United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories

The United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories is a list of places that the United Nations General Assembly deems to be "non-self-governing" and subject to the decolonization process. Chapter XI of the United Nations Charter embodies a "Declaration on Non-Self-Governing Territories" which declares that the interests of the occupants of dependent territories are paramount and requires member states of the United Nations in control of non-self-governing territories to submit annual information reports concerning the development of those territories. Since 1946, the General Assembly has maintained a list of non-self governing territories under member states' control. Since its inception, dozens of territories have been removed from the list, typically when they attained independence or internal self-government, while other territories have been added as new administering countries joined the United Nations or the General Assembly reassessed the status of certain territories.

UN General Assembly
Resolution 66 (I)
UN General Assembly Resolution 66 (1).pdf
United Nations General Assembly Resolution A/RES/66 (I) dated 14 January 1946
Date14 December 1946
Meeting no.Sixty fourth
CodeA/RES/66(1) (Document)
SubjectTransmission of information under Article 73e of the Charter [relating to non-self-governing territories]
ResultAdopted

History

The United Nations Charter contains a Declaration Concerning Non-Self-Governing Territories.[1] In Chapter XI, of said charter, the "Declaration Regarding Non-Self-Governing Territories", specifically the Article 73 point "e" in the Charter, it states that all member States agree to report to the United Nations, annually, on the development of non-self-governing territories under their control. The initial List of Non-Self-Governing Territories was created by compiling lists of dependent territories submitted by the administering States themselves. In several instances, administering States were later allowed to remove dependent territories from the list, either unilaterally (as in the case of many French overseas departments and territories), or by vote of the General Assembly (as in the cases of Puerto Rico, Greenland, the Netherlands Antilles, and Suriname).

UN-Non-Self-Governing Territories
Map of territories on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories.

The list draws its origins from the period of colonialism and the Charter's concept of non-self-governing territories. As an increasing number of formerly colonized countries became UN members, the General Assembly increasingly asserted its authority to place additional territories on the List and repeatedly declared that only the General Assembly had the authority to authorize a territory's being removed from the list upon attainment of any status other than full independence. For example, when Portugal joined the United Nations it contended that it controlled no non-self-governing territories, claiming that areas such as Angola and Mozambique were an integral part of the Portuguese state, but the General Assembly rejected this position. Similarly, Western Sahara was added in 1963 when it was a Spanish colony. The same can be said about the situation of Namibia (removed upon its independence in 1990), which was seen, due to its former status as a League of Nations mandate territory, as a vestige of German colonial legacy in Africa. A set of criteria for determining whether a territory is to be considered "non-self-governing" was established in General Assembly Resolution 1541 (XV) of 1960.[2] Also in 1960, the General Assembly adopted Resolution 1514 (XV), promulgating the "Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples", which declared that all remaining non-self-governing territories and trust territories were entitled to self-determination and independence. The following year, the General Assembly established the Special Committee on the Situation with Regard to the Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples (sometimes referred to as the Special Committee on Decolonization, or the "Committee of 24" because for much of its history the committee was composed of 24 members), which reviews the situation in non-self-governing territories each year and reports to the General Assembly.

Resolutions adopted

1946

  • United Nations General Assembly Resolution 64(I) regarding the Establishment of the Trusteeship Council.[3]
  • United Nations General Assembly Resolution 66(I) regarding Transmission of information under Article 73 e of the Charter.[4]

1947

  • United Nations General Assembly Resolution 142(II) regarding Standard form for the guidance of Members in the preparation of information to be transmitted under Article 73 e of the Charter.
  • United Nations General Assembly Resolution 143(II) regarding Supplemental documents relating to information transmitted under Article 73 e of the Charter.
  • United Nations General Assembly Resolution 144(II) regarding Voluntary transmission of information regarding the development of self-governing institutions in the Non-Self-Governing Territories.
  • United Nations General Assembly Resolution 145(II) regarding Collaboration of the specialized agencies in regard to Article 73 e of the Charter.
  • United Nations General Assembly Resolution 146(II) regarding Creation of a special committee on information transmitted under Article 73 e of the Charter.

1960

1961

1966

1990–2000

2001–2010

2011–2020

Criticism

The list remains controversial for various reasons:

Referendum

One reason for controversy is that the list includes some dependencies that have democratically chosen to maintain their current status, or have had a referendum in which there were not enough votes for a change of status, or in some cases (such as United States Virgin Islands) simply had an insufficient number of voters participate.

Gibraltar

Gibraltar is a prime example of residents' preferences to retain the status quo. It is a largely self-governing British territory on the tip of the Iberian Peninsula whose territory is claimed by Spain. It has twice held a referendum to resolve its status. In the first referendum, held in 1967, the choices in the ballot were to retain their current status or to become part of Spain. The status quo was favoured by 12,138 votes to 44. In the second referendum, held in 2002, a proposal for a joint British–Spanish administration of the territory was voted down by 17,900 votes to 187. (The "no" vote accounted for more than 85% of Gibraltar's entire electorate.[7] In neither case did the United Nations recognise the referendum: the 1967 referendum was declared to be in contravention of previous UN resolutions.[8] The Spanish government does not recognize any right of the current Gibraltar inhabitants to self-determination, on the grounds that they are not the original population of the territory, but residents transferred by the colonial power, the United Kingdom.[9]

Tokelau

The territory of Tokelau divides political opinion in New Zealand.[10] In response to attempts at decolonizing Tokelau, New Zealand journalist Michael Field wrote in 2004: "The UN ... is anxious to rid the world of the last remaining vestiges of colonialism by the end of the decade. It has a list of 16 territories around the world, virtually none of which wants to be independent to any degree."[11] Field further notes that Patuki Isaako, who was head of Tokelau's government at the time of a UN seminar on decolonization in 2004, informed the United Nations that his country had no wish to be decolonized, and that Tokelauans had opposed the idea of decolonization ever since the first visit by UN officials in 1976.

In 2006, a UN-supervised referendum on decolonization was held in Tokelau, where 60.07% of voters supported the offer of self-government. However, the terms of the referendum required a two-thirds majority to vote in favor of self-government. A second referendum was held in 2007, in which 64.40% of Tokelauans supported self-government, falling short of the two-thirds majority by 16 votes. This led New Zealand politician and former diplomat John Hayes, on behalf of the National Party, to state that "Tokelau did the right thing to resist pressure from [the New Zealand government] and the United Nations to pursue self-government".[12] In May 2008, the United Nations' Secretary General Ban Ki-moon urged colonial powers "to complete the decolonization process in every one of the remaining 16 Non-Self-Governing Territories".[13] This led the New Zealand Herald to comment that the United Nations was "apparently frustrated by two failed attempts to get Tokelau to vote for independence from New Zealand".[14]

Falkland Islands

In March 2013, the autonomous government of the Falkland Islands organised a referendum as to whether the territory should remain a British Overseas Territory. With a 92% turnout, 99.8% of Falkland Islanders voted to maintain that status; only three islanders favoured changing it.[15]

Viability

A lack of population and landmass is an issue for at least one territory included on the list: the British overseas territory Pitcairn Islands. With a population of 49 and a total area of 47 km2 (18.1 sq mi), it is too small to be realistically viable as an independent state. Four other territories—Tokelau, Montserrat, the Falkland Islands and Saint Helena—are less populous than any UN member state presently.

In addition, some territories are financially dependent on their administering state.

Completely autonomous dependencies

UN Non-Self-Governing Territories
  Currently listed territories
  Formerly listed territories

Another criticism is that a number of the listed territories, such as Bermuda (see Politics of Bermuda), Falkland Islands[16] and Gibraltar,[17][18][19][20] consider themselves completely autonomous and self-governing, with the "administering power" retaining limited oversight over matters such as defence and diplomacy. In past years, there were ongoing disputes between some administering powers and the Decolonization Committee over whether territories such as pre-independence Brunei and the West Indies Associated States should still be considered "non-self-governing", particularly in instances where the administering country was prepared to grant full independence whenever the territory requested it. These disputes became moot as those territories eventually received full independence.

Removed under other circumstances

Territories that have achieved a status described by the administering countries as internally self-governing – such as Puerto Rico, the Netherlands Antilles, and the Cook Islands – have been removed from the list by vote of the General Assembly, often under pressure of the administering countries. In 1972, for example, Hong Kong (then administered by the United Kingdom) and Macau (then administered by Portugal) were removed from the list at the request of the People's Republic of China, which had just been recognized as holding China's seat at the United Nations.[21]

Some territories that have been annexed and incorporated into the legal framework of the controlling state (such as the overseas departments of France) are considered by the UN to have been decolonized, since they then no longer constitute "non-self-governing" entities; their populations are assumed to have agreed to merge with the former parent state. However, in 1961, the General Assembly voted to end this treatment for the "overseas provinces" of Portugal such as Angola and Mozambique, which were active foci of United Nations attention until they attained independence in the mid-1970s.

Change of status

On 2 December 1986, New Caledonia, an overseas territory of France, was reinstated on the list of non-self-governing territories, an action to which France objected. Within France it has had the status of a collectivité sui generis, or a one-of-a-kind community, since 1999. Under the 1998 Nouméa Accord, its Territorial Congress has the right to call for a referendum on independence between 2014 and 2018. This referendum was held on 4th November 2018, with independence being rejected.

French Polynesia was also reinstated on the list on 17 May 2013, in somewhat contentious circumstances. Having been re-elected President of French Polynesia in 2011 (the territory being largely self-governing), Oscar Temaru asked for it to be re-inscribed on the list; it had been removed in 1947. (French Polynesia is categorised by France as an overseas country, in recognition of its self-governing status.) On 5 May 2013, Temaru's Union for Democracy party lost the legislative election to Gaston Flosse's pro-autonomy but anti-independence Tahoera'a Huiraatira party. At this stage, the United Nations General Assembly was due to discuss French Polynesia's re-inscription on the list twelve days later, in accordance with a motion tabled by the Solomon Islands, Tuvalu and Nauru. On 16 May, the Assembly of French Polynesia, with its new anti-independence majority, adopted a motion asking the United Nations not to restore the country to the list. On 17 May, despite French Polynesia's opposition, and France's, the country was restored to the list of Non-Self-Governing Territories. Temaru was present for the vote, on the final day of his mandate as President. The United Nations affirmed "the inalienable right of the people of French Polynesia to self-determination and independence".[22][23]

List not complete

Also controversial are the criteria set down in 1960 to 1961 by the United Nations General Assembly Resolution 1514 (XV),[24] United Nations General Assembly Resolution 1541 (XV), Principle 12 of the Annex,[25] and United Nations General Assembly Resolution 1654 (XVI)[26] which only focused on colonies of the Western world, namely Australia, Belgium, Denmark, France, Italy, Netherlands, New Zealand, Portugal, South Africa, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the United States. This list of administering states was not expanded afterwards.[27]

Nevertheless, some of the 111 members who joined the UN after 1960 gained independence from countries not covered by Resolution 1541 and were themselves not classified as "Non-Self-Governing Territories" by the UN. Of these that joined the UN between 1960 and 2008, 11 were independent before 1960 and 71 were included on the list (some as a group). Twenty new UN countries resulted from breakup of Second World states: six were part of Yugoslavia, two were part of Czechoslovakia, and 12 were part of the Soviet Union (Ukraine and Belarus already had UN seats before the dissolution of the USSR, whose seat was reused by the Russian Federation without acceding anew). Out of the other nine, seven (mostly Arab) were colonies or protectorates of the "Western" countries, and one each was a non-self-governing part of Ethiopia (later independent Eritrea) and Pakistan (East Pakistan, later independent Bangladesh). Territories like Tibet (administered by China) and Siberia (or parts thereof; administered by the Soviet Union, later by Russia) have never been on the list. Western New Guinea (also known as West Papua), annexed against its will by Indonesia is also not on the list as well as Sarawak and Sabah which were handed to Malaya during its territorial expansion through the formation of Malaysia in 1963. In 2018, the government of Vanuatu is seeking international support to have West Papua added to the list in 2019.[28][29]

Current entries

The following territories are currently included on the list.[30]

Continent Name Administering state Domestic legal status Other claimant(s) Population Area Referendums See also
Africa Western Sahara[A]  Spain formerly Disputed  Morocco /
 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
619,060 266,000 km2 (102,703 mi2) No official referendum has been held, but there were attempts. Political status of Western Sahara
 Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha  United Kingdom Overseas Territory None 5,396 310 km2 (120 mi2) No official referendum has been held. Politics of Saint Helena
Europe  Gibraltar Disputed  Spain 29,752 6 km2 (2 mi2) There was a referendum in 1967 and in 2002. Disputed status of Gibraltar
North America  Anguilla Overseas Territory None 14,108 96 km2 (37 mi2) No official referendum has been held. Politics of Anguilla
 Bermuda 62,000 57 km2 (22 mi2) A 1995 Bermudian independence referendum was held. 74% were not in favour of independence. Politics of Bermuda
 British Virgin Islands 28,103 153 km2 (59 mi2) No official referendum has been held. Politics of the British Virgin Islands
 Cayman Islands 55,500 264 km2 (102 mi2) Foreign relations of the Cayman Islands
 Montserrat 5,000 103 km2 (40 mi2) Government of Montserrat
 Turks and Caicos Islands 31,458 948 km2 (366 mi2) Politics of the Turks and Caicos Islands
 United States Virgin Islands  United States Unincorporated organized territory 106,405 352 km2 (136 mi2) A 1993 United States Virgin Islands status referendum was held. It was decided that it would stay as a territory. Politics of the United States Virgin Islands
Oceania  French Polynesia[B]  France Overseas collectivity 271,000 4,000 km2 (1,544 mi2) No official referendum has been held. Politics of French Polynesia
 New Caledonia Special collectivity 252,000 18,575 km2 (7,172 mi2) There was a referendum in 1987 and in 2018. Both were disapproved but the 2018 result was close. There might be another referendum in 2020. Politics of New Caledonia
 Tokelau  New Zealand Territory 1,411 12 km2 (5 mi2) Politics of Tokelau
 Pitcairn Islands  United Kingdom Overseas Territory 50 36 km2 (14 mi2) Politics of the Pitcairn Islands
 American Samoa  United States Unincorporated unorganized territory 55,519 200 km2 (77 mi2) Politics of American Samoa
 Guam 159,358 540 km2 (208 mi2) Politics of Guam
South America  Falkland Islands  United Kingdom Disputed  Argentina 2,500 12,173 km2 (4,700 mi2) Sovereignty of the Falkland Islands

Notes

  1. ^ Formerly the Spanish Sahara up to 1976, disputed[31] between Morocco, who controls 80% of the territory and administers it as an integral part of its national territory, and the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, who controls and administers the remaining 20% as the "Liberated territories". The United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara is the United Nations peacekeeping mission to the territory.
  2. ^ On 18 May 2013, the United Nations General Assembly voted to place French Polynesia back on the list.[32]

Former entries

The following territories were originally listed by UN General Assembly Resolution 66 (I) of 14 December 1946 as Trust and Non-Self-Governing territory. The dates show the year of independence or other change in a territory's status which led to their removal from the list,[33] after which information was no longer submitted to the United Nations.[34]

Change in status by administrating state

Continent Name[34] Change in status[34] Current status Administering state[34] Population Area / km2 Area / mi2 Year removed[34] See also
Africa  Réunion Became an overseas department (full integration in the French central state) Overseas department of France  France 793,000 2,512 970 1947 Politics of Réunion
Asia  Cocos (Keeling) Islands Voted to integrate into Australia External territory of Australia  Australia 596 14 5 1984 Shire of Cocos
Portugal Portuguese Macau Removed from the list on request of China[21] Special Administrative Region of Macau of the People's Republic of China) (since 20 December 1999)  Portugal 545,674 28 11 1972 Politics of Macau
 British Hong Kong Removed from the list on request of China[21] Special Administrative Region of Hong Kong of the People's Republic of China) (since 1 July 1997)  United Kingdom 7,018,636 1,092 422 Politics of Hong Kong
North America  Greenland Incorporated into Denmark as Greenland County (1953). Gained home rule as a Country within the Kingdom of Denmark (1979). Increased autonomy (2009). Country within the Kingdom of Denmark[35][36]  Denmark 57,564 2,166,086 836,330 1954 Politics of Greenland
 Guadeloupe Became two overseas departments (full integration in the French central state) Overseas department of Guadeloupe and overseas collectivities of Saint-Barthelemy and Saint-Martin of France  France 408,000 1,628 629 1947 Politics of Guadeloupe
 Martinique Overseas department of France 401,000 1,128 436 Politics of Martinique
 Saint Pierre and Miquelon Became an overseas territory (semi-autonomous collectivity of the French republic) Overseas collectivity of France 7,044 242 93 Politics of Saint Pierre and Miquelon
 Netherlands Antilles Granted more autonomy Aruba, Curaçao and Sint Maarten are constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, the other remaining islands are special municipalities of the Netherlands.  Netherlands 225,369 960 371 1951 Politics of the Netherlands Antilles
 Alaska Granted Statehood 49th State of the United States  United States 683,478 1,700,130 656,424 1959 Legal status of Alaska
 Panama Canal Zone Removed from the list on request of Panama Part of Colón and Panamá provinces of Panama 1947 Politics of Panama
 Puerto Rico Became a Commonwealth Commonwealth of the United States 3,958,128 8,870 3,420 1952 Political status of Puerto Rico
Oceania  French Polynesia[a] Became an overseas territory (semi-autonomous collectivity of the French republic) French Polynesia and Wallis and Futuna overseas collectivities of France  France 298,256 4,441 1,715 1947 Politics of French Polynesia and Wallis and Futuna
 New Caledonia[b] Special Collectivity of France 224,824 19,060 7,359 Politics of New Caledonia
 Hawaii Granted Statehood 50th State of the United States  United States 1,283,388 28,311 10,931 1959 Legal status of Hawaii
 Northern Mariana Islands Became a Commonwealth Commonwealth of the United States 53,883 168 65 1990
 Cook Islands Gained self-rule Free association with New Zealand  New Zealand 12,271 237 92 1965 Politics of the Cook Islands
 Niue 1,444 260 100 1974 Politics of Niue
South America  French Guiana Became an overseas department Overseas department of France (full integration in the French central state)  France 209,000 83,534 32,253 1947 Politics of French Guiana
  1. ^ The United Nations General Assembly voted to reinstate French Polynesia (former French Establishments in Oceania) to the list by General Assembly Resolution A/67/265 on 18 May 2013.
  2. ^ New Caledonia was reinstated on the list in 1986 by the General Assembly Resolution No. A/RES/41/41 of the Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples

Joined another state

Continent Non-Self-Governing Territory[34] State joined[34] Current status Administering state Population Area / km2 Area / mi2 Year removed[34] See also
Africa Portugal São João Batista de Ajuda Integrated into the Republic of Dahomey (now Benin) Ouidah commune, Atlantique department, Benin  Portugal 1961 Politics of Benin
Spain Ifni Integrated into Morocco Sidi Ifni, Guelmim-Oued Noun, Morocco  Spain 51,517 1,502 580 1969 Politics of Morocco
British Cameroons Northern Cameroons joined Nigeria
Southern Cameroons joined Cameroon
Adamawa and Taraba states of Nigeria, Northwest and Southwest provinces of Cameroon  United Kingdom 1961 Politics of Nigeria
Politics of Cameroon
United Kingdom British Togoland Joined British Gold Coast colony Volta, Northern and Upper East Region of Ghana 1957 Foreign relations of Ghana
Asia France French India Annexed by India Puducherry union territory and Chandannagar of West Bengal state of India  France 973,829 492 190 1947 Puducherry Legislative Assembly
 Netherlands New Guinea Annexed by Indonesia as Irian Jaya Papua and West Papua provinces of Indonesia  Netherlands 420,540 162,371 1963 Act of Free Choice
North Borneo Incorporated into Malaya to form Malaysia[37][38] Malaysian state of Sabah and the federal territory of Labuan.  United Kingdom 285,000 76,115 29,388 1963 Malaysia Agreement
 Portuguese India Annexed by India The Indian state of Goa and the union territories of Dadra and Nagar Haveli and of Daman and Diu  Portugal 1961

Independence

Continent Non-Self-Governing Territory[34] Sub-unit
(Independent as)[34] Administering state Population Area / km2 Area / mi2 Year removed[34] See also
Asia Colony of Aden Aden Protectorate  South Yemen  United Kingdom 285,192 111,013 1967
 French Indochina North Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam  France 1945
South Vietnam State of Vietnam 1949
 Kingdom of Laos
Cambodia Cambodia 1953
Portugal Portuguese Timor  Indonesia  Portugal 15,007 5,794 1975 Indonesian occupation of East Timor
Indonesia East Timor  East Timor  Indonesia 688,711 15,007 5,794 2002 Politics of East Timor
 Dutch East Indies  Indonesia  Netherlands 1950
Africa  Portuguese Angola Angola Angola  Portugal 1,246,700 481,354 1975 Including the enclave of Cabinda
Basutoland  Lesotho  United Kingdom 30,355 12,727 1966
 Bechuanaland Protectorate  Botswana
 British Somaliland Somalia State of Somaliland  United Kingdom 1960 Joined the Trust Territory of Somalia within a week to form Somalia
Flag of The Gambia (1889–1965).svg Gambia Colony and Protectorate  The Gambia  United Kingdom 10,380 4,007 1965
 Gold Coast  Ghana 1957
Kenya Colony of Kenya  Kenya  United Kingdom 1963 Formed by the unification of the Colony of Kenya and the Kenya Protectorate
 Sultanate of Zanzibar Protectorate of Kenya. Formed by the unification of the Colony of Kenya and the Kenya Protectorate.Under Zanzibari sovereignty, administered by the UK[39]
Nigeria British Nigeria  Nigeria  United Kingdom 1960
 Northern Rhodesia  Zambia 3,545,200[40] 752,618 290,587 1964
 Nyasaland  Malawi 752,618 290,587
Flag of Sierra Leone (1916–1961).gif Sierra Leone Colony and Protectorate  Sierra Leone  United Kingdom 71,740 27,699 1961
 Southern Rhodesia  Zimbabwe  United Kingdom 6,930,000[41] 390,580 150,804 1980
Swaziland  Swaziland 17,364 6,704 1968
Flag of Tanganyika (1923–1961).svg Tanganyika  Tanganyika 1963 Trust Territory. Later joined with the People's Republic of Zanzibar and Pemba to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, now Tanzania
Uganda Uganda Protectorate  Uganda  United Kingdom 1962
 Zanzibar Flag of Zanzibar (January-April 1964).svg People's Republic of Zanzibar and Pemba  United Kingdom 2,643 1,020 1963 Later joined with the Republic of Tanganyika to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, now Tanzania
Mauritius British Mauritius  Mauritius  United Kingdom 2,040 787 1968
 Belgian Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo Congo Léopoldville  Belgium 16,610,000[42] 2,344,858 905,355 1960
Belgium Ruanda-Urundi  Burundi  Belgium 1962
 Rwanda
 Spanish Guinea  Equatorial Guinea  Spain 28,051 10,828 1968
France French Algeria  Algeria  France 1962
France French Cameroun  Cameroon  France 1960 Trust Territory
Togo French Togoland  Togo
 French Equatorial Africa France French Chad  Chad  France 1960
France French Gabon  Gabon
France French Congo  Republic of the Congo
France Ubangi Shari  Central African Republic
Morocco French protectorate of Morocco  Morocco  France 1956
France French Madagascar  Madagascar  France 1960
 Comoros 1975
State Ensign of Italy.svg Trust Territory of Somaliland  Somalia  Italy 1960 Joined the State of Somaliland to form Somalia
 Portuguese Cape Verde  Cape Verde  Portugal 4,033 1,557 1975
 Portuguese Mozambique  Mozambique  Portugal 7,300,000[43] 784,955 303,073 1975
 Portuguese Guinea  Guinea-Bissau  Portugal 36,125 13,948 1974
Portugal Portuguese São Tomé and Príncipe  São Tomé and Príncipe  Portugal 1,001 372 1975
 French Somaliland  Djibouti  France 200,000[44] 23,200 8,958 1977
French Tunisia  Tunisia  France 163,610 63,170 1956
 French West Africa France French Dahomey  Dahomey  France 1960
France French Guinea  Guinea 1958
 French Sudan  Mali 1960
 Ivory Coast
 Mauritania
France Colony of Niger  Upper Volta
 Niger
 Senegal
South Africa South West Africa  Namibia  South Africa 2,088,669 825,418 318,696 1990 Foreign relations of Namibia
Africa  Seychelles  Seychelles  United Kingdom 451 174 1976
Asia Flag of the Federation of South Arabia.svg Federation of South Arabia  South Yemen 1967
 Brunei  Brunei Darussalam 5,765 2,226 1984
 Malayan Union  Federation of Malaya [37][38] 132,364 51,106 1957 Later became Malaysia
Singapore Singapore 4,608,167 693 268 1963 Singapore briefly joined Malaysia incorporated into Malaya to form a state of Malaysia in 1963
SingaporeMalaysia Singapore  Singapore [38]  Malaysia 4,608,167 693 268 1965 Regained independence in 1965.
Colony of Sarawak  Sarawak  United Kingdom 124,450 48,050 1963 Later Incorporated into Malaya to form a state of Malaysia[37][38]
Europe Cyprus British Cyprus  Cyprus  United Kingdom 9,251 3,572 1960
Malta Colony of Malta  Malta 316 121 1964
North America  Bahamas  The Bahamas 13,878 5,358 1973
 Barbados  Barbados 431 167 1966
 British Leeward Islands Antigua  Antigua and Barbuda 1981
 Saint Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla  St. Kitts and Nevis 1983 Separated from Anguilla, which is still a non-self-governing territory
Jamaica Colony of Jamaica  Jamaica 11,100 4,444 1962
 Trinidad and Tobago  Trinidad and Tobago 5,128 1,978
 British Windward Islands  Dominica 1978
 Grenada 1974
 St. Lucia 1979
 St. Vincent and the Grenadines
 British Honduras  Belize 145,000[45] 22,966 8,867 1981
Oceania Fiji Fiji Islands  Fiji  United Kingdom 1970
 Gilbert and Ellice Islands  Kiribati 1979
 Tuvalu 1978
Civil Ensign of Australia.svg Trust Territory of Nauru  Nauru  Australia 21 8 1968
 New Hebrides  Vanuatu United KingdomFrance Anglo-French Condominium 100,000[46] 12,189 4,706 1980
Flag of Papua New Guinea (1970–1971).svg Territory of Papua and New Guinea  Papua New Guinea  Australia 1975
Solomon Islands British Solomon Islands  Solomon Islands  United Kingdom 28,896 11,157 1978
Flag of the Samoa Trust Territory.svg Western Samoa Trust Territory  Western Samoa  New Zealand 1962
 Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands  Marshall Islands  United States 68,000 180 70 1990 An independent state in free association with the United States
 Federated States of Micronesia 111,000 702 271
 Palau 20,956 459 177 1994
South America  Dutch Guiana  Suriname  Netherlands 475,996 163,270 63,039 1975 Politics of Suriname
 British Guiana  Guyana  United Kingdom 1966

See also

References

  1. ^ "The Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples". United Nations Treaty Collection. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
  2. ^ i.e. extenuating circumstance, historical control, longstanding/stagnated issue, etc.
  3. ^ United Nations General Assembly Resolution 64(I)
  4. ^ United Nations General Assembly Resolution 66(I)
  5. ^ "UN Treaty Collection: International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights". Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
  6. ^ UN Treaty Collection: International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
  7. ^ "Q&A: Gibraltar's referendum". BBC News. 8 November 2002. Retrieved 25 November 2011.
  8. ^ "Resolution 2353" (PDF). UN. 19 December 1967. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 August 2013. Retrieved 28 September 2012.
  9. ^ Self-Determination of Peoples: A Legal Reappraisal, Antonio Cassese, Cambridge University Press, 1995, page 209
  10. ^ Election 2011, Radio New Zealand
  11. ^ "Tokelau wonders 'What have we done wrong?'" Archived 21 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine, Michael Field, AFP, 2 June 2004
  12. ^ "Congratulations Tokelau", National Party press release, 26 October 2007
  13. ^ "Colonialism has no place in today's world," says Secretary General in message to Decolonization Seminar in Indonesia". United Nations press release, 14 May 2008
  14. ^ "Tokelau decolonisation high on agenda". The New Zealand Herald. NZPA. 17 May 2008. Retrieved 25 November 2011.
  15. ^ "Falklands referendum: Voters choose to remain UK territory", BBC News, 12 March 2013
  16. ^ "New Year begins with a new Constitution for the Falklands". MercoPress. 1 January 2009. Retrieved 9 July 2013.
  17. ^ Parliament.uk, UK House of Commons Foreign Affairs Committee 2007–2008 Report, pg 16
  18. ^ Telegraph.co.uk, David Blair, Gibraltar makes plans for self-government, Daily Telegraph, 28 February 2002 "GIBRALTAR'S parliament approved an ambitious package of constitutional reform yesterday designed to give the colony almost complete self-government."
  19. ^ "Gibraltar". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 18 August 2009. Gibraltar is an overseas territory of the United Kingdom and is self-governing in all matters but defence.
  20. ^ "Laws of Gibraltar – On-line Service". Gibraltarlaws.gov.gi. Retrieved 13 May 2011.
  21. ^ a b c Carroll, John M. (2007). A Concise History of Hong Kong. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. p. 176.
  22. ^ "Tahiti assembly votes against UN decolonisation bid", Radio New Zealand International, 17 May 2013
  23. ^ "L'ONU adopte une résolution sur la décolonisation de la Polynésie française". Le Monde, 17 May 2013
  24. ^ General Assembly Resolution 1514 (XV) Archived 24 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine adopted by United Nations General Assembly
  25. ^ General Assembly Resolution 1541 (XV) adopted by United Nations General Assembly on the reports of the Sixth Committee
  26. ^ General Assembly Resolution 1654 (XVI) Archived 12 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine adopted by United Nations General Assembly
  27. ^ United Nations Trusteeship Agreements or were listed by the General Assembly as Non-Self-Governing
  28. ^ "Vanuatu will continue West Papua initiative", One PNG, 6 September 2018
  29. ^ "Pacific Forum backs ‘constructive engagement’ over West Papua", Asia Pacific Report, 7 September 2018
  30. ^ Non-Self-Governing Territories listed by General Assembly of the United Nations
  31. ^ CIA's The World Factbook entry for Western Sahara: "Western Sahara is a disputed territory on the northwest coast of Africa bordered by Morocco, Mauritania, and Algeria. After Spain withdrew from its former colony of Spanish Sahara in 1976, Morocco annexed the northern two-thirds of Western Sahara and claimed the rest of the territory in 1979, following Mauritania's withdrawal"
  32. ^ General Assembly adds French Polynesia to UN decolonization list
  33. ^ United Nations General Assembly Resolution 66 (I)
  34. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Trust and Non-Self-Governing Territories (1945–2002) listed by General Assembly of the United Nations
  35. ^ Infobox image in "History" section of "About Greenland", English version of the official country government website. Accessed online 2008-09-28, Sunday.
  36. ^ http://jurist.law.pitt.edu/paperchase/2009/06/greenland-takes-over-courts-police.php
  37. ^ a b c See: The UK Statute Law Database: the Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom Malaysia Act 1963
  38. ^ a b c d Trust and Non-Self-Governing Territories (1945–1999) listed by General Assembly of the United Nations.
  39. ^ "Agreement between the government of the United Kingdom, His Highness the Sultan of Zanzibar, the government of Kenya and the government of Zanzibar", London, 8 October 1963
  40. ^ 1963 estimate, see: Northern Rhodesia#Demographics
  41. ^ 1978 estimate
  42. ^ 1960 estimate
  43. ^ 1967 estimate
  44. ^ 1963 estimate
  45. ^ 1980 estimate, see: British Honduras#Demographics
  46. ^ 1976 estimate

External links

1965 Cook Islands general election

General elections were held in the Cook Islands on 20 April 1965 to elect 22 MPs to the Cook Islands Legislative Assembly. The elections were won by the Cook Islands Party and saw Albert Henry become the Cook Islands' first Prime Minister.

Because the election had the potential to result in removing the Cook Islands from the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories, the election was observed by representatives of the UN. The holding of an election was necessary prior to the Constitution of the Cook Islands coming into force and the constitution, if approved by the elected Legislature, would institute self-government for the Cook Islands. After the election, the Legislative Assembly approved the constitution and the Cook Islands became self-governing on 4 August 1965. As a result, the UN removed the Cook Islands from its list of Non-Self-Governing Territories.

1984 Cocos (Keeling) Islands status referendum

A status referendum was held in the Cocos (Keeling) Islands on 6 April 1984. All registered voters participated in the vote, with 88% voting for integration with Australia. The referendum has been described as the "smallest act of self-determination ever conducted".

1987 New Caledonian independence referendum

An independence referendum was held in New Caledonia on 13 September 1987. Voters were given the choice of remaining part of France or becoming independent. Only 1.7% voted in favour of independence.

2006 Tokelauan self-determination referendum

The Tokelau self-determination referendum of 2006, supervised by the United Nations, was held from February 11 to February 15, 2006. The defeated proposal would have changed Tokelau's status from an unincorporated New Zealand territory to a self-governing state in free association with New Zealand, akin to the Cook Islands and Niue.

After 581 of the 615 eligible voters cast a proper ballot (3 ruined ballots were also cast), the referendum fell 38 votes short of the two-thirds majority required to succeed in a change of status.The majority of Tokelauans reside in New Zealand, and were ineligible to vote in the referendum, in line with standard practice in United Nations mandated votes on self-determination. However concerns among this community may have influenced those who were eligible to vote, thereby contributing to the referendum's failure.The passage of the referendum would have removed Tokelau from the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories, as the Cook Islands and Niue were removed from this list when they were granted self-governance in 1965 and 1974, respectively.

Outgoing Tokelau Ulu (head of government) Pio Tuia suggested in February 2006 that since the vote failed to pass by such a small margin, the issue was likely to be revisited in a few years' time. In June 2006, his successor Kolouei O'Brien announced that the Fono had agreed to hold a similar referendum again in late 2007 or early 2008; in the end, it was decided to hold a second referendum on self-determination in October 2007.An unintended result of the United Nations' recent efforts to promote decolonization in Tokelau has been the re-emergence of a Tokelauan claim to Swains Island, which is legally part of American Samoa, hitherto a somewhat dormant issue.

Colin Beck (diplomat)

Colin Beck is a Solomon Islands diplomat. He is the Solomons' current permanent representative to the United Nations and current ambassador to the United States. He also served a one-year term from 2008 to 2009 as vice-president-elect of the 63rd Session of the United Nations General Assembly.As his country's representative in the United Nations, he spearheaded the motion which led to the United Nations General Assembly re-inscribing French Polynesia on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories in May 2013.

Colony

In history, a colony is a territory under the immediate complete political control and occupied by settlers of a state, distinct from the home territory of the sovereign. For colonies in antiquity, city-states would often found their own colonies. Some colonies were historically countries, while others were territories without definite statehood from their inception.

The metropolitan state is the state that rules the colony. In Ancient Greece, the city that founded a colony was known as the metropolis. "Mother country" is a reference to the metropolitan state from the point of view of citizens who live in its colony. There is a United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories.

Unlike a puppet state or satellite state, a colony has no independent international representation, and its top-level administration is under direct control of the metropolitan state.

The term informal colony is used by some historians to refer to a country under the de facto control of another state, although this term is often contentious.

Confederation of Independent Football Associations

The Confederation of Independent Football Associations (CONIFA) is the international governing body for association football teams that are not affiliated with FIFA. Currently, CONIFA is responsible for the organization of the ConIFA World Football Cup and the CONIFA European Football Cup.

Dependent territory

A dependent territory, dependent area or dependency is a territory that does not possess full political independence or sovereignty as a sovereign state yet remains politically outside the controlling state's integral area.A dependency is commonly distinguished from country subdivisions by not being considered to be integral territory of the governing state. Administrative subdivisions instead are understood as typically representing a division of the state proper. A dependent territory conversely often maintains a great degree of autonomy from the controlling central state. Historically, most colonies were considered dependencies. Those dependent territories currently remaining generally maintain a very high degree of political autonomy. Not all autonomous entities, though, are considered to be dependencies, and not all dependencies are autonomous. Most inhabited dependent territories have their own ISO 3166 country codes.

Some political entities inhabit a special position guaranteed by international treaty or other agreement: creating a certain level of autonomy (e.g., differences in immigration rules). These are sometimes considered or at least grouped with dependencies, but are officially considered by their controlling states to be integral parts of the state. Examples are Åland (Finland) and Hong Kong (China).

ISO 3166

ISO 3166 is a standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) that defines codes for the names of countries, dependent territories, special areas of geographical interest, and their principal subdivisions (e.g., provinces or states). The official name of the standard is Codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions.

Independence

Independence is a condition of a person, nation, country, or state in which its residents and population, or some portion thereof, exercise self-government, and usually sovereignty, over the territory. The opposite of independence is the status of a dependent territory.

Outline of New Caledonia

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to New Caledonia:

New Caledonia – "sui generis collectivity" (in practice an overseas territory) of France, comprising a main island (Grande Terre), the Loyalty Islands, and several smaller islands. It is located in the region of Melanesia in the southwest Pacific. At about half the size of Taiwan, it has a land area of 18,575.5 square kilometres (7,172 sq mi). The population was 244,600 inhabitants as of January 2008 official estimates. The capital and largest city of the territory is Nouméa. The currency is the CFP franc.

Since 1986 the United Nations Committee on Decolonization has included New Caledonia on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories. New Caledonia will decide whether to remain within the French Republic or become an independent state in a referendum sometime after 2014.

Its capital Nouméa is the seat of the regional organization the Secretariat of the Pacific Community (formerly the South Pacific Commission).

Outline of Tokelau

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Tokelau:

Tokelau is a territory of New Zealand comprising three tropical coral atolls in the South Pacific Ocean. The United Nations General Assembly includes Tokelau on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories.Until 1976 the official name was Tokelau Islands. Tokelau is sometimes referred to by Westerners by the older, colonial name of The Union Islands.

Outline of the Pitcairn Islands

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the Pitcairn Islands:

The Pitcairn, Henderson, Ducie and Oeno Islands, commonly known as the Pitcairn Islands or just Pitcairn, are a group of four volcanic islands in the South Pacific Ocean. The islands are a British overseas territory (formerly a British colony), the last remaining in the Pacific. Only Pitcairn Island, the second largest island, is inhabited.

The islands are best known for being the home of the descendants of the Bounty mutineers and the Tahitians who accompanied them, an event retold in numerous books and films. This story is still apparent in the surnames of many of the islanders. With only 48 inhabitants (from nine families), Pitcairn is also notable for being the least populated jurisdiction in the world (although it is not a sovereign nation). The United Nations Committee on Decolonisation includes Pitcairn on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories.

Politics of Anguilla

Politics of Anguilla takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic dependency, whereby the Premier is the head of government, and of a multi-party system. Anguilla, the most northerly of the Leeward Islands in the Lesser Antilles, is an internally self-governing overseas territory of the United Kingdom. The United Nations Committee on Decolonization includes Anguilla on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories. The territory's constitution is Anguilla Constitutional Order 1 April 1982 (amended 1990 and 2019). Executive power is exercised by the Premier and the Executive Council. Legislative power is vested in both the Executive Council and the House of Assembly.

The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. Military defence is the responsibility of the United Kingdom.

Politics of Bermuda

Bermuda is a parliamentary representative democratic dependency. The premier is the head of government, and there is a multi-party system.

Bermuda is the oldest self-governing British Overseas Territory and has a great degree of internal autonomy. Its parliament held its first session in 1620, making it the third-oldest continuous parliament in the world. The original system of government was created under the Virginia Company, which colonised Bermuda, accidentally in 1609, and deliberately from 1612. The Virginia Company lost its Royal Charter for North America ("Virginia") in 1622, and the Crown assumed responsibility for the administration of the continental colony. Bermuda, however, passed in 1615 to a new company, The Somers Isles Company (The Somers Isles being the other official name of the colony), formed by the same shareholders. The House of Assembly was created under that company, which continued to appoint governors until it was dissolved in 1684, with the Crown assuming responsibility for the Colony's administration. The Crown left in place the political system created under the Company. The Colonial Parliament originally consisted only of the lower house. The Privy Council, an appointed body, served in the roles of an upper house and a cabinet. The President of The Council could find himself temporarily acting as governor when no governor was present.

Voting was originally restricted to male landowners. When the numbers of non-white landowners began to increase, a minimum value was established for the properties which entitled their owners to vote. In 1960, this was £60. A man could vote in each parish in which he owned sufficiently valuable land – giving the richest whites as many as nine votes each if they so desired.Since 1968 Bermuda has had a constitution that sets out its structure of government. Queen Elizabeth II is head of state and is represented in Bermuda by a governor, whom she appoints. Internally, Bermuda has a parliamentary system of government. The governor has special responsibilities in four areas: external affairs, defence, internal security, and the police.

The constitution provided the island with formal responsibility for internal self-government, while the British Government retained responsibility for external affairs, defence, and security. The Bermudian Government is always consulted on any international negotiations affecting the territory. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the Parliament. The party system is dominated by the Progressive Labour Party and the One Bermuda Alliance, while prior to 1998 it had been dominated by the United Bermuda Party.

The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. Military defence is officially the responsibility of the United Kingdom, but Bermuda maintains its own military force.

Bermuda participates, through British delegations, in the UN and some of its specialized and related agencies. The United Nations Committee on Decolonization includes Bermuda on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories.

Politics of Montserrat

Politics of Montserrat takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic dependency, whereby the Premier is the head of government, and of a multi-party system. Montserrat is an internally self-governing overseas territory of the United Kingdom. The United Nations Committee on Decolonization includes Montserrat on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the Legislative Assembly.

The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. Military defence is the responsibility of the United Kingdom.

Politics of the British Virgin Islands

Politics of the British Virgin Islands takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic dependency, whereby the Premier is the head of government, and of a multi-party system. The British Virgin Islands (officially the "Virgin Islands") are an internally self-governing overseas territory of the United Kingdom. The United Nations Committee on Decolonization includes the islands on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories. The Constitution of the Islands was introduced in 1971 and amended in 1979, 1982, 1991, 1994, 2000 and 2007. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the House of Assembly. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. Military defence is the responsibility of the United Kingdom.

A new constitution was made in 2007 (the Virgin Islands Constitution Order 2007) and came into force after the Legislative Council (the former name of the House of Assembly) was dissolved for the 2007 general election.

Politics of the Turks and Caicos Islands

Politics of the Turks and Caicos Islands takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic dependency, whereby as of August 9, 2006 the Premier is the head of government, and of a multi-party system. The islands are an internally self-governing overseas territory of the United Kingdom. The United Nations Committee on Decolonization includes the Turks and Caicos Islands on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories.

Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the Legislative Council.

The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. Military defence is the responsibility of the United Kingdom.

The capital of the Turks and Caicos Islands is Cockburn Town on Grand Turk. The islands were under Jamaican jurisdiction until 1962, when they assumed the status of a crown colony. The governor of the Bahamas oversaw affairs from 1965 to 1973. With Bahamian independence, the islands received a separate governor in 1973. Although independence was agreed upon for 1982, the policy was reversed and the islands are presently a British overseas territory.

The islands adopted a constitution on August 30, 1976, which is Constitution Day, the national holiday. The constitution was suspended in 1986, but restored and revised March 5, 1988. A new Constitution was instituted in 2006, but was suspended in 2009 after the discovery of massive corruption and financial misfeasance by ministers. The territorial government was restored under a new Constitution after a general election in November 2012.

The territory's legal system is based on English common law, with a small number of laws adopted from Jamaica and the Bahamas. Suffrage is universal for those over 18 years of age. English is the official language.

Vanuatu and the United Nations

The Republic of Vanuatu has been a member of the United Nations since the year of its independence in 1980. The country was a particularly active member in the 1980s, when, governed by Prime Minister Father Walter Lini and represented by Ambassador Robert Van Lierop, it was a consistent advocate for decolonisation. Subsequently, its emphasis within the United Nations shifted to the issue of climate change and the vulnerability of Small Island Developing States.

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