The United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories is a list of places that the United Nations General Assembly deems to be "non-self-governing" and subject to the decolonization process. Chapter XI of the United Nations Charter embodies a "Declaration on Non-Self-Governing Territories" which declares that the interests of the occupants of dependent territories are paramount and requires member states of the United Nations in control of non-self-governing territories to submit annual information reports concerning the development of those territories. Since 1946, the General Assembly has maintained a list of non-self governing territories under member states' control. Since its inception, dozens of territories have been removed from the list, typically when they attained independence or internal self-government, while other territories have been added as new administering countries joined the United Nations or the General Assembly reassessed the status of certain territories.
|UN General Assembly|
Resolution 66 (I)
United Nations General Assembly Resolution A/RES/66 (I) dated 14 January 1946
|Date||14 December 1946|
|Meeting no.||Sixty fourth|
|Subject||Transmission of information under Article 73e of the Charter [relating to non-self-governing territories]|
The United Nations Charter contains a Declaration Concerning Non-Self-Governing Territories. In Chapter XI, of said charter, the "Declaration Regarding Non-Self-Governing Territories", specifically the Article 73 point "e" in the Charter, it states that all member States agree to report to the United Nations, annually, on the development of non-self-governing territories under their control. or by vote of the General Assembly (as in the cases of Puerto Rico, Greenland, the Netherlands Antilles, and Suriname).
The list draws its origins from the period of colonialism and the Charter's concept of non-self-governing territories. As an increasing number of formerly colonized countries became UN members, the General Assembly increasingly asserted its authority to place additional territories on the List and repeatedly declared that only the General Assembly had the authority to authorize a territory's being removed from the list upon attainment of any status other than full independence. For example, when Portugal joined the United Nations it contended that it controlled no non-self-governing territories, claiming that areas such as Angola and Mozambique were an integral part of the Portuguese state, but the General Assembly rejected this position. Similarly, Western Sahara was added in 1963 when it was a Spanish colony. The same can be said about the situation of Namibia (removed upon its independence in 1990), which was seen, due to its former status as a League of Nations mandate territory, as a vestige of German colonial legacy in Africa. A set of criteria for determining whether a territory is to be considered "non-self-governing" was established in General Assembly Resolution 1541 (XV) of 1960. Also in 1960, the General Assembly adopted Resolution 1514 (XV), promulgating the "Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples", which declared that all remaining non-self-governing territories and trust territories were entitled to self-determination and independence. The following year, the General Assembly established the Special Committee on the Situation with Regard to the Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples (sometimes referred to as the Special Committee on Decolonization, or the "Committee of 24" because for much of its history the committee was composed of 24 members), which reviews the situation in non-self-governing territories each year and reports to the General Assembly.
The list remains controversial for various reasons:
One reason for controversy is that the list includes some dependencies that have democratically chosen to maintain their current status, or have had a referendum in which there were not enough votes for a change of status, or in some cases (such as United States Virgin Islands) simply had an insufficient number of voters participate.
Gibraltar is a prime example of residents' preferences to retain the status quo. It is a largely self-governing British territory on the tip of the Iberian Peninsula whose territory is claimed by Spain. It has twice held a referendum to resolve its status. In the first referendum, held in 1967, the choices in the ballot were to retain their current status or to become part of Spain. The status quo was favoured by 12,138 votes to 44. In the second referendum, held in 2002, a proposal for a joint British–Spanish administration of the territory was voted down by 17,900 votes to 187. (The "no" vote accounted for more than 85% of Gibraltar's entire electorate. In neither case did the United Nations recognise the referendum: the 1967 referendum was declared to be in contravention of previous UN resolutions. The Spanish government does not recognize any right of the current Gibraltar inhabitants to self-determination, on the grounds that they are not the original population of the territory, but residents transferred by the colonial power, the United Kingdom.
The territory of Tokelau divides political opinion in New Zealand. In response to attempts at decolonizing Tokelau, New Zealand journalist Michael Field wrote in 2004: "The UN ... is anxious to rid the world of the last remaining vestiges of colonialism by the end of the decade. It has a list of 16 territories around the world, virtually none of which wants to be independent to any degree." Field further notes that Patuki Isaako, who was head of Tokelau's government at the time of a UN seminar on decolonization in 2004, informed the United Nations that his country had no wish to be decolonized, and that Tokelauans had opposed the idea of decolonization ever since the first visit by UN officials in 1976.
In 2006, a UN-supervised referendum on decolonization was held in Tokelau, where 60.07% of voters supported the offer of self-government. However, the terms of the referendum required a two-thirds majority to vote in favor of self-government. A second referendum was held in 2007, in which 64.40% of Tokelauans supported self-government, falling short of the two-thirds majority by 16 votes. This led New Zealand politician and former diplomat John Hayes, on behalf of the National Party, to state that "Tokelau did the right thing to resist pressure from [the New Zealand government] and the United Nations to pursue self-government". In May 2008, the United Nations' Secretary General Ban Ki-moon urged colonial powers "to complete the decolonization process in every one of the remaining 16 Non-Self-Governing Territories". This led the New Zealand Herald to comment that the United Nations was "apparently frustrated by two failed attempts to get Tokelau to vote for independence from New Zealand".
In March 2013, the autonomous government of the Falkland Islands organised a referendum as to whether the territory should remain a British Overseas Territory. With a 92% turnout, 99.8% of Falkland Islanders voted to maintain that status; only three islanders favoured changing it.
In addition, some territories are financially dependent on their administering state.
Another criticism is that a number of the listed territories, such as Bermuda (see Politics of Bermuda), Falkland Islands and Gibraltar, consider themselves completely autonomous and self-governing, with the "administering power" retaining limited oversight over matters such as defence and diplomacy. In past years, there were ongoing disputes between some administering powers and the Decolonization Committee over whether territories such as pre-independence Brunei and the West Indies Associated States should still be considered "non-self-governing", particularly in instances where the administering country was prepared to grant full independence whenever the territory requested it. These disputes became moot as those territories eventually received full independence.
Territories that have achieved a status described by the administering countries as internally self-governing – such as Puerto Rico, the Netherlands Antilles, and the Cook Islands – have been removed from the list by vote of the General Assembly, often under pressure of the administering countries. In 1972, for example, Hong Kong (then administered by the United Kingdom) and Macau (then administered by Portugal) were removed from the list at the request of the People's Republic of China, which had just been recognized as holding China's seat at the United Nations.
Some territories that have been annexed and incorporated into the legal framework of the controlling state (such as the overseas departments of France) are considered by the UN to have been decolonized, since they then no longer constitute "non-self-governing" entities; their populations are assumed to have agreed to merge with the former parent state. However, in 1961, the General Assembly voted to end this treatment for the "overseas provinces" of Portugal such as Angola and Mozambique, which were active foci of United Nations attention until they attained independence in the mid-1970s.
On 2 December 1986, New Caledonia, an overseas territory of France, was reinstated on the list of non-self-governing territories, an action to which France objected. Within France it has had the status of a collectivité sui generis, or a one-of-a-kind community, since 1999. Under the 1998 Nouméa Accord, its Territorial Congress has the right to call for a referendum on independence between 2014 and 2018. This referendum was held on 4th November 2018, with independence being rejected.
French Polynesia was also reinstated on the list on 17 May 2013, in somewhat contentious circumstances. Having been re-elected President of French Polynesia in 2011 (the territory being largely self-governing), Oscar Temaru asked for it to be re-inscribed on the list; it had been removed in 1947. (French Polynesia is categorised by France as an overseas country, in recognition of its self-governing status.) On 5 May 2013, Temaru's Union for Democracy party lost the legislative election to Gaston Flosse's pro-autonomy but anti-independence Tahoera'a Huiraatira party. At this stage, the United Nations General Assembly was due to discuss French Polynesia's re-inscription on the list twelve days later, in accordance with a motion tabled by the Solomon Islands, Tuvalu and Nauru. On 16 May, the Assembly of French Polynesia, with its new anti-independence majority, adopted a motion asking the United Nations not to restore the country to the list. On 17 May, despite French Polynesia's opposition, and France's, the country was restored to the list of Non-Self-Governing Territories. Temaru was present for the vote, on the final day of his mandate as President. The United Nations affirmed "the inalienable right of the people of French Polynesia to self-determination and independence".
Also controversial are the criteria set down in 1960 to 1961 by the United Nations General Assembly Resolution 1514 (XV), United Nations General Assembly Resolution 1541 (XV), Principle 12 of the Annex, and United Nations General Assembly Resolution 1654 (XVI) which only focused on colonies of the Western world, namely Australia, Belgium, Denmark, France, Italy, Netherlands, New Zealand, Portugal, South Africa, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the United States. This list of administering states was not expanded afterwards.
Nevertheless, some of the 111 members who joined the UN after 1960 gained independence from countries not covered by Resolution 1541 and were themselves not classified as "Non-Self-Governing Territories" by the UN. Of these that joined the UN between 1960 and 2008, 11 were independent before 1960 and 71 were included on the list (some as a group). Twenty new UN countries resulted from breakup of Second World states: six were part of Yugoslavia, two were part of Czechoslovakia, and 12 were part of the Soviet Union (Ukraine and Belarus already had UN seats before the dissolution of the USSR, whose seat was reused by the Russian Federation without acceding anew). Out of the other nine, seven (mostly Arab) were colonies or protectorates of the "Western" countries, and one each was a non-self-governing part of Ethiopia (later independent Eritrea) and Pakistan (East Pakistan, later independent Bangladesh). Territories like Tibet (administered by China) and Siberia (or parts thereof; administered by the Soviet Union, later by Russia) have never been on the list. Western New Guinea (also known as West Papua), annexed against its will by Indonesia is also not on the list as well as Sarawak and Sabah which were handed to Malaya during its territorial expansion through the formation of Malaysia in 1963. In 2018, the government of Vanuatu is seeking international support to have West Papua added to the list in 2019.
The following territories are currently included on the list.
|Continent||Name||Administering state||Domestic legal status||Other claimant(s)||Population||Area||Referendums||See also|
|Africa||Western Sahara[A]||Spain formerly||Disputed|| Morocco /
Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
|619,060||266,000 km2 (102,703 mi2)||No official referendum has been held, but there were attempts.||Political status of Western Sahara|
|Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha||United Kingdom||Overseas Territory||None||5,396||310 km2 (120 mi2)||No official referendum has been held.||Politics of Saint Helena|
|Europe||Gibraltar||Disputed||Spain||29,752||6 km2 (2 mi2)||There was a referendum in 1967 and in 2002.||Disputed status of Gibraltar|
|North America||Anguilla||Overseas Territory||None||14,108||96 km2 (37 mi2)||No official referendum has been held.||Politics of Anguilla|
|Bermuda||62,000||57 km2 (22 mi2)||A 1995 Bermudian independence referendum was held. 74% were not in favour of independence.||Politics of Bermuda|
|British Virgin Islands||28,103||153 km2 (59 mi2)||No official referendum has been held.||Politics of the British Virgin Islands|
|Cayman Islands||55,500||264 km2 (102 mi2)||Foreign relations of the Cayman Islands|
|Montserrat||5,000||103 km2 (40 mi2)||Government of Montserrat|
|Turks and Caicos Islands||31,458||948 km2 (366 mi2)||Politics of the Turks and Caicos Islands|
|United States Virgin Islands||United States||Unincorporated organized territory||106,405||352 km2 (136 mi2)||A 1993 United States Virgin Islands status referendum was held. It was decided that it would stay as a territory.||Politics of the United States Virgin Islands|
|Oceania||French Polynesia[B]||France||Overseas collectivity||271,000||4,000 km2 (1,544 mi2)||No official referendum has been held.||Politics of French Polynesia|
|New Caledonia||Special collectivity||252,000||18,575 km2 (7,172 mi2)||There was a referendum in 1987 and in 2018. Both were disapproved but the 2018 result was close. There might be another referendum in 2020.||Politics of New Caledonia|
|Tokelau||New Zealand||Territory||1,411||12 km2 (5 mi2)||Politics of Tokelau|
|Pitcairn Islands||United Kingdom||Overseas Territory||50||36 km2 (14 mi2)||Politics of the Pitcairn Islands|
|American Samoa||United States||Unincorporated unorganized territory||55,519||200 km2 (77 mi2)||Politics of American Samoa|
|Guam||159,358||540 km2 (208 mi2)||Politics of Guam|
|South America||Falkland Islands||United Kingdom||Disputed||Argentina||2,500||12,173 km2 (4,700 mi2)||Sovereignty of the Falkland Islands|
The following territories were originally listed by UN General Assembly Resolution 66 (I) of 14 December 1946 as Trust and Non-Self-Governing territory. The dates show the year of independence or other change in a territory's status which led to their removal from the list, after which information was no longer submitted to the United Nations.
|Continent||Name||Change in status||Current status||Administering state||Population||Area / km2||Area / mi2||Year removed||See also|
|Africa||Réunion||Became an overseas department (full integration in the French central state)||Overseas department of France||France||793,000||2,512||970||1947||Politics of Réunion|
|Asia||Cocos (Keeling) Islands||Voted to integrate into Australia||External territory of Australia||Australia||596||14||5||1984||Shire of Cocos|
|Portuguese Macau||Removed from the list on request of China||Special Administrative Region of Macau of the People's Republic of China) (since 20 December 1999)||Portugal||545,674||28||11||1972||Politics of Macau|
|British Hong Kong||Removed from the list on request of China||Special Administrative Region of Hong Kong of the People's Republic of China) (since 1 July 1997)||United Kingdom||7,018,636||1,092||422||Politics of Hong Kong|
|North America||Greenland||Incorporated into Denmark as Greenland County (1953). Gained home rule as a Country within the Kingdom of Denmark (1979). Increased autonomy (2009).||Country within the Kingdom of Denmark||Denmark||57,564||2,166,086||836,330||1954||Politics of Greenland|
|Guadeloupe||Became two overseas departments (full integration in the French central state)||Overseas department of Guadeloupe and overseas collectivities of Saint-Barthelemy and Saint-Martin of France||France||408,000||1,628||629||1947||Politics of Guadeloupe|
|Martinique||Overseas department of France||401,000||1,128||436||Politics of Martinique|
|Saint Pierre and Miquelon||Became an overseas territory (semi-autonomous collectivity of the French republic)||Overseas collectivity of France||7,044||242||93||Politics of Saint Pierre and Miquelon|
|Netherlands Antilles||Granted more autonomy||Aruba, Curaçao and Sint Maarten are constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, the other remaining islands are special municipalities of the Netherlands.||Netherlands||225,369||960||371||1951||Politics of the Netherlands Antilles|
|Alaska||Granted Statehood||49th State of the United States||United States||683,478||1,700,130||656,424||1959||Legal status of Alaska|
|Panama Canal Zone||Removed from the list on request of Panama||Part of Colón and Panamá provinces of Panama||1947||Politics of Panama|
|Puerto Rico||Became a Commonwealth||Commonwealth of the United States||3,958,128||8,870||3,420||1952||Political status of Puerto Rico|
|Oceania||French Polynesia[a]||Became an overseas territory (semi-autonomous collectivity of the French republic)||French Polynesia and Wallis and Futuna overseas collectivities of France||France||298,256||4,441||1,715||1947||Politics of French Polynesia and Wallis and Futuna|
|New Caledonia[b]||Special Collectivity of France||224,824||19,060||7,359||Politics of New Caledonia|
|Hawaii||Granted Statehood||50th State of the United States||United States||1,283,388||28,311||10,931||1959||Legal status of Hawaii|
|Northern Mariana Islands||Became a Commonwealth||Commonwealth of the United States||53,883||168||65||1990|
|Cook Islands||Gained self-rule||Free association with New Zealand||New Zealand||12,271||237||92||1965||Politics of the Cook Islands|
|Niue||1,444||260||100||1974||Politics of Niue|
|South America||French Guiana||Became an overseas department||Overseas department of France (full integration in the French central state)||France||209,000||83,534||32,253||1947||Politics of French Guiana|
|Continent||Non-Self-Governing Territory||State joined||Current status||Administering state||Population||Area / km2||Area / mi2||Year removed||See also|
|Africa||São João Batista de Ajuda||Integrated into the Republic of Dahomey (now Benin)||Ouidah commune, Atlantique department, Benin||Portugal||1961||Politics of Benin|
|Ifni||Integrated into Morocco||Sidi Ifni, Guelmim-Oued Noun, Morocco||Spain||51,517||1,502||580||1969||Politics of Morocco|
|British Cameroons||Northern Cameroons joined Nigeria
Southern Cameroons joined Cameroon
|Adamawa and Taraba states of Nigeria, Northwest and Southwest provinces of Cameroon||United Kingdom||1961||Politics of Nigeria|
Politics of Cameroon
|British Togoland||Joined British Gold Coast colony||Volta, Northern and Upper East Region of Ghana||1957||Foreign relations of Ghana|
|Asia||French India||Annexed by India||Puducherry union territory and Chandannagar of West Bengal state of India||France||973,829||492||190||1947||Puducherry Legislative Assembly|
|Netherlands New Guinea||Annexed by Indonesia as Irian Jaya||Papua and West Papua provinces of Indonesia||Netherlands||420,540||162,371||1963||Act of Free Choice|
|North Borneo||Incorporated into Malaya to form Malaysia||Malaysian state of Sabah and the federal territory of Labuan.||United Kingdom||285,000||76,115||29,388||1963||Malaysia Agreement|
|Portuguese India||Annexed by India||The Indian state of Goa and the union territories of Dadra and Nagar Haveli and of Daman and Diu||Portugal||1961|
||(Independent as)||Administering state||Population||Area / km2||Area / mi2||Year removed||See also|
|Asia||Aden Protectorate||South Yemen||United Kingdom||285,192||111,013||1967|
|French Indochina||Democratic Republic of Vietnam||France||1945|
|State of Vietnam||1949|
|Kingdom of Laos|
|Portuguese Timor||Indonesia||Portugal||15,007||5,794||1975||Indonesian occupation of East Timor|
|East Timor||East Timor||Indonesia||688,711||15,007||5,794||2002||Politics of East Timor|
|Dutch East Indies||Indonesia||Netherlands||1950|
|Africa||Portuguese Angola||Angola||Portugal||1,246,700||481,354||1975||Including the enclave of Cabinda|
|British Somaliland||State of Somaliland||United Kingdom||1960||Joined the Trust Territory of Somalia within a week to form Somalia|
|Gambia Colony and Protectorate||The Gambia||United Kingdom||10,380||4,007||1965|
|Colony of Kenya||Kenya||United Kingdom||1963||Formed by the unification of the Colony of Kenya and the Kenya Protectorate|
|Sultanate of Zanzibar||Protectorate of Kenya. Formed by the unification of the Colony of Kenya and the Kenya Protectorate.Under Zanzibari sovereignty, administered by the UK|
|British Nigeria||Nigeria||United Kingdom||1960|
|Sierra Leone Colony and Protectorate||Sierra Leone||United Kingdom||71,740||27,699||1961|
|Southern Rhodesia||Zimbabwe||United Kingdom||6,930,000||390,580||150,804||1980|
|Tanganyika||Tanganyika||1963||Trust Territory. Later joined with the People's Republic of Zanzibar and Pemba to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, now Tanzania|
|Uganda Protectorate||Uganda||United Kingdom||1962|
|Zanzibar||People's Republic of Zanzibar and Pemba||United Kingdom||2,643||1,020||1963||Later joined with the Republic of Tanganyika to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, now Tanzania|
|British Mauritius||Mauritius||United Kingdom||2,040||787||1968|
|Belgian Congo||Congo Léopoldville||Belgium||16,610,000||2,344,858||905,355||1960|
|Spanish Guinea||Equatorial Guinea||Spain||28,051||10,828||1968|
|French Cameroun||Cameroon||France||1960||Trust Territory|
|French Equatorial Africa||French Chad||Chad||France||1960|
|French Congo||Republic of the Congo|
|Ubangi Shari||Central African Republic|
|French protectorate of Morocco||Morocco||France||1956|
|Trust Territory of Somaliland||Somalia||Italy||1960||Joined the State of Somaliland to form Somalia|
|Portuguese Cape Verde||Cape Verde||Portugal||4,033||1,557||1975|
|Portuguese São Tomé and Príncipe||São Tomé and Príncipe||Portugal||1,001||372||1975|
|French West Africa||French Dahomey||Dahomey||France||1960|
|Colony of Niger||Upper Volta|
|South West Africa||Namibia||South Africa||2,088,669||825,418||318,696||1990||Foreign relations of Namibia|
|Asia||Federation of South Arabia||South Yemen||1967|
|Malayan Union||Federation of Malaya ||132,364||51,106||1957||Later became Malaysia|
|Singapore||4,608,167||693||268||1963||Singapore briefly joined Malaysia incorporated into Malaya to form a state of Malaysia in 1963|
|Singapore||Singapore ||Malaysia||4,608,167||693||268||1965||Regained independence in 1965.|
|Colony of Sarawak||Sarawak||United Kingdom||124,450||48,050||1963||Later Incorporated into Malaya to form a state of Malaysia|
|Europe||British Cyprus||Cyprus||United Kingdom||9,251||3,572||1960|
|Colony of Malta||Malta||316||121||1964|
|North America||Bahamas||The Bahamas||13,878||5,358||1973|
|British Leeward Islands||Antigua||Antigua and Barbuda||1981|
|Saint Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla||St. Kitts and Nevis||1983||Separated from Anguilla, which is still a non-self-governing territory|
|Colony of Jamaica||Jamaica||11,100||4,444||1962|
|Trinidad and Tobago||Trinidad and Tobago||5,128||1,978|
|British Windward Islands||Dominica||1978|
|St. Vincent and the Grenadines|
|Oceania||Fiji Islands||Fiji||United Kingdom||1970|
|Gilbert and Ellice Islands||Kiribati||1979|
|Trust Territory of Nauru||Nauru||Australia||21||8||1968|
|New Hebrides||Vanuatu||Anglo-French Condominium||100,000||12,189||4,706||1980|
|Territory of Papua and New Guinea||Papua New Guinea||Australia||1975|
|British Solomon Islands||Solomon Islands||United Kingdom||28,896||11,157||1978|
|Western Samoa Trust Territory||Western Samoa||New Zealand||1962|
|Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands||Marshall Islands||United States||68,000||180||70||1990||An independent state in free association with the United States|
|Federated States of Micronesia||111,000||702||271|
|South America||Dutch Guiana||Suriname||Netherlands||475,996||163,270||63,039||1975||Politics of Suriname|
|British Guiana||Guyana||United Kingdom||1966|
Gibraltar is an overseas territory of the United Kingdom and is self-governing in all matters but defence.
General elections were held in the Cook Islands on 20 April 1965 to elect 22 MPs to the Cook Islands Legislative Assembly. The elections were won by the Cook Islands Party and saw Albert Henry become the Cook Islands' first Prime Minister.
Because the election had the potential to result in removing the Cook Islands from the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories, the election was observed by representatives of the UN. The holding of an election was necessary prior to the Constitution of the Cook Islands coming into force and the constitution, if approved by the elected Legislature, would institute self-government for the Cook Islands. After the election, the Legislative Assembly approved the constitution and the Cook Islands became self-governing on 4 August 1965. As a result, the UN removed the Cook Islands from its list of Non-Self-Governing Territories.1984 Cocos (Keeling) Islands status referendum
A status referendum was held in the Cocos (Keeling) Islands on 6 April 1984. All registered voters participated in the vote, with 88% voting for integration with Australia. The referendum has been described as the "smallest act of self-determination ever conducted".1987 New Caledonian independence referendum
An independence referendum was held in New Caledonia on 13 September 1987. Voters were given the choice of remaining part of France or becoming independent. Only 1.7% voted in favour of independence.2006 Tokelauan self-determination referendum
The Tokelau self-determination referendum of 2006, supervised by the United Nations, was held from February 11 to February 15, 2006. The defeated proposal would have changed Tokelau's status from an unincorporated New Zealand territory to a self-governing state in free association with New Zealand, akin to the Cook Islands and Niue.
After 581 of the 615 eligible voters cast a proper ballot (3 ruined ballots were also cast), the referendum fell 38 votes short of the two-thirds majority required to succeed in a change of status.The majority of Tokelauans reside in New Zealand, and were ineligible to vote in the referendum, in line with standard practice in United Nations mandated votes on self-determination. However concerns among this community may have influenced those who were eligible to vote, thereby contributing to the referendum's failure.The passage of the referendum would have removed Tokelau from the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories, as the Cook Islands and Niue were removed from this list when they were granted self-governance in 1965 and 1974, respectively.
Outgoing Tokelau Ulu (head of government) Pio Tuia suggested in February 2006 that since the vote failed to pass by such a small margin, the issue was likely to be revisited in a few years' time. In June 2006, his successor Kolouei O'Brien announced that the Fono had agreed to hold a similar referendum again in late 2007 or early 2008; in the end, it was decided to hold a second referendum on self-determination in October 2007.An unintended result of the United Nations' recent efforts to promote decolonization in Tokelau has been the re-emergence of a Tokelauan claim to Swains Island, which is legally part of American Samoa, hitherto a somewhat dormant issue.Colin Beck (diplomat)
Colin Beck is a Solomon Islands diplomat. He is the Solomons' current permanent representative to the United Nations and current ambassador to the United States. He also served a one-year term from 2008 to 2009 as vice-president-elect of the 63rd Session of the United Nations General Assembly.As his country's representative in the United Nations, he spearheaded the motion which led to the United Nations General Assembly re-inscribing French Polynesia on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories in May 2013.Colony
In history, a colony is a territory under the immediate complete political control and occupied by settlers of a state, distinct from the home territory of the sovereign. For colonies in antiquity, city-states would often found their own colonies. Some colonies were historically countries, while others were territories without definite statehood from their inception.
The metropolitan state is the state that rules the colony. In Ancient Greece, the city that founded a colony was known as the metropolis. "Mother country" is a reference to the metropolitan state from the point of view of citizens who live in its colony. There is a United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories.
Unlike a puppet state or satellite state, a colony has no independent international representation, and its top-level administration is under direct control of the metropolitan state.
The term informal colony is used by some historians to refer to a country under the de facto control of another state, although this term is often contentious.Confederation of Independent Football Associations
The Confederation of Independent Football Associations (CONIFA) is the international governing body for association football teams that are not affiliated with FIFA. Currently, CONIFA is responsible for the organization of the ConIFA World Football Cup and the CONIFA European Football Cup.Dependent territory
A dependent territory, dependent area or dependency is a territory that does not possess full political independence or sovereignty as a sovereign state yet remains politically outside the controlling state's integral area.A dependency is commonly distinguished from country subdivisions by not being considered to be integral territory of the governing state. Administrative subdivisions instead are understood as typically representing a division of the state proper. A dependent territory conversely often maintains a great degree of autonomy from the controlling central state. Historically, most colonies were considered dependencies. Those dependent territories currently remaining generally maintain a very high degree of political autonomy. Not all autonomous entities, though, are considered to be dependencies, and not all dependencies are autonomous. Most inhabited dependent territories have their own ISO 3166 country codes.
Some political entities inhabit a special position guaranteed by international treaty or other agreement: creating a certain level of autonomy (e.g., differences in immigration rules). These are sometimes considered or at least grouped with dependencies, but are officially considered by their controlling states to be integral parts of the state. Examples are Åland (Finland) and Hong Kong (China).ISO 3166
ISO 3166 is a standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) that defines codes for the names of countries, dependent territories, special areas of geographical interest, and their principal subdivisions (e.g., provinces or states). The official name of the standard is Codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions.Independence
Independence is a condition of a person, nation, country, or state in which its residents and population, or some portion thereof, exercise self-government, and usually sovereignty, over the territory. The opposite of independence is the status of a dependent territory.Outline of New Caledonia
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to New Caledonia:
New Caledonia – "sui generis collectivity" (in practice an overseas territory) of France, comprising a main island (Grande Terre), the Loyalty Islands, and several smaller islands. It is located in the region of Melanesia in the southwest Pacific. At about half the size of Taiwan, it has a land area of 18,575.5 square kilometres (7,172 sq mi). The population was 244,600 inhabitants as of January 2008 official estimates. The capital and largest city of the territory is Nouméa. The currency is the CFP franc.
Since 1986 the United Nations Committee on Decolonization has included New Caledonia on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories. New Caledonia will decide whether to remain within the French Republic or become an independent state in a referendum sometime after 2014.
Its capital Nouméa is the seat of the regional organization the Secretariat of the Pacific Community (formerly the South Pacific Commission).Outline of Tokelau
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Tokelau:
Tokelau is a territory of New Zealand comprising three tropical coral atolls in the South Pacific Ocean. The United Nations General Assembly includes Tokelau on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories.Until 1976 the official name was Tokelau Islands. Tokelau is sometimes referred to by Westerners by the older, colonial name of The Union Islands.Outline of the Pitcairn Islands
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the Pitcairn Islands:
The Pitcairn, Henderson, Ducie and Oeno Islands, commonly known as the Pitcairn Islands or just Pitcairn, are a group of four volcanic islands in the South Pacific Ocean. The islands are a British overseas territory (formerly a British colony), the last remaining in the Pacific. Only Pitcairn Island, the second largest island, is inhabited.
The islands are best known for being the home of the descendants of the Bounty mutineers and the Tahitians who accompanied them, an event retold in numerous books and films. This story is still apparent in the surnames of many of the islanders. With only 48 inhabitants (from nine families), Pitcairn is also notable for being the least populated jurisdiction in the world (although it is not a sovereign nation). The United Nations Committee on Decolonisation includes Pitcairn on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories.Politics of Anguilla
Politics of Anguilla takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic dependency, whereby the Premier is the head of government, and of a multi-party system. Anguilla, the most northerly of the Leeward Islands in the Lesser Antilles, is an internally self-governing overseas territory of the United Kingdom. The United Nations Committee on Decolonization includes Anguilla on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories. The territory's constitution is Anguilla Constitutional Order 1 April 1982 (amended 1990 and 2019). Executive power is exercised by the Premier and the Executive Council. Legislative power is vested in both the Executive Council and the House of Assembly.
The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. Military defence is the responsibility of the United Kingdom.Politics of Bermuda
Bermuda is a parliamentary representative democratic dependency. The premier is the head of government, and there is a multi-party system.
Bermuda is the oldest self-governing British Overseas Territory and has a great degree of internal autonomy. Its parliament held its first session in 1620, making it the third-oldest continuous parliament in the world. The original system of government was created under the Virginia Company, which colonised Bermuda, accidentally in 1609, and deliberately from 1612. The Virginia Company lost its Royal Charter for North America ("Virginia") in 1622, and the Crown assumed responsibility for the administration of the continental colony. Bermuda, however, passed in 1615 to a new company, The Somers Isles Company (The Somers Isles being the other official name of the colony), formed by the same shareholders. The House of Assembly was created under that company, which continued to appoint governors until it was dissolved in 1684, with the Crown assuming responsibility for the Colony's administration. The Crown left in place the political system created under the Company. The Colonial Parliament originally consisted only of the lower house. The Privy Council, an appointed body, served in the roles of an upper house and a cabinet. The President of The Council could find himself temporarily acting as governor when no governor was present.
Voting was originally restricted to male landowners. When the numbers of non-white landowners began to increase, a minimum value was established for the properties which entitled their owners to vote. In 1960, this was £60. A man could vote in each parish in which he owned sufficiently valuable land – giving the richest whites as many as nine votes each if they so desired.Since 1968 Bermuda has had a constitution that sets out its structure of government. Queen Elizabeth II is head of state and is represented in Bermuda by a governor, whom she appoints. Internally, Bermuda has a parliamentary system of government. The governor has special responsibilities in four areas: external affairs, defence, internal security, and the police.
The constitution provided the island with formal responsibility for internal self-government, while the British Government retained responsibility for external affairs, defence, and security. The Bermudian Government is always consulted on any international negotiations affecting the territory. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the Parliament. The party system is dominated by the Progressive Labour Party and the One Bermuda Alliance, while prior to 1998 it had been dominated by the United Bermuda Party.
The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. Military defence is officially the responsibility of the United Kingdom, but Bermuda maintains its own military force.
Bermuda participates, through British delegations, in the UN and some of its specialized and related agencies. The United Nations Committee on Decolonization includes Bermuda on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories.Politics of Montserrat
Politics of Montserrat takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic dependency, whereby the Premier is the head of government, and of a multi-party system. Montserrat is an internally self-governing overseas territory of the United Kingdom. The United Nations Committee on Decolonization includes Montserrat on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the Legislative Assembly.
The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. Military defence is the responsibility of the United Kingdom.Politics of the British Virgin Islands
Politics of the British Virgin Islands takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic dependency, whereby the Premier is the head of government, and of a multi-party system. The British Virgin Islands (officially the "Virgin Islands") are an internally self-governing overseas territory of the United Kingdom. The United Nations Committee on Decolonization includes the islands on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories. The Constitution of the Islands was introduced in 1971 and amended in 1979, 1982, 1991, 1994, 2000 and 2007. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the House of Assembly. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. Military defence is the responsibility of the United Kingdom.
A new constitution was made in 2007 (the Virgin Islands Constitution Order 2007) and came into force after the Legislative Council (the former name of the House of Assembly) was dissolved for the 2007 general election.Politics of the Turks and Caicos Islands
Politics of the Turks and Caicos Islands takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic dependency, whereby as of August 9, 2006 the Premier is the head of government, and of a multi-party system. The islands are an internally self-governing overseas territory of the United Kingdom. The United Nations Committee on Decolonization includes the Turks and Caicos Islands on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories.
Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the Legislative Council.
The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. Military defence is the responsibility of the United Kingdom.
The capital of the Turks and Caicos Islands is Cockburn Town on Grand Turk. The islands were under Jamaican jurisdiction until 1962, when they assumed the status of a crown colony. The governor of the Bahamas oversaw affairs from 1965 to 1973. With Bahamian independence, the islands received a separate governor in 1973. Although independence was agreed upon for 1982, the policy was reversed and the islands are presently a British overseas territory.
The islands adopted a constitution on August 30, 1976, which is Constitution Day, the national holiday. The constitution was suspended in 1986, but restored and revised March 5, 1988. A new Constitution was instituted in 2006, but was suspended in 2009 after the discovery of massive corruption and financial misfeasance by ministers. The territorial government was restored under a new Constitution after a general election in November 2012.
The territory's legal system is based on English common law, with a small number of laws adopted from Jamaica and the Bahamas. Suffrage is universal for those over 18 years of age. English is the official language.Vanuatu and the United Nations
The Republic of Vanuatu has been a member of the United Nations since the year of its independence in 1980. The country was a particularly active member in the 1980s, when, governed by Prime Minister Father Walter Lini and represented by Ambassador Robert Van Lierop, it was a consistent advocate for decolonisation. Subsequently, its emphasis within the United Nations shifted to the issue of climate change and the vulnerability of Small Island Developing States.
United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories
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