections of 11 October 2009, United Russia won a majority of seats in almost every Russian municipality. Opposition candidates claim they were hindered from campaigning for the elections and some were denied places on the ballot. There are also accusations of widespread ballot stuffing and voter intimidation as well as statistical analysis results supporting these accusations.
Support for United Russia was 53% in a poll held in October 2009. In 2010–2011 and following the economic crisis, support for United Russia went up and down, but declined overall. The share of the population ready to vote for the party reached its lowest point in January 2011 (35%) before recovering to 41% in March 2011.
The Agrarian Party supported the candidacy of Dmitry Medvedev in the 2008 presidential election and it merged into United Russia.
At the party's XII Congress held on 24 September 2011, Medvedev supported the candidacy of Prime Minister Putin in the presidential election of 2012—a move that effectively assured Putin would return to the presidency, given the party's near-total dominance of Russian politics. Medvedev accepted the invitation of Prime Minister Putin to head the party in the State Duma elections and said that in his opinion Putin should run for President in 2012. Delegates applauded this statement standing and they unanimously supported his candidacy for President. Medvedev responded immediately, saying that applause is proof of Putin's popularity among the people. Medvedev's speech listened to about ten thousand participants of the meeting. Total congress was attended by about 12,000 participants, guests and journalists.
At the same congress it was also approved by the election list of candidates from the party in the December elections to the State Duma. The list includes 416 party members and 183 non-partisan, 363 of them for the first time participate in the elections. On 29 September, the list was handed over to the Central Election Commission of the Russian Federation. The party list was led by President Medvedev. 582 delegates of the Congress voted in support of the list—against one.
Election program of United Russia was announced during speeches of Medvedev and Putin. Medvedev has identified seven strategic priorities of government policy and Putin offered to cancel the erroneous tax debts of 36 million Russians in the amount of 30 billion rubles and increase from 10 October salaries of public sector employees by 6.5%. Putin also said that taxes for the wealthy citizens should be higher than for the middle class and offered to raise utility tariffs only excess baggage. Among other priorities, Putin called a complete re army and navy in 5–10 years, doubling the pace of road construction for 10 years, the creation or update of 25 million jobs in 20 years in and out of Russia in the five largest economies in the world.
At the party's XIII Congress held on 26 May 2012, Medvedev was elected chairman of United Russia. United Russia decided not use his portraits of President Medvedev and President Putin during the fall election campaign.
In March 2013, about 50 members of the United Russia from Abansky District of Krasnoyarsk Krai announced their withdrawal from the party. They sent an open letter (it is said that under it signed 60 people) to the party chairman Medvedev, which criticized the activities of the party which according to them has ceased to fulfill its political function.
|Election year||Candidate||1st round||2nd round|
|No. of overall votes||% of overall vote||No. of overall votes||% of overall vote|
|2004||Vladimir Putin[a]||49,565,238||71.3 (won)|
|2008||Dmitry Medvedev||52,530,712||71.2 (won)|
|2012||Vladimir Putin||46,602,075||63.6 (won)|
|2018||Vladimir Putin[a]||56,430,712||76.7 (won)|
223 / 450
315 / 450
238 / 450
343 / 450
United Russia currently holds 340 of the 450 seats in the State Duma. It heads all five of the Duma's commissions and holds 14 of the 26 committee chairmanships and 10 of the 16 seats in the Council of Duma, the Duma's steering committee. The speaker of the Duma is United Russia's Vyacheslav Volodin.
In 2013, United Russia claimed it had 2 million members. According to a study conducted by Timothy J. Colton, Henry E. Hale and Michael McFaul after the March 2008 presidential elections, 30% of the Russian population are loyalists of the party.
According to the party's 2003 political manifesto, The Path of National Success, the party's goal is to unite the responsible political forces of the country, aiming to minimize the differences between rich and poor, young and old, state, business and society. The economy should combine state regulation and market freedoms, with the benefits of further growth distributed for the most part to the less fortunate. The party rejects left-wing and right-wing ideologies in favour of "political centrism" that could unite all sections of society. In addition, the official party platform emphasizes pragmatism and anti-radicalism. The party regards itself to be one of the heirs to Russia's tradition of statehood, both tsarist and communist. United Russia's long-time moniker is "the party of real deeds".
United Russia has always characterised itself as wholly supportive of the agenda of the popular current President Vladimir Putin and this has proved key to its success.
Since 2006, when Vladislav Surkov introduced the term sovereign democracy, many figureheads of the party have taken usage of the term. Former President and current Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev has criticised the term. United Russia voted against the Council of Europe resolution 1481 (Need for international condemnation of crimes of totalitarian communist regimes).
The party has promoted explicitly conservative policies in social, cultural and political matters, both at home and abroad. Putin has attacked globalism and economic liberalism as well as scientific and technological progress. Putin has promoted new think tanks that bring together like-minded intellectuals and writers. For example, the Izborsky Club, founded in 2012 by Aleksandr Prokhanov, stresses Russian nationalism, the restoration of Russia's historical greatness and systematic opposition to liberal ideas and policies. Vladislav Surkov, a senior government official, has been one of the key ideologists during Putin's presidency.
In cultural and social affairs, United Russia has collaborated closely with the Russian Orthodox Church. Mark Woods provides specific examples of how the Church under Patriarch Kirill of Moscow has backed the expansion of Russian power into Crimea and eastern Ukraine. More broadly, The New York Times reports in September 2016 how that Church's policy prescriptions support the Kremlin's appeal to social conservatives:
According to studies, United Russia voters in 2007 were younger and more market-oriented than the average voter. The party's electorate includes a substantial share of state employees, pensioners and military personnel who are dependent on the state for their livelihood. Sixty-four percent of United Russia supporters are female. In the run-up to the 2011 Duma elections, it was reported that support for United Russia was growing among young people.
Foreign media and observers describe United Russia as a pure "presidential party", with the main goal of securing the power of the Russian President in the Russian parliament. The vast majority of officeholders in Russia are members of the party, hence it is sometimes described as a "public official party" or "administration party". Due to this, it is also often labelled the "Party of Power".
United Russia has signed cooperation agreements with the far-right Freedom Party of Austria and Lega Nord of Italy. Its youth wing, the Young Guard of United Russia, has an alliance with the youth wing of the right-wing populist Alternative for Germany, Young Alternative for Germany. The party has also signed cooperation agreements with centre-left Alliance of Independent Social Democrats of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Centre Party of Estonia and Social Democratic Party "Harmony" of Latvia (the latter was cancelled in 2017). The party has proposed a cooperation agreement to the populist Five Star Movement (M5S), but M5S never accepted the proposal.
In April 2008, United Russia amended Section 7 of its charter, changing its heading from Party Chairman to Chairman of the Party and Chairman of the Party's Supreme Council. Under the amendments, United Russia may introduce a supreme elective post in the party, the post of the party's chairman, at the suggestion of Supreme Council and its chairman.
The Supreme Council, led by the Supreme Council chairman, defines the strategy for the development of the party.
The General Council has 152 members, is the foremost party platform in between party congresses and issues statements on important social or political questions. The Presidium of the General Council is led by a secretary, consists of 23 members and leads the political activity of the party, for instance election campaigns or other programmatic publications.
United Russia introduced a local chapter system that mimicked the Japanese Liberal Democratic Party's (LDP) organization as a strong foundation for the one-party dominant system in the early 2000s. United Russia eagerly interviewed the LDP mission and studied their party structure. The number of party members was steadily increased by the introduction of the system.
As of 20 September 2005, the party has a total of 2,600 local and 29,856 primary offices.
United Russia is a large and diverse party and has several internal subdivisions. The party has 4 internal groupings, organized around common policy interests. In addition, the party makes use of four internal political clubs to debate policy: liberal conservative 4 November Club, social conservative Centre for Social Conservative Politics, conservative liberal State Patriotic Club and liberal Liberal Club. Based on this division, the party considered entering the 2007 Duma elections as three separate "columns" (liberal, conservative and social), but the idea was subsequently abandoned.
|№||Chairmen||Portrait||Took Office||Left Office|
|1 December 2001||27 November 2004|
|1||Boris Gryzlov||27 November 2004||7 May 2008|
|2||Vladimir Putin||7 May 2008||30 May 2012|
|3||Dmitry Medvedev||30 May 2012||Incumbent|
United Russia has come in for criticism that it is "the party of crooks and thieves" (партия жуликов и воров, a term coined by activist Alexey Navalny) due to the continuing prevalence of corruption in Russia. In October 2011, Novaya Gazeta published an article describing how members of the public were writing the slogan on banknotes in protest. In December 2011, Putin rejected the accusation of corruption, saying that it was a general problem that was not restricted to one particular party: "They say that the ruling party is associated with theft, with corruption, but it's a cliché related not to a certain political force, it's a cliché related to power [...] What's important, however, is how the ruling government is fighting these negative things".
A poll made in November 2011 found that more than one-third of Russians agreed with the characterisation of United Russia as "the party of crooks and thieves".
After the 2011 legislative elections, a few leaders within United Russia called for investigations of fraud and reform of the party.
In August 2016, opposition leader Ilya Yashin released a report titled "The Criminal Russia Party", which stated that United Russia had essentially become a tool of political legitimisation for organised crime.
United Russia ... espouses “social conservatism”
'As of today, we are truly an opposition party,' Mironov told reporters the day after Putin informed a United Russia congress that he would lead the party at the polls. 'And the president's support consists only of this: He agrees that Russia needs not only the right-wing United Russia but also a powerful socialist or social democratic party. And we don't need any more from him. The rest we'll do ourselves, relying on the support of our voters.'
Having called themselves "conservatives," the members of United Russia "have simply determined their place" as a right-wing party, political scientist Dmitry Travin said. That means that they are "politicians who defend values of the market economy based on national traditions," Rosbalt news agency quoted him as saying.
Here are the two main parties, the "Right-Wing" United Russia and the "Statist" CPRF (Communist Party). United Russia was created in 2001 from the union of the Unity and Fatherland parties. Their "Right-Wing" position in the frontier of "Leftist" groups shows how hard it is to define United Russia but it is definitely trying to move Russia toward capitalism with stability.
The party of power in Russia has not achieved [..] single-minded mastery of the power and wealth associated with the control of patronage. The party is united only in its support for and dependence on the Kremlin; it is divided when its principal clients take opposing sides. [...] United Russia is not a programmatic party, but a mechanism for extracting rents and distributing patronage. [...] In Russia, the party is the creature of the presidency. [...] [T]he construction of a lasting party of power such as united Russia requires a sustained commitment on the part of the authorities, one which president Putin has been willing to undertake. [...] [T]he concerted effort by President Putin's administration to build up a lasting party of power is a significant development in post-1993 Russian politics [...].
With the March 2000 election of President Vladimir Putin, [...] the suspicion was that [...] institutional changes 'could resurrect a system dominated by a single "party of power"' (McFaul 2000, 30). [...] Still, Russia's electoral system remained largely unchanged for the 2003 Duma election, although the results certainly fuelled speculation that a dominant-party-state had begun to emerge. [...] With the union of Fatherland-All Russia and Unity, Russia's party of power had changed once again, this time emerging as United Russia. The 2003 Duma election provided some evidence that the electoral system was working in the party of power's favour.
Legislative elections were held in the Russian Federation on 2 December 2007. At stake were the 450 seats in the 5th State Duma, the lower house of the Federal Assembly of Russia (the legislature). Eleven parties were included in the ballot, including Russia's largest party, United Russia, which was supported by President of Russia Vladimir Putin. Official results showed that United Russia won 64.3% of the votes, the Communist Party of the Russian Federation 11.6%, the Liberal Democratic Party of Russia 8.1%, and Fair Russia won 7.7%, and none of the other parties won enough votes to gain any seats.
Although 400 foreign election monitors were present at the polling stations, the elections received mixed criticism internationally, largely from Western countries, and by some independent media and some opposition parties domestically. The observers stated that the elections were not rigged but that media coverage was heavily favoured towards United Russia. The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe and Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe stated that the elections were "not fair", while foreign governments and the European Union called on Russia to look for possible violations. The election commission responded saying that the allegations would be examined. The Kremlin insisted that the vote was fair and said it demonstrated Russia's political stability.2011 Russian legislative election
Legislative elections were held in Russia on 4 December 2011. At stake were the 450 seats in the 6th State Duma, the lower house of the Federal Assembly of Russia (the legislature). United Russia won the elections with 49.32% of the vote, taking 238 seats or 52.88% of the Duma seats.
This result was down from 64.30% of the vote and 70% of the seats in the 2007 elections.
The Communist Party of the Russian Federation received 19.19% of the vote and 92 seats, while A Just Russia received 13.24% and 64 seats, with the Liberal Democratic Party of Russia getting 56 seats with 11.67% of the vote. Yabloko, Patriots of Russia and Right Cause did not cross the 7% election threshold. The list of parties represented in the parliament did not change.
United Russia lost the two-thirds constitutional majority it had held prior to the election, but it still won a majority of seats in the Duma, even though it had slightly less than 50% of the popular vote. The Communist Party, Liberal Democratic Party and A Just Russia all gained new seats compared to the previous 2007 elections.
The election received various assessments from abroad: positive from the Commonwealth of Independent States observers, mixed from the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe and critical from some European Union representatives and the United States. Reports of election fraud and voter discontent with the current government have led to major protests particularly in Moscow and Saint Petersburg. The government and United Russia were in their turn supported by rallies of the youth organizations Nashi and Young Guard. Later, the actions of anti-government protesters sparked the fear of a colour revolution in Russian society, and a number of the "anti-Orange" protests were set up (the name alludes to the Orange Revolution in Ukraine, the most widely known color revolution to Russians) including one on the Poklonnaya Hill in Moscow, the largest protest action of all the protests so far according to the police.The Central Electoral Commission issued a report on 3 February 2012, in which it said that it received a total of 1686 reports on irregularities, of which only 195 (11.5%) were confirmed true after investigation, a third (584) actually contained questions about the unclear points of electoral law, and only 60 complaints claimed falsifications of the elections results. On 4 February 2012 the Investigation Committee of the Office of the Prosecutor General of the Russian Federation announced that the majority of videos allegedly showing falsifications at polling stations were falsified themselves.Statistical analysis of poll data have shown massive abnormalities that most researchers explain by
mass-scale electoral fraud.2024 Russian presidential election
The 2024 Russian presidential election will take place in March 2024. In accordance with electoral law, the first round will be held on Sunday 24 March 2024. If in the first round no candidate attains an absolute majority of the votes (more than half), then according to the law a second round will take place exactly three weeks later on 14 April 2024.The term limit established by Article 81 of the Russian Constitution prevents incumbent president Vladimir Putin from being elected to a new term. The 2024 election will determine the fifth President of Russia. The winner of the election is scheduled to be inaugurated on 7 May 2024.7th State Duma
The State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation of the seventh convocation (Russian: Государственная Дума Федерального Собрания Российской Федерации седьмого созыва) is the current convocation of the lower house of Russian parliament.
The composition of the 7th State Duma was based on the results of the 2016 parliamentary election. Elections were held using a mixed system: 225 deputies were elected on party lists and 225 — in single-member constituencies. Of the 14 parties participating in the elections, only four were able to overcome the required 5% electoral threshold. Two more parties and one independent candidate were able to enter the State Duma via single-mandate constituencies.
On 10 January 2018, during the first meeting of the fourth session, the Chairman Vyacheslav Volodin said that during the autumn session 2018 (from August to December) in the State Duma building will be renovated, and therefore, the session of the chamber will be held at a different location. However, in June 2018, it became known that the reconstruction will be postponed to the end of 2018 or 2019 because the architectural bureau involved in the reconstruction has fallen behind schedule. In March 2019, it became known that the repair will begin in May 2019 and will end in September 2020. At this time, the State Duma will be temporarily located in the House of Unions. In addition, a draft of a new meeting room was also presented.All-Russia People's Front
The All-Russia People's Front (Russian: Общероссийский народный фронт Obshcherossiyskiy narodnyy front), known by its Russian initialism ONF, is a political coalition in Russia started in 2011 by then-Prime Minister of Russia Vladimir Putin to provide United Russia with "new ideas, new suggestions and new faces". It is intended to be a formal alliance between the ruling party and numerous Russian nongovernmental organizations. On 12 June 2013, Putin was elected its leader.Communist Party of the Russian Federation
The Communist Party of the Russian Federation (CPRF; Russian: Коммунистическая Партия Российской Федерации; КПРФ; Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Rossiyskoy Federatsii, KPRF) is a communist and Marxist–Leninist political party in Russia. The party is often viewed as the immediate successor of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), which was banned in 1991 by then-Russian President Boris Yeltsin after a failed coup attempt. It is the second largest political party in the Russian Federation after United Russia. The youth organisation of the party is the Leninist Young Communist League. The party is administered by a Central Committee.
The CPRF was founded at the Second Extraordinary Congress of Russian Communists on 14 February 1993 as the successor organisation of the Communist Party of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (CPRSFSR). As of 2015, the party has 160,000 members. The party's stated goal is to establish a new, modernized form of socialism in Russia. Immediate goals of the party include the nationalization of natural resources, agriculture and large industries within the framework of a mixed economy that allows for the growth of small and medium enterprises in the private sector.Dmitry Medvedev
Dmitry Anatolyevich Medvedev (; Russian: Дми́трий Анато́льевич Медве́дев, IPA: [ˈdʲmʲitrʲɪj ɐnɐˈtolʲjɪvʲɪtɕ mʲɪdˈvʲedʲɪf]; born 14 September 1965) is a Russian politician who has served as the Prime Minister of Russia since 2012. From 2008 to 2012, Medvedev served as the third President of Russia.
Regarded as more liberal than his predecessor and later successor as president, Vladimir Putin (who was also prime minister during Medvedev's presidency), Medvedev's top agenda as president was a wide-ranging modernisation programme, aiming at modernising Russia's economy and society, and lessening the country's reliance on oil and gas. During Medvedev's tenure, Russia emerged victorious in the Russo-Georgian War, and recovered from the Great Recession. Medvedev initiated a substantial law enforcement reform and launched an anti-corruption campaign, despite having been accused of corruption himself.Dmitry Medvedev's Second Cabinet
Dmitry Medvedev's Second Cabinet is the current composition of the Russian government under the leadership of Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev. The cabinet was approved on 18 May 2018.Government of Russia
The Government of Russia exercises executive power in the Russian Federation. The members of the government are the Prime Minister, the deputy prime ministers, and the federal ministers. It has its legal basis in the Constitution of the Russian Federation and the federal constitutional law "On the Government the Russian Federation".According to the 1991 amendment to the 1978 Russian Constitution, the President of Russia was the head of the executive branch and headed the Council of Ministers of Russia. According to the current 1993 Constitution of Russia, the President is not a part of the Government of Russia, which exercises executive power. But, the President does appoint the Prime Minister. The Chapter 6 of the Constitution of Russia says, that "The Government of the Russian Federation consists of the Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation (Prime Minister), Deputy Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation and federal ministries".Irina Rodnina
Irina Konstantinovna Rodnina (Russian: Ирина Константиновна Роднина, IPA: [ɪˈrʲinə kənstɐnˈtʲinəvnə rədʲnʲɪˈna]; born 12 September 1949) is a Russian politician and figure skater, who is the only pair skater to win 10 successive World Championships (1969–78) and three successive Olympic gold medals (1972, 1976, 1980). She was elected to the State Duma in the 2007 legislative election as a member of President Vladimir Putin's United Russia party. As a figure skater, she initially competed with Alexei Ulanov and later teamed up with Alexander Zaitsev. She is the first pair skater to win the Olympic title with two different partners, followed only by Artur Dmitriev.List of heads of federal subjects of Russia
The following is a list of heads of the federal subjects of the Russian Federation.List of members of the Federation Council (Russia)
This is a list of current senators on the Federation Council, the upper house of the Federal Assembly of Russia.Political parties in Russia
This article discusses political parties in Russia.
The Russian Federation has a multi-party system. As of 2018 six parties have members in the federal parliament, the State Duma, with one dominant party (United Russia).
After the Perestroika reforms in the 1980s Russia had over 100 registered parties, but the people elected to the State Duma represented only a small number of parties. After 2000, during Vladimir Putin's first presidency (2000-2008), the number of parties quickly decreased. From 2008 to 2012 there were only seven parties in Russia, and every new attempt to register new, independent parties was blocked. The last-registered party of this period was the government-organized Right Cause (registered on 18 February 2009). Before the 2011 parliamentary elections, about 10 opposition parties were denied registration. However, after a series of mass protests and a 2011 European Court decision on the case of the Republican Party of Russia, the law changed and the number of registered parties quickly increased to more than 48 as of December 2012.Primary election
A primary election is the process by which voters, either the general public (open primary) or members of a political party (closed primary), can indicate their preference for a candidate in an upcoming general election or by-election, thus narrowing the field of candidates.
Primaries are used in various countries throughout the world. Its origins can be traced to the progressive movement in the United States, which aimed to take the power of candidate nomination from party leaders to the people. Political parties control the method of nomination of candidates for office in the name of the party.
Other methods of selecting candidates include caucuses, conventions, and nomination meetings.Russian Unity
Russian Unity (Ukrainian: Руська Єдність; Russian: Русское Единство) was a political party in Crimea (banned in Ukraine since 2014), registered in October 2008. On 30 April 2014 a Kiev Court banned the party "from activity on the territory of Ukraine". Party leader Sergey Aksyonov was instrumental in making possible the annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation. The party was based in Crimea, which has a Russian-speaking majority. The party was dissolved a year after the annexation of Crimea.
Although the party took positions on a number of issues, the party's main focus was Russian language rights and promoting Ukrainian relations with Russia before the 2014 Crimean Crisis, in which it became supportive of secession from Ukraine to join Russia; after this occurred, it merged into the Russian political party United Russia.Sergey Shoygu
Sergey Kuzhugetovich Shoygu (Russian: Серге́й Кужуге́тович Шойгу́, Tuvan: Сергей Күжүгет оглу Шойгу; born 21 May 1955) is a Russian politician of Tuvan descent and General of the Army who has served as Minister of Defence of the Russian Federation and as Chairman of the Council of Ministers of Defense of the CIS since 2012.
Previously, Shoigu was Minister of Emergency Situations from 1991 to 2012, and briefly served as Governor of Moscow Oblast in 2012. Shoigu holds the military rank of General of the Army. Shoigu is also the President of the International Sport Federation of Firefighters and Rescuers.State Duma
The State Duma (Russian: Госуда́рственная ду́ма, tr. Gosudárstvennaya dúma), commonly abbreviated in Russian as Gosduma (Russian: Госду́ма), is the lower house of the Federal Assembly of Russia, while the upper house is the Council of the Federation. The Duma headquarters are located in central Moscow, a few steps from Manege Square. Its members are referred to as deputies. The State Duma replaced the Supreme Soviet as a result of the new constitution introduced by Boris Yeltsin in the aftermath of the Russian constitutional crisis of 1993, and approved by the Russian public in a referendum.Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (; Russian: Влади́мир Влади́мирович Пу́тин, IPA: [vɫɐˈdʲimʲɪr vɫɐˈdʲimʲɪrəvʲɪtɕ ˈputʲɪn] (listen); born 7 October 1952) is a Russian politician and former intelligence officer serving as President of Russia since 2012, previously holding the position from 2000 until 2008. In between his presidential terms he was also the Prime Minister of Russia under his close associate Dmitry Medvedev.
Putin was born in Leningrad during the Soviet Union. He studied law at Leningrad State University, graduating in 1975. Putin was a KGB foreign intelligence officer for 16 years, rising to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel before resigning in 1991 to enter politics in Saint Petersburg. He moved to Moscow in 1996 and joined President Boris Yeltsin's administration, rising quickly through the ranks and becoming Acting President on 31 December 1999, when Yeltsin resigned.
During his first presidency, the Russian economy grew for eight straight years, and GDP measured in purchasing power increased by 72%. The growth was a result of the 2000s commodities boom, recovery from the post-Communist depression and financial crises, and prudent economic and fiscal policies. In September 2011, Putin announced he would seek a third term as president. He won the March 2012 presidential election with 64% of the vote. Falling oil prices coupled with international sanctions imposed at the beginning of 2014 after Russia's annexation of Crimea and military intervention in Eastern Ukraine led to GDP shrinking by 3.7% in 2015, though the Russian economy rebounded in 2016 with 0.3% GDP growth and the recession officially ended. Putin gained 76% of the March 2018 presidential vote and was re-elected for a six-year term that will end in 2024.Under Putin's leadership, Russia has scored poorly in Transparency International's Corruption Perceptions Index and experienced democratic backsliding according to both the Economist Intelligence Unit's Democracy Index and Freedom House's Freedom in the World index (including a record low 20/100 rating in the 2017 Freedom in the World report, a rating not given since the time of the Soviet Union). Experts do not generally consider Russia to be a democracy, citing the lack of free and fair elections, purges and jailing of opponents, and curtailed press freedom. Human rights organizations and activists have accused Putin of persecuting political critics and activists, as well as ordering them tortured or assassinated; he has rejected accusations of human rights abuses. Officials of the United States government have accused him of leading an interference program against Hillary Clinton in support of Donald Trump during the U.S. presidential election in 2016, an allegation which both Trump and Putin have frequently denied and criticized.Yury Luzhkov
Yury Mikhaylovich Luzhkov (Russian: Ю́рий Миха́йлович Лужко́в, IPA: [ˈjʉrʲɪj mʲɪˈxajləvʲɪt͡ɕ lʊˈʂkof]; born 21 September 1936) is a Russian politician who was the Mayor of Moscow from 1992 to 2010. He was the vice-chairman and one of the founders of the ruling United Russia party.
During Luzhkov's time, Moscow's economy improved and he presided over large construction projects in the city, including the building of a new financial district. At the same time, he was accused of corruption, bulldozing historic buildings, and poor handling of traffic, as well as the city's smog crisis during the 2010 Russian wildfires. On 28 September 2010, Luzhkov was fired from his post by a decree issued by President Dmitry Medvedev.
However, since Luzhkov’s ousting, no legal cases have been initiated or proofs of corruption made public.
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(in the Justice Ministry's order)