The United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL) was a United Nations peacekeeping operation in Sierra Leone from 1999 to 2006. It was created by the United Nations Security Council in October 1999 to help with the implementation of the Lomé Peace Accord, an agreement intended to end the Sierra Leonean civil war. UNAMSIL expanded in size several times in 2000 and 2001. It concluded its mandate at the end of 2005, the Security Council having declared that its mission was complete.
The mandate was notable for authorizing UNAMSIL to protect civilians under imminent threat of physical violence (albeit "within its capabilities and areas of deployment") – a return to a more proactive style of UN peacekeeping.
UNAMSIL replaced a previous mission, the United Nations Observer Mission in Sierra Leone (UNOMSIL). After 2005 the United Nations Integrated Office in Sierra Leone (UNIOSIL) began operations as a follow up to UNAMSIL. UNIOSIL's mandate was extended twice and ended in September 2008.
|United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone|
|Formation||22 October 1999|
|Headquarters||Freetown, Sierra Leone|
|Chief of Mission|
Daudi Ngelautwa Mwakawago Tanzania
Chief Military Observer
|United Nations Security Council|
The civil war began with the 1991 campaign by the Revolutionary United Front (RUF) to remove President Joseph Momoh from power. Illicit diamond trade played a central role in financing the conflict and multiple actors were present with outside intervention for both sides. The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) sent their Military Observer Group (ECOMOG) to defend the Momoh Government in 1991. After a request from the Sierra Leone head of state, the UN Secretary-General sent an exploratory mission to Sierra Leone in December 1994. The results of the mission pushed forward the appointment of Berhanu Dinka as Special Envoy, who worked with the ECOWAS and the Organization of African Unity (OAU) to negotiate a peace settlement. Nonetheless, intermittent peace negotiations failed to prevent military coups and several regime changes throughout the following decade. The Abidjan Peace Accord was an effort between Sierra Leone President Ahmad Tejan Kabbah and RUF leader Foday Sankoh, but ultimately the results were not honored and Kabbah faced a military coup months later. United Nations Security Council Resolution 1181 in July 1998 established the United Nations Observer Mission in Sierra Leone (UNOMSIL) with the goal of monitoring the security situation for an initial period of six months. In early January 1999, RUF rebels attacked and gained control over several areas in Freetown, the capital of Sierra Leone, but were swiftly ousted by ECOMOG. The Lomé Peace Accord were signed by the belligerents on 7 July 1999 focused on amnesty for combatants and the transformation of the RUF into a political party.
On 20 August 1999, the UN expanded the number of military observers within Sierra Leone from 70 to 210. UNAMSIL was established on 22 October 1999 and the UN presence expanded to 260 military observers and 6,000 military personnel. As part of Security Council resolution 1207, UNAMSIL aimed to assist with the implementation of the Lomé Accords. UNAMSIL was originally designed as a neutral peacekeeping force working in conjunction with ECOMOG, whose responsibility was the enforcement of the peace agreement. UNAMSIL relied on the presence of the ECOMOG, which was threatened when Nigerian President Obasanjo presented his intention to withdraw troops. The first group of nearly 500 troops left Sierra Leone just weeks after the resolution on 2 September 1999 and although ECOMOG stopped the withdrawal soon after, about 2,000 Nigerian troops had already left.
According to Security Council Resolution 1270 of 22 October 1999 which established the operation, UNAMSIL had the following mandate:
In February 2000 the mandate had been revised to include the following tasks:
The initial UNAMSIL mandate of October 2000 called for 6,000 military personnel which was later expanded to 11,000 when the mission was upgraded by Chapter VII to allow troops to have enforcing capabilities. UNAMSIL was later expanded to 13,000 personnel in May 2000 and finally authorized in March 2001 to its maximum strength of 17,500 military personnel including 260 military observers and 170 police personnel by Security Council resolution 1346. The maximum deployment strength of UNAMSIL was reached in March 2002 with 17,368 military personnel, 87 UN police , and 322 international and 552 local civilian personnel.
Special Representative of the Secretary-General and Chief of Mission:
|Daudi Ngelautwa Mwakawago||Tanzania||December 2003 – December 2005|
|Alan Doss||United Kingdom||July 2003 – December 2003|
|Oluyemi Adeniji||Nigeria||December 1999 – July 2003|
Force Commander and Chief Military Observer:
|Sajjad Akram||Pakistan||October 2003 – September 2005|
|Daniel Opande||Kenya||November 2000 – September 2003|
|Vijay Kumar Jetley||India||December 1999 – September 2000|
|Hudson Benz||Zambia||March 2003 – September 2005|
|Joseph Dankwa||Ghana||December 1999 – February 2003|
The following countries provided Military Personnel:
The following countries provided Police Personnel:
|Niger||Nigeria||Norway||Pakistan||Russian Federation||Senegal||Sri Lanka|
|Sweden||Tanzania||Turkey||United Kingdom||United States||Zambia||Zimbabwe|
The total estimated cost for this mission is $2.8 billion
|1 July 1999 to 30 June 2000||$264.9 million|
|1 July 2000 to 30 June 2001||$494.4 million|
|1 July 2001 to 30 June 2002||$617.7 million|
|1 July 2002 to 30 June 2003||$603.1 million|
|1 July 2003 to 30 June 2004||$448.7 million|
|1 July 2004 to 30 June 2005||$265.0 million|
|1 July 2005 to 30 June 2006||$107.5 million|
Disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) programs for ex-combattants were central to peace resolutions in the Sierra Leone context. The first phase of DDR that was designed to be carried out by the government with the help of ECOMOG and UNDP was disrupted by a rebel attack in Freetown on 6 January 1999. The second phase-- part of the Lome Agreement--- created a joint operation plan between multiple actors to establish demobilization centers. Nearly 19,000 combattants were disarmed during this period before the May 2000 disturbances. Disarmament required coordination with the warring groups and leaders, including the cooperation of Foday Sankoh. UNAMSIL secured disarmament centers and facilitated the registration of ex-combattants into the DDR program. UNICEF worked parallel to UNAMSIL with the main task of the demobilization and integration of child soldiers who had been recruited into rebel groups. There were disruptions at camps and in Freetown over the delayed payment of DDR allowances, but towards the latter part of the mission, the DDR program saw many improvements, including better information dissemination.Radio UNAMSIL was a central aspect of the mission’s public information strategy. UNAMSIL led Pakistan contingent was deployed in eastern province of Kono. Pakistani contingent were extremely effective and were able to restore peace and order in the area. The effort undertaken by the Pakistani Contingent under the name of 'Hearts and Minds Wining Campaign' proved very successful and helped integrate the communities and people at large. The Pak Batt - 8 led by Lieutenant Colonel Zafar and Major Qavi Khan earned a true acclaim of the people of Koidu. Both the officers of pakistan Army, in the Pakistani Contingent, worked relentlessly to affect the cross-section of the community from building schools, churches and mosques to organise sports competitions for children and workshops for women. They impacted on the daily lives of the people in a way that left a lasting imprint on the lives of the People of Koidu.
The Military Reintegration Plan aimed to the rebuild the security situation in Sierra Leone. The goal was to reach a projected strength of 9,500 police officers by 2005. By March 2003, the program reached between 6,000 and 7,000 police officers, a number lower than expected due to high attrition rate. The mission focused efforts on recruiting new cadets and expanding the capacity of the Police Training School. By 2005, the police force reached the goal of 9,500 officers with UNAMSIL training some 4,000 in routine field training and other programs including computer literacy, human rights, and policing diamond mining.
RUF leaders in the Northern province had displayed prior resistance to the DDR efforts and arrived at a DDR reception center in Makeni on 1 May 2000 demanding ex-combattants be released. When UN personnel refused, the RUF combattants detained 3 UNAMSIL military observers and 4 Kenyans from the peacekeeping force. More RUF engagement the next day attempted to disarm UNAMSIL and sparked similar efforts in other areas. Personnel and materials were intercepted and within days, the RUF had seized nearly 500 UN personnel. British troops were deployed on 7 May to facilitate the evacuation of national, but the additional presence boosted the confidence of UNAMSIL. The former colonial power of Sierra Leone deployed about 900 forces with a combate mandate. One of the focal demands of the RUF was the release of Foday Sankoh and other leaders held by the Sierra Leone government. As a result of strong international and regional pressure, 461 UN personnel were released through Liberia between May 16 and 28. This release came about due to mediation through Liberian president Charles Taylor, the main foreign backer of the RUF. A later rescue mission in July successfully extracted 222 Indian peacekeepers and 11 military observers who were surrounded at Kailahun. UN personnel grew to over 13,000 amist security threats at this time.
The Freetown government emphasized pursuing a counter strategy against the rebels and not lessening the war effort, while UNAMSIL diverging interests pushed for another ceasefire. Attempts by UNAMSIL and ECOWAS to establish contact with RUF succeeded in October 2000 when RUF leaders expressed interest in a ceasefire and returning to the Lomé Agreement. A meeting convened on 10 November 2001 leading to a ceasefire between the government and RUF that included the agreement to return all seized UNAMSIL weapons and the immediate resumption of DDR. UNAMSIL was designated a monitoring role allowed access to all parts of the country and both parties agreed to the unrestricted movement of humanitarian workers and resources. Although mixed signals were presented through the media, RUF leadership reiterated their commitment to the agreement.
On 2 May 2001 the second meeting of the Committee of Six of the ECOWAS Mediation and Security Council addressed the ceasefire that had been maintained since the previous November. Both parties reiterated the commitment for the free movement of persons and the newly trained Sierra Leone Army, trained by UK personnel, would help monitor the cease fire. The meeting addressed the cross-border attacks from Guinea and the transformation of the RUF into a political party. Acting upon the November 2000 agreement, all seized UN arms were returned by 31 May 2001. With Charles Taylor facing sanctions, a diamond ban, and international pressure as well as the loss of troops and prestige in the Guinea attacks, these factors severely hindered Taylor’s ability to sustain the war outside his borders. Losing the backing of a powerful neighbor and a series of defeats, a weak RUF agreed to treaties and failed to incite further violence to the same extent. On 18 January 2002, Sierra Leone president Ahmed Tejan Kabbah officially declared the end of the civil war that had spanned over a decade. There were a total of 192 UN fatalities: 69 troops, 2 military observers, 2 international civilians, 16 local civilians, 1 police, and 2 others.
On 30 June 2005, United Nations Security Council Resolution 1610 extended UNAMSIL’s mandate for a final six months with plans to withdraw on 31 December 2005. Two months later, resolution 1620 established the United Nations Integrated Office in Sierra Leone (UNIOSIL). As of November 2005, the size and strength of UNAMSIL had significantly shrunk with a total of 1,043 uniformed personnel still within the country inclduing 944 trops, 69 miliary observers, 30 police, 216 international civilian personnel, and 369 local civilian staff. UNIOSIL become operational on January first 2006; the follow-up mission strategy was developed jointly with UNAMSIL and the UN country team to focus on poverty reduction through the UN’s development framework as well as maintaining peace through economic good governance. UNIOSIL ended in September 2008 and was replaced by the United Nations Integrated Peacebuilding Office in Sierra Leone (UNIPSIL). The Security Council unanimously agreed to withdraw UNIPSIL by 31 March 2014 although the UN country office will remain present to continue to support the constitutional review process. Former UN Secretary General Ban Ki-Moon travelled to Freetown, Sierra Leone to mark the closure of UNIPSIL where he stated: “Sierra Leone represents one of the world’s most successful cases of post-conflict recovery, peacekeeping and peacebuilding.”
The establishment of UNAMSIL constituted a policy shift in UN peacekeeping as it was one of the first missions where UN troops were permitted to use force. Canadian diplomats in the Security Council and the government of Sierra Leone advocated for this change, while all other Security Council members aimed for a Chapter VI peacekeeping mission. The Canadian mission to the Security Council hosted General Romeo Dallaire, commander for the UN during 1994 Rwandan Genocide, who is a spokesperson for force enforcing capabilities for troops. Chapter VII of the UN charter outlines the power of the Security Council to maintain peace through “measures it deems necessary”, including military power. When the Security Council changed the mandate of UNAMSIL, they outlined the ability to: “take the necessary action, in the discharge of its mandate, to ensure the security and freedom of movement of its personnel and, within its capabilities and areas of deployment, to afford protection to civilians under imminent threat of physical violence” The ability to use force was a powerful deterrent in the illicit diamond trade that fueled the conflict. UNAMSIL created buffer zones between skirmishes in the mining district of Kono and was successful in gaining authority over diamond rich areas. Before UNAMSIL, the Security Council mainly invoked Chapter VII to authorize force to other non-UN actors. However, after the Chapter VII force mandate for Sierra Leone, it has been similarly utilized in sixteen other peacekeeping missions since 1999. Despite the extreme setbacks the mission faced with the capture of over 500 UN personnel, the Security Council did not withdraw the mission. In the wake of Rwanda and Somalia, this represented another shift with sustained interest from the Security Council and bilateral involvement of the United Kingdom pushing the mission to completion.
General elections were held in Sierra Leone on 14 May 2002 to elect a president and parliament. Both votes were won by the Sierra Leone People's Party, whose leader, Ahmed Tejan Kabbah, was re-elected as President. 2,342,547 voters were registered for the election.
The United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone was authorised, under Security Council Resolution 1389 (2002), to assist in the electoral process.List of United Nations Security Council Resolutions 1301 to 1400
This is a list of United Nations Security Council Resolutions 1301 to 1400 adopted between 31 May 2000 and 28 March 2002.Oluyemi Adeniji
Ambassador Oluyemi Adeniji (July 22, 1934 in Ijebu Ode, Ogun State – November 27, 2017 in London) was a Nigerian career diplomat and politician who was the Special Representative of the General Secretary with the United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL) from November 19, 1999 to July 16, 2003. Later he was Foreign Minister of Nigeria from July 2003 to June 2006, then Internal Affairs Minister from 21 June 2006 to May 2007.United Nations Integrated Office in Sierra Leone
The United Nations Integrated Office in Sierra Leone (UNIOSIL) was established by Resolution 1620 of the United Nations Security Council in 2005 to begin operations in 2006 as a follow up to United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL) which helped end the Sierra Leone Civil War.
It was extended twice and ended on 30 September 2008; it was replaced with the United Nations Integrated Peacebuilding Office in Sierra Leone (UNIPSIL).United Nations Security Council Resolution 1299
United Nations Security Council resolution 1299 was adopted unanimously on 19 May 2000, after recalling all previous resolutions on the situation in Sierra Leone. The Council expanded the military component of the United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL) to include a maximum of 13,000 personnel.Having been convinced of the deteriorating security situation in Sierra Leone, the Council declared that a rapid deployment of reinforcements for UNAMSIL was necessary, and the operation was therefore expanded to a maximum of 13,000 military personnel including 260 military observers already present in the country. It commended states who had made troops available to UNAMSIL, accelerated deployment and offered other forms of military assistance.
Finally, acting under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, the Council decided that restrictions imposed in Resolution 1171 (1998) did not apply to states co-operating with UNAMSIL or the Government of Sierra Leone.United Nations Security Council Resolution 1317
United Nations Security Council resolution 1317, adopted unanimously on 5 September 2000, after recalling resolutions 1270 (1999), 1289 (1999) and 1313 (2000) on the situation in Sierra Leone, the Council extended the mandate of the United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL) until 20 September 2000.UNAMSIL's mandate was revised and increased twice at the time of the adoption of Resolution 1317. The Secretary-General Kofi Annan, in his sixth report on Sierra Leone, recommended a six-month extension to UNAMSIL's mandate and an increase in its military component to 20,500 and 260 military observers.United Nations Security Council Resolution 1321
United Nations Security Council resolution 1321, adopted unanimously on 20 September 2000, after recalling resolutions 1270 (1999), 1289 (1999), 1313 (2000) and 1317 (2000) on the situation in Sierra Leone, the Council extended the mandate of the United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL) until 31 December 2000.By extending UNAMSIL's mandate, the Council also decided to review the situation by 31 October 2000. The Secretary-General Kofi Annan, in his sixth report on Sierra Leone, recommended a six-month extension to UNAMSIL's mandate and an increase in its military component to 20,500 and 260 military observers.United Nations Security Council Resolution 1334
United Nations Security Council resolution 1334, adopted unanimously on 22 December 2000, after recalling resolutions 1270 (1999), 1289 (1999), 1313 (2000), 1317 (2000) and 1321 (2000) on the situation in Sierra Leone, the Council extended the mandate of the United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL) until 31 March 2001. It was the final resolution adopted in 2000.
The Security Council expressed concern at the fragile situation in Sierra Leone. It noted the Abuja Agreement signed on 10 November 2000 in the Nigerian capital Abuja between the Government of Sierra Leone and Revolutionary United Front (RUF) and expressed concern that the latter had not met its obligations under the agreement.The resolution recalled the main objectives of UNAMSIL were to extend state authority, restore law and order, stabilise the country and to contribute towards peace efforts through demilitarisation, demobilisation and reintegration programmes and therefore the mission needed to be strengthened. It welcomed efforts by the Secretary-General Kofi Annan to secure commitments of additional troops for UNAMSIL, calling on states to consider contributing peacekeeping forces. The Council would promptly respond to recommendations made by the Secretary-General regarding the operation's strength and mandate.United Nations Security Council Resolution 1370
United Nations Security Council resolution 1370, adopted unanimously on 18 September 2001, after recalling resolutions 1270 (1999), 1289 (2000), 1313 (2000), 1317 (2000), 1321 (2000) and 1346 (2001) on the situation in Sierra Leone, the Council extended the mandate of the United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL) for a period of six months until 31 March 2002, beginning from 30 September 2001.United Nations Security Council Resolution 1385
United Nations Security Council resolution 1385, adopted unanimously on 19 December 2001, after recalling all resolutions on the situation in Sierra Leone, particularly resolutions 1132 (1997), 1171 (1998), 1299 (2000) and 1306 (2000), the Council extended sanctions against the import of rough diamonds except those controlled by the government from the country for a further 11 months, beginning on 5 January 2002.The Security Council welcomed progress made in the Sierra Leone peace process and the efforts of the Sierra Leone government to extend its authority in diamond-producing areas with assistance from the United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL). There was concern at the role of the illicit trade of diamonds in the conflict. It welcomed the founding of a certification regime in relation to neighbouring Guinea's exports of rough diamonds, and there were efforts to break the link between armed conflict and the illicit trade in diamonds.
Acting under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, the Council welcomed the establishment of a Certificate of Origin regime for the diamond trade in Sierra Leone and that it was curbing the flow of blood diamonds. The restrictions on the trade of conflict diamonds (except those controlled by the government) were extended for an additional 11 months. The resolution further noted that the Council could terminate the measures if it so decided and requested the Secretary-General Kofi Annan to publicise the provisions of the current resolution and obligations it imposed.United Nations Security Council Resolution 1400
United Nations Security Council resolution 1400, adopted unanimously on 28 March 2002, after recalling all previous resolutions on the situation in Sierra Leone, the Council extended the mandate of the United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL) for a further six months until 30 September 2002 in the run up to the May 2002 general elections.United Nations Security Council Resolution 1436
United Nations Security Council resolution 1436, adopted unanimously on 24 September 2002, after recalling all previous resolutions on the situation in Sierra Leone, the Council extended the mandate of the United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL) for a further six months beginning on 30 September 2002.Sierra Leone President Ahmad Tejan Kabbah had requested the extension due to fighting in neighbouring Liberia which threatened the peace process.United Nations Security Council Resolution 1470
United Nations Security Council resolution 1470, adopted unanimously on 28 March 2003, after recalling all previous resolutions on the situation in Sierra Leone, the Council extended the mandate of the United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL) for six months until 30 September 2003.United Nations Security Council Resolution 1492
United Nations Security Council resolution 1492, adopted unanimously on 18 July 2003, after recalling all previous resolutions on the situation in Sierra Leone, the Council approved a four-stage reduction of the United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL), culmuinating in a complete withdrawal by December 2004.The Security Council recognised the fragile security situation in the Mano River region, notably the civil war in neighbouring Liberia and the need to strengthen the capacity of the Sierra Leone Police and Armed Forces. It approved of the Secretary-General Kofi Annan's decision concerning the drawdown of UNAMSIL by the end of 2004. The Secretary-General would submit additional recommendations in early 2004 regarding a residual United Nations presence in Sierra Leone.
Key benchmarks of the reduction would be monitored by the Council, while the Secretary-General was instructed to report at the end of each of the four phases on progress made.United Nations Security Council Resolution 1508
United Nations Security Council resolution 1508, adopted unanimously on 19 September 2003, after recalling all previous resolutions on the situation in Sierra Leone, the Council extended the mandate of the United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL) for six months until 31 March 2004.The resolution stated that stability in Sierra Leone would depend on the situation in neighbouring Liberia. On the same day, the Security Council adopted Resolution 1509 (2003) establishing the United Nations Mission in Liberia.United Nations Security Council Resolution 1537
United Nations Security Council resolution 1537, adopted unanimously on 30 March 2004, after recalling all previous resolutions on the situation in Sierra Leone, the Council extended the mandate of the United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL) for six months until 30 September 2004 with a residual force remaining in the country until June 2005.United Nations Security Council Resolution 1562
United Nations Security Council resolution 1562 was adopted unanimously on 17 September 2004. After recalling all previous resolutions on the situation in Sierra Leone, the Council extended the mandate of the United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL) residual presence for a period of nine months until 30 June 2005.United Nations Security Council Resolution 1610
United Nations Security Council resolution1610, adopted unanimously on 30 June 2005, after recalling all previous resolutions on the situation in Sierra Leone, the Council extended the mandate of the United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL) for a final six months until 31 December 2005.United Nations Security Council Resolution 1620
United Nations Security Council resolution1620, adopted unanimously on 31 August 2005, after recalling all previous resolutions on the situation in Sierra Leone, the Council established the United Nations Integrated Office in Sierra Leone (UNIOSIL) for an initial period of twelve months beginning on 1 January 2006, to replace the United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL).