United Nations Development Programme

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the United Nations' global development network.

Headquartered in New York City, UNDP advocates for change and connects countries to knowledge, experience and resources to help people build a better life for themselves. It provides expert advice, training and grants support to developing countries, with increasing emphasis on assistance to the least developed countries. It promotes technical and investment cooperation among nations. The status of UNDP is that of an executive board within the United Nations General Assembly. The UNDP Administrator is the third highest-ranking official of the United Nations after the United Nations Secretary-General and Deputy Secretary-General.[3]

To accomplish the SDGs and encourage global development, UNDP focuses on poverty reduction, HIV/AIDS, democratic governance, energy and environment, social development, and crisis prevention and recovery. UNDP also encourages the protection of human rights and the empowerment of women in all of its programmes. The UNDP Human Development Report Office also publishes an annual Human Development Report (since 1990) to measure and analyse developmental progress. In addition to a global Report, UNDP publishes regional, national, and local Human Development Reports.[4]

The UNDP is funded entirely by voluntary contributions from member nations. The organization operates in 177 countries, where it works with local governments to meet development challenges and develop local capacity. Additionally, the UNDP works internationally to help countries achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). UNDP was one of the main UN agencies involved in the development of the Post-2015 Development Agenda.

UNDP works with nations on their own solutions to global and national development challenges. As they develop local capacity, they draw on the people of UNDP and its wide range of partners. However UNDP offers to help only if the different nations request it to do so.[5]

United Nations Development Programme
Emblem of the United Nations
AbbreviationUNDP
Formation1965
TypeProgramme
Legal statusActive
HeadquartersNew York City
(International territory)
Head
Achim Steiner[1]
(Administrator)
Parent organization
ECOSOC[2]
Websitewww.undp.org
UNDP logo
Logo of the United Nations Development Programme

Founding

The UNDP was founded on 22 November 1965 with the merging of the Expanded Programme of Technical Assistance (EPTA) and the Special Fund.[6] The rationale was to "avoid duplication of [their] activities". The EPTA was set up in 1949 to help the economic and political aspects of underdeveloped countries while the Special Fund was to enlarge the scope of UN technical assistance. The Special Fund arose from the idea of a Special United Nations Fund for Economic Development (SUNFED) (which was initially called the United Nations Fund for Economic Development (UNFED).[7]

Countries such as the Nordic countries were proponents of such a United Nations (UN) controlled fund. However, the fund was opposed by developed countries, especially by the United States who was wary of the Third World dominating such a funding and preferred it to be under the auspices of the World Bank. The concept of SUNFED was dropped to form the Special Fund. This Special Fund was a compromise over the SUNFED concept, it did not provide investment capital, but only helped to bring pre-conditions for private investment.

With the US proposing and creating the International Development Association within the World Bank's umbrella, the EPTA and the Special Fund appeared to be conducting similar work. In 1962, the United Nations Economic and Social Council asked the Secretary General to consider the merits and disadvantages of merging UN technical assistance programs and in 1966, the EPTA and the Special Fund merged to form the UNDP.[8][9][10]

Budget

In 2013, UNDP’s entire budget was approximately US$5 billion.[11]

Funding information table

The following table lists the top 15 DAC 5 Digit Sectors[12] to which UNDP has committed funding, as recorded in its International Aid Transparency Initiative (IATI) publications. The UNDP claims on the IATI Registry website that the data covers 100% of development flows.[13]

UNDP topped the Aid Transparency Index published by Publish What You Fund in 2015 and 2016. "The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) tops the Index for the second time with an excellent score of 93.3%, the only organisation to score above 90%". [14]

Committed funding (US$ millions)
Sector 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Sum
Security system management and reform 624.3 541.7 591.6 643.8 656.4 3,057.9
STD control including HIV/AIDS 415.9 421.4 412.1 465.2 483.5 2,198.1
Public sector policy and administrative management 216.3 299.3 372.2 456.9 462.9 1,807.7
Decentralisation and support to subnational government 256.7 327.5 302.7 338.4 505.8 1,731.1
Reconstruction relief and rehabilitation 249.0 282.5 338.1 376.5 422.0 1,668.2
Elections 157.8 267.8 330.3 279.0 149.8 1,184.7
Disaster prevention and preparedness 146.4 170.2 211.2 243.7 241.3 1,012.9
Energy policy and administrative management 113.3 157.0 198.9 212.3 316.2 997.6
General budget support 77.6 142.7 263.1 223.7 273.9 981.1
Social/ welfare services 108.7 149.4 155.4 219.4 195.2 828.1
Legal and judicial development 62.1 76.6 97.5 113.8 106.9 456.8
Environmental policy and administrative management 49.6 63.4 70.9 95.4 122.0 401.3
Power generation/renewable sources 42.8 44.4 60.3 101.0 125.2 373.7
Democratic participation and civil society 56.3 62.1 62.1 65.9 76.6 323.0
Human rights 28.1 45.5 52.4 88.5 56.2 270.8
Other 334.5 315.5 379.8 507.3 969.5 2,506.6
Total 2,939.5 3,367.1 3,898.5 4,430.9 5,163.6 19,799.6

Functions

UNDP’s offices and staff are on the ground in 170 countries and territories, working with governments and local communities to help them find solutions to global and national development challenges.

UNDP links and coordinates global and national efforts to achieve the goals and national development priorities laid out by host countries. UNDP focuses primarily on five developmental challenges:

Democratic governance

UNDP supports national democratic transitions by providing policy advice and technical support, improving institutional and individual capacity within countries, educating populations about and advocating for democratic reforms, promoting negotiation and dialogue, and sharing successful experiences from other countries and locations. UNDP also supports existing democratic institutions by increasing dialogue, enhancing national debate, and facilitating consensus on national governance programmes.

Poverty reduction

UNDP helps countries develop strategies to combat poverty by expanding access to economic opportunities and resources, linking poverty programmes with countries’ larger goals and policies, and ensuring a greater voice for the poor. It also works at the macro level to reform trade, encourage debt relief and foreign investment, and ensure the poorest of the poor benefit from globalisation. On the ground, UNDP sponsors developmental pilot projects, promotes the role of women in development, and coordinates efforts between governments, NGOs, and outside donors. In this way, UNDP works with local leaders and governments to provide opportunities for impoverished people to create businesses and improve their economic condition.

The UNDP International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth (IPC-IG) in Brasília, Brazil expands the capacities of developing countries to design, implement and evaluate socially inclusive development projects. IPC-IG is a global forum for South-South policy dialogue and learning, having worked with more than 7,000 officials from more than 50 countries.

A 2013 evaluation of the UNDP’s poverty reduction efforts states that the UNDP has effectively supported national efforts to reduce poverty, by helping governments make policy changes that benefit the poor.[15] Nevertheless, the same evaluation also states there is a strong need for better measurement and monitoring of the impacts of the UNDP's work.[16] The UNDP’s Strategic Plan 2014-2017 incorporates the recommendations of this poverty evaluation.[17]

Crisis prevention and recovery

UNDP works to reduce the risk of armed conflicts or disasters, and promote early recovery after crisis have occurred. UNDP works through its country offices to support local government in needs assessment, capacity development, coordinated planning, and policy and standard setting.

Examples of UNDP risk reduction programmes include efforts to control small arms proliferation, strategies to reduce the impact of natural disasters, and programmes to encourage use of diplomacy and prevent violence. Recovery programmes include disarmament, demobilization and reintegration of ex-combatants, demining efforts, programmes to reintegrate displaced persons, restoration of basic services, and transitional justice systems for countries recovering from warfare.

Environment and energy

As the poor are disproportionately affected by environmental degradation and lack of access to clean, affordable water, sanitation and energy services, UNDP seeks to address environmental issues in order to improve developing countries’ abilities to develop sustainably, increase human development and reduce poverty. UNDP works with countries to strengthen their capacity to address global environmental issues by providing innovative policy advice and linking partners through environmentally sensitive development projects that help poor people build sustainable livelihoods.

UNDP’s environmental strategy focuses on effective water governance including access to water supply and sanitation, access to sustainable energy services, Sustainable land management to combat desertification and land degradation, conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, and policies to control emissions of harmful pollutants and ozone-depleting substances. UNDP's Equator Initiative office biennially offers the Equator Prize to recognize outstanding indigenous community efforts to reduce poverty through the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, and thus making local contributions to achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).

In 2012 the Biodiversity Finance Initiative (BIOFIN) was established. BIOFIN brings 30 countries together to develop and implement evidence-based finance plans to safeguards biodiversity. BIOFIN has developed an innovative and adaptable methodology to guide countries to analyse the policy and institutional context for biodiversity finance; measure the current biodiversity expenditures; assess future financial needs; and identify the most suitable finance solutions to achieve national biodiversity targets.[18]

HIV/AIDS

HIV/AIDS is a big issue in today's society and UNDP works to help countries prevent further spreading and reduce its impact, convening The Global Commission on HIV and the Law which reported in 2012.[19]

Hub for Innovative Partnerships

Major programmes underway are:[20]

Human Development Report

Since 1991, the UNDP has annually published the Human Development Report, which includes topics on Human Development and the annual Human Development Index.[4]

Evaluation

The UNDP spends about 0.2% of its budget on internal evaluation of the effectiveness of its programmes.[21] The UNDP’s Evaluation Office is a member of the UN Evaluation Group (UNEG) which brings together all the units responsible for evaluation in the UN system. Currently the UNEG has 43 members and 3 observers.[22]

Global Policy Centers

The UNDP runs six GPCs, including the Seoul GPC on partnerships, and the Global Center for Public Service Excellence that issues the 'Raffles Review' email newsletter on developments in public administration research.

UN co-ordination role

UNDP plays a significant co-ordination role for the UN’s activities in the field of development. This is mainly executed through its leadership of the UN Development Group and through the Resident Co-ordinator System.

United Nations Development Group

The United Nations Development Group (UNDG) was created by the Secretary General in 1997, to improve the effectiveness of UN development at the country level. The UNDG brings together the operational agencies working on development. The Group is chaired by the Administrator of UNDP. UNDP also provides the Secretariat to the Group.

The UNDG develops policies and procedures that allow member agencies to work together and analyse country issues, plan support strategies, implement support programmes, monitor results and advocate for change. These initiatives increase UN impact in helping countries achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), including poverty reduction.

32 UN agencies are members of the UNDG. The Executive Committee consists of the four "founding members": UNICEF, UNFPA, WFP and UNDP. The Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights is an ex-officio member of the Executive Committee.

Resident coordinator system

The Resident Coordinator (RC) system co-ordinates all organizations of the United Nations system dealing with operational activities for development in the field. The RC system aims to bring together the different UN agencies to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of operational activities at the country level. Resident Coordinators, who are funded, appointed and managed by UNDP, lead UN country teams in more than 130 countries and are the designated representatives of the Secretary-General for development operations. Working closely with national governments, Resident Coordinators and country teams advocate the interests and mandates of the UN drawing on the support and guidance of the entire UN family.It is now coordinated by the UNDG.[23]

Controversies

NSA surveillance

Documents of Edward Snowden showed in December 2013 that British and American intelligence agencies surveillance targets with America's National Security Agency (NSA) included organisations such as the United Nations Development Programme, the UN's children's charity UNICEF and Médecins Sans Frontières and the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS).[24]

Allegations of UNDP resources used by Hamas

In August 2016, Israel's Shin Bet security agency went public with the arrest of Wahid Abdallah al Bursh, a Palestinian engineer with the United Nations Development Programme. In its statement, Shin Bet said that Wahid had confessed to being recruited in 2014 to help Hamas.

Among "various assignments" he performed on behalf of Gaza's dominant Islamist group was assistance in building a maritime jetty for its fighters "using UNDP resources," the Shin Bet statement said without providing further details on that charge.

It said Bursh also persuaded his UNDP superiors to prioritize the neighborhoods of Hamas operatives when earmarking money for reconstruction in Gaza, which was devastated by a 2014 war with Israel.[25]

Criticism

The UNDP has been criticised by members of its staff and the Bush administration of the United States for irregularities in its finances in North Korea. Artjon Shkurtaj claimed that he had found counterfeit US dollars in the Programmes safe while the staff were paid in Euros. The UNDP denied any wrongdoing, and keeping improper accounts.[26]

Disarmament and controversy

In mid-2006, as first reported by Inner City Press[27] and then by The New Vision,[28] UNDP halted its disarmament programmes in the Karamoja region of Uganda in response to human rights abuses in the parallel forcible disarmament programmes carried out by the Uganda People's Defence Force.

Administrator

The UNDP Administrator has the rank of an Under-Secretary-General of the United Nations. While the Administrator is often referred to as the third highest-ranking official in the UN (after the UN Secretary General and the UN Deputy Secretary General), this has never been formally codified.

In addition to his or her responsibilities as head of UNDP, the Administrator is also the Vice-Chair of the UN Development Group.[29][30]

The position of Administrator is appointed by the Secretary-General of the UN and confirmed by the General Assembly for a term of four years.[31]

Achim Steiner is the current Administrator.[32] The five countries on the UNDP board have some influence over selection of the administrator.

The first administrator of the UNDP was Paul G. Hoffman, former head of the Economic Cooperation Administration which administered the Marshall Plan.

Other holders of the position have included: Bradford Morse, former Republican congressman from Massachusetts; William Draper, venture capitalist and friend of George H.W. Bush who saw one of the UN system's major achievements, the Human Development Report, introduced during his tenure; Mark Malloch Brown, who was previously Vice President of External Affairs at the World Bank and subsequently became UN Deputy Secretary General. Kemal Derviş, a former finance minister of Turkey and senior World Bank official, was the previous UNDP Administrator. Derviş started his four-year term on 15 August 2005.

Nr Administrator Land Term
9 Achim Steiner  Brazil /  Germany 2017–
8 Helen Clark  New Zealand 2009–2017
7 Kemal Derviş  Turkey 2005–2009
6 Mark Malloch Brown  United Kingdom 1999–2005
5 James Gustave Speth  United States 1993–1999
4 William Henry Draper 1986–1993
3 F. Bradford Morse 1976–1986
2 Rudolph A. Peterson 1972–1976
1 Paul G. Hoffman 1966–1972

Associate Administrator

During meetings of the UN Development Group, which are chaired by the Administrator, UNDP is represented by the Associate Administrator. The position is currently held by Tegegnework Gettu, appointed on 1 December 2015. He is also currently service as Director a.i., for the Africa Region.

Assistant administrators

Assistant Administrators of the UNDP, Assistant United Nations Secretary Generals and Directors of the Regional Bureaus are

  • Susan McDade (Denmark), for Bureau of Management;
  • Abdoulaye Mar Dieye (Senegal), for Bureau for Programme and Policy Support;
  • Haoliang Xu (China), for Asia & Pacific;
  • Mirjana Spoljaric Egger (Switzerland), for Europe & CIS and
  • Lenni Montiel [a.i.] (Venezuela), for Latin America and the Caribbean.

Goodwill Ambassadors

UNDP, along with other UN agencies, has long enlisted the voluntary services and support of prominent individuals as Goodwill Ambassadors to highlight these causes. Their fame helps amplify the urgent and universal message of human development and international cooperation, helping to accelerate achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. They articulate the UNDP development philosophy and programmes of self-reliant opportunities and motivate people to act in the interest of improving their own lives and those of their fellow citizens.

Global Ambassadors

See also

References

  1. ^ "UNDP Executive Board welcomes appointment of Achim Steiner as new Administrator". 19 April 2017.
  2. ^ "Background Guide;: Executive board of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)" (PDF). UN-USA. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 June 2007. Retrieved 13 December 2007. (from internet archive)
  3. ^ un.org Archived 24 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ a b un.org
  5. ^ "United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)". www.un.org.my.
  6. ^ Consolidation of the Special Fund and the Expanded Programme of Technical Assistance in a United Nations Development Programme GA Res 2029, XX (1965)
  7. ^ Stokke, O., 2009, The UN and Development: From Aid to Cooperation, Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, especially Chapter 3
  8. ^ Stokke, O., 2009, The UN and Development: From Aid to Cooperation, Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, p.82
  9. ^ Murphy, C.N. 2006, The United Nations Development Programme: A Better Way? Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp.51–66
  10. ^ Jolly, R., Emmerij. L. And Ghai, D., 2004, UN Contributions to Development Thinking and Practice, Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press pp.73-84
  11. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 December 2012. Retrieved 26 March 2013.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) UNDP Fact Sheet 2012
  12. ^ "DAC 5 Digit Sector". The IATI Standard. Retrieved 4 September 2016.
  13. ^ "About - United Nations Development Programme - IATI Registry". Retrieved 4 September 2016.
  14. ^ "2016 Aid Transparency Index - Publish What You Fund" (PDF). Retrieved 11 December 2017.
  15. ^ "Evaluation of UNDP Contribution to Poverty Reduction". UNDP. Retrieved 4 November 2013.
  16. ^ "Evaluation of UNDP Contribution to Poverty Reduction". UNDP. Retrieved 4 November 2013.
  17. ^ "UNDP Strategic Plan: 2014-2017". UNDP.
  18. ^ Factsheet: The Biodiversity Finance Initiative (BIOFIN). "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 June 2014. Retrieved 3 June 2014.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  19. ^ Global Commission on HIV and the Law
  20. ^ "The Hub for Innovative Partnerships". undp.org. November 2011. Retrieved 17 November 2011.
  21. ^ "Biståndets svarta hål (in Swedish)". Svenska Dagbladet. 30 September 2013. Retrieved 30 September 2013.
  22. ^ ""About the United Nations Evaluation Group"". UN. Retrieved 4 November 2013.
  23. ^ undg.org Archived 20 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  24. ^ GCHQ and NSA targeted charities, Germans, Israeli PM and EU chief The Guardian 20 December 2013
  25. ^ Israel says U.N. aid used by Hamas Reuters 9 August 2016
  26. ^ "UN denies firing 'whistleblower'". BBC News. 7 July 2007. Retrieved 13 December 2007.
  27. ^ Lee, Matthew Russell (28 June 2006). "In Uganda, UNDP's Belated Announcement of Program Halt Leaves Questions Unanswered". www.innercitypress.com.
  28. ^ newvision.co.ug Archived 14 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  29. ^ "About us | UNDP". UNDP.
  30. ^ "UNDG at the Global Level". undg.org.
  31. ^ "Post of the UNDP Administrator". Retrieved 11 March 2009.
  32. ^ "UNDP Administrator Achim Steiner". 3 July 2017.
  33. ^ "Antonio Banderas appointed as UNDP Goodwill Ambassador". UNDP. 17 March 2010. Archived from the original on 5 September 2010. Retrieved 3 August 2010.
  34. ^ a b c d e f g "Goodwill Ambassadors". undp.org. Retrieved 17 March 2017.
  35. ^ "His Royal Highness Crown Prince Haakon". Royal House of Norway. 9 April 2008. Retrieved 16 November 2008.
  36. ^ "Michelle Yeoh appointed as UNDP Goodwill Ambassador".
  37. ^ "Match Against Poverty". United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 25 September 2014

External links

  • Jackson, R. G. A., A Study of the Capacity of the United Nations Development System. 2 vols, Geneva: United Nations, 1969.
  • Mitcham, Chad J. ‘Australia and Development Cooperation at the United Nations: Towards Poverty Reduction.’ In Australia and the United Nations, edited by James Cotton and David Lee, 191-221. Canberra: Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade and Sydney: Longueville Books, 2013.
  • Mitcham, Chad J., Jackson, Sir Robert Gillman (1911-1991), Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University, http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/jackson-sir-robert-gillman-20715/text31511, published online 2016, accessed online 5 September 2017.
  • Official UNDP web site
Achim Steiner

Achim Steiner (born 17 May 1961) is an environmentalist, of Brazilian-German ancestry, who currently serves as the Administrator of the United Nations Development Programme. Before joining UNDP, he was Executive Director of the United Nations Environment Programme UNEP (2006–2016), and director of the Oxford Martin School (2016–2017). He has also served as Director General of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and Secretary-General of the World Commission on Dams.

Chernobyl Recovery and Development Programme

Chernobyl Recovery and Development Programme (CRDP) is developed by the United Nations Development Programme and aims at ensuring return to normal life as a realistic prospect for people living in regions affected by Chernobyl disaster. The Programme provides continuing support to the Government of Ukraine for elaboration and implementation of development-oriented solutions for the regions.

The CRDP, part of the United Nations Development Programme activities in Ukraine, has been launched based on the recommendations of “The Human Consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident. A strategy for Recovery”, the joint report by UN agencies initiated in February 2002. Since 2003 the CRDP is constantly working to mitigate long-term social, economic and environmental consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe, to create more favorable living conditions and to promote sustainable human development in the Chernobyl-affected regions.

In partnerships with international organizations, oblast, rayon and state administrations, village councils, scientific institutions, non-governmental organizations and private business, CRDP supports community organizations and helps them to implement their initiatives on economic, social development and environmental recovery. In addition, the CRDP distributes information about the Chernobyl catastrophe internationally and within Ukraine.

Climate change and poverty

Climate change and poverty link a process and a condition that are interrelated. While climate change and global warming affect the natural environment, especially agriculture, it also affects humans. Climate change globally impacts poverty, particularly in low-income communities.

F. Bradford Morse

Frank Bradford Morse (August 7, 1921 – December 18, 1994) was a member of the United States House of Representatives from Massachusetts. He had a notable career in the United States Congress and the United Nations. On Capitol Hill he served in various capacities for nearly twenty years, the last twelve as Congressman from Lowell, Massachusetts. In 1972, he became Under Secretary General of the United Nations and in 1976, the renowned Administrator of its Development Program. He received a Franklin D. Roosevelt "Four Freedoms" award for his extraordinary career as an international public servant, particularly as Administrator of the United Nations Development Programme.

Gender Inequality Index

The Gender Inequality Index (GII) is an index for measurement of gender disparity that was introduced in the 2010 Human Development Report 20th anniversary edition by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). According to the UNDP, this index is a composite measure to quantify the loss of achievement within a country due to gender inequality. It uses three dimensions to measure opportunity cost: reproductive health, empowerment, and labor market participation.

The new index was introduced as an experimental measure to remedy the shortcomings of the previous indicators, the Gender Development Index (GDI) and the Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM), both of which were introduced in the 1995 Human Development Report.

Helen Clark

Helen Elizabeth Clark (born 26 February 1950) is a New Zealand politician who served as the 37th Prime Minister of New Zealand from 1999 to 2008, and was the Administrator of the United Nations Development Programme from 2009 to 2017. She was New Zealand's fifth-longest-serving prime minister, and the second woman to hold that office.Clark was brought up on a farm outside Hamilton. She entered the University of Auckland in 1968 to study politics, and became active in the New Zealand Labour Party. After graduating she lectured in political studies at the university. Clark entered local politics in 1974 in Auckland but was not elected to any position. Following one unsuccessful attempt, she was elected to Parliament in 1981 as the member for Mount Albert, an electorate she represented until 2009.Clark held numerous Cabinet positions in the Fourth Labour Government, including Minister of Housing, Minister of Health and Minister of Conservation. She was Deputy Prime Minister from 1989 to 1990 under Prime Ministers Geoffrey Palmer and Mike Moore. After Labour's narrow defeat in the 1993 election, Clark challenged Moore for leadership of the party and won, becoming the Leader of the Opposition. Following the 1999 election, Labour formed a governing coalition, and Clark was sworn in as Prime Minister on 5 December 1999.

Clark led the Fifth Labour Government, which implemented several major economic initiatives including Kiwibank, the New Zealand Superannuation Fund, the New Zealand Emissions Trading Scheme and KiwiSaver. Her government also introduced the Foreshore and Seabed Act 2004, which caused major controversy. In foreign affairs, Clark sent troops to the Afghanistan War, but did not contribute combat troops to the Iraq War. She advocated a number of free-trade agreements with major trading partners, including becoming the first developed nation to sign such an agreement with China, and ordered a military deployment to the 2006 East Timorese crisis alongside international partners. After three successive election victories, her government was defeated in the 2008 election; Clark resigned as Prime Minister and party leader on 19 November 2008. She was succeeded as Prime Minister by John Key of the National Party, and as Leader of the Labour Party by Phil Goff.

Clark resigned from Parliament in April 2009 to become the first female head of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Forbes magazine ranked her the 22nd most powerful woman in the world in 2016, down from 20th in 2006. In 2016, she stood for the position of Secretary-General of the United Nations, but was unsuccessful. She left her UNDP administrator post on 19 April 2017 at the end of her second four-year term and was succeeded by Achim Steiner. In 2019, Clark became the patron of The Helen Clark Foundation.

Human Development Index

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a statistic composite index of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development. A country scores a higher HDI when the lifespan is higher, the education level is higher, and the GNI (PPP) per capita is higher. It was developed by Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq, with help from Gustav Ranis of Yale University and Meghnad Desai of the London School of Economics, and was further used to measure a country's development by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP)'s Human Development Report Office.The 2010 Human Development Report introduced an Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI). While the simple HDI remains useful, it stated that "the IHDI is the actual level of human development (accounting for inequality)", and "the HDI can be viewed as an index of 'potential' human development (or the maximum IHDI that could be achieved if there were no inequality)". The index does not take into account several factors, such as the net wealth per capita or the relative quality of goods in a country. This situation tends to lower the ranking for some of the most advanced countries, such as the G7 members and others.The index is based on the human development approach, developed by ul Haq, often framed in terms of whether people are able to "be" and "do" desirable things in life. Examples include—Being: well fed, sheltered, healthy; Doings: work, education, voting, participating in community life. The freedom of choice is central—someone choosing to be hungry (as during a religious fast) is quite different from someone who is hungry because they cannot afford to buy food, or because the country is in a famine.

Human Development Report

The Human Development Report (HDR) is an annual report published by the Human Development Report Office of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).As of 2013 the last decade saw convergence in human development indicators (HDI) values globally, although progress was uneven within and between regions. Developing countries' transformation into major economies with growing political influence has impacted human development progress.Projections in the 2013 report suggested that by 2020 the combined economic output of three leading developing countries alone—Brazil, China and India—will surpass the aggregate production of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom and the United States.

. This shift has related to trade and technology partnerships between emerging economies.However economic growth does not automatically translate into human development progress, so reports have highlighted the need for pro-poor policies and investments in capacity building with a focus on education, nutrition, health and employment skills.

The 2013 report identified four areas of focus for sustainable development:

enhancing equity, including on the gender dimension;

enabling greater voice and participation of citizens, including youth;

confronting environmental pressures; and

managing demographic change.It also critiqued global governance and outdated institutions that do not reflect economic and geopolitical reality.

James Gustave Speth

James Gustave (Gus) Speth (born March 4, 1942 in Orangeburg, South Carolina) is an American environmental lawyer and advocate.

Kemal Derviş

Kemal Derviş (Turkish pronunciation: [keˈmal deɾviʃ]; born 10 January 1949) is a Turkish economist and politician, and former head of the United Nations Development Programme. He was honored by the government of Japan for having "contributed to mainstreaming Japan's development assistance policy through the United Nations". In 2005, he was ranked 67th in the Top 100 Public Intellectuals Poll conducted by Prospect and Foreign Policy magazines. He is Vice President and Director of the Global Economy and Development program at the Brookings Institution and part-time professor of international economics at the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies in Geneva.In March 2015, Derviş agreed to become the Deputy Prime Minister of Turkey responsible for the economy in a cabinet led by Republican People's Party (CHP) leader Kemal Kılıçdaroğlu should his party form the government after the general election to be held in June. He declined to become a Member of Parliament however, stating that he would prefer to participate in the cabinet from outside the Parliament. He is therefore the first and remains the only shadow minister in Turkey.

Law enforcement in Mali

Law enforcement in Mali is the responsibility of the National Police Force (Police Nationale du Mali), which is subordinate to the Ministry of Internal Security and Civil Protection. The National Police Force shares responsibility for internal security with the Gendarmerie, a paramilitary organization; the police are responsible exclusively for urban areas, while the Gendarmerie's primary responsibility is for rural areas, though it may also reinforce the police when needed. According to The Wall Street Journal, each organization has approximately 5,000 personnel, while Interpol gives a figure of over 7,000 for the police.In October 2015, Moussa Ag Infahi replaced Hamidou Kansaye as Director General of the National Police, while Colonel-Major Satigui Dit Moro Sidibé became the new Director General of the Gendarmerie, succeeding Colonel-Major Mody Bérété. Local police districts are headed by commissioners, who report to regional directors at national police headquarters.The police are poorly trained, equipped and led, and suffer from low morale. Corruption is also a problem. Following the 2013 national elections, Mali's new government made improving the police a priority and accepted the assistance of various countries and external organizations, including Japan; the United Nations Development Programme; the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime and the Department of Peacekeeping Operations, through the Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA); and a European Union Training Mission.Mali has been a member of Interpol since 1969.Being a former French colony, Mali has a civil law system based on the French model.

List of Brazilian federative units by Human Development Index

Introduced by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) in 1990, the Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic of education, income and longevity indices, calculated in order to measure social and economic development within countries. It consists of a number between 0 and 1, comprising five tiers of human development—very low, low, medium, high, or very high—wherein the development is considered higher when closer to 1. According to the latest Human Development Report, published in 2015 and reflecting data from 2014, Brazil placed 75th among 188 countries with an HDI value of 0.755. The UNDP highlighted the "rapid advance" of Brazil in two decades, leaving a situation of low human development (0.590) in 1990, reaching medium development (0.669) in 2000 and, finally, achieving high human development (0.726) in 2010.In order to bring a human development perspective to the national level, the UNDP also created, in 1998, the Human Development Atlas in Brazil, which calculates the HDI of all the Brazilian administrative divisions, based on data provided by the decennial censuses conducted by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). Released in 2013, in partnership with the Institute of Applied Economic Research (IPEA) and the João Pinheiro Foundation (FJP), the latest edition of the Human Development Atlas in Brazil shows that the average HDI of the Brazilian federative units grew by 47.5% from 1991 to 2010.Since the beginning of the statistical series in 1991, the Federal District, which contains the national capital—Brasília—, has the highest HDI among the 27 federative units of Brazil, being the only one to fall in the category of very high human development according to 2010 figures. It also topped every subindex composing the HDI, except for longevity, when, in 1991, it was surpassed by Santa Catarina. Meanwhile, Alagoas set out the lowest HDI since 2000, especially due to a poor performance in education. Tocantins put forward the fastest progress in HDI value (0.330) from 1991 to 2010, while Rio de Janeiro had the smallest increase (0.188). According to the UNDP report, the states of the North and Northeast regions have the lowest indicators, with most municipalities registering low or medium human development, while in the South, more than 65% of municipalities have achieved high human development.

List of Indian states by life expectancy at birth

This is a list of Indian states by Life expectancy at birth. The figures come from the Human Development Index Report, published in 2011, by United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) India and Sample Registration Survey (SRS) based life table 2010-14.The report provides life expectancy at birth for years 2002-06 and 2010-14. In 2002-6, Punjab had the second highest life expectancy. Kerala had the highest life expectancy among the states in India, while Assam had the lowest. The figures for some North-Eastern States were unavailable.

List of Mexican states by Human Development Index

The following table presents a listing of Mexico's 32 federal states, ranked in order of their Human Development Index, as reported by the United Nations Development Programme with data from 1990-2017.. As of 2017, only 6 states plus Mexico City have very high human development. The rest of the states all have high human development.

Multidimensional Poverty Index

The Global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) was developed in 2010 by the Oxford Poverty & Human Development Initiative (OPHI) and the United Nations Development Programme. and uses different factors to determine poverty beyond income-based lists. It replaced the previous Human Poverty Index. The global MPI is released annually by OPHI and the results published on its website.

The global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) is an international measure of acute poverty covering over 100 developing countries. It complements traditional income-based poverty measures by capturing the severe deprivations that each person faces at the same time with respect to education, health and living standards. The MPI assesses poverty at the individual level. If someone is deprived in a third or more of ten (weighted) indicators, the global index identifies them as ‘MPI poor’, and the extent – or intensity – of their poverty is measured by the number of deprivations they are experiencing in this ten factors which includes education, sanitation, food and various other indicators. The MPI can be used to create a comprehensive picture of people living in poverty, and permits comparisons both across countries, regions and the world and within countries by ethnic group, urban/rural location, as well as other key household and community characteristics.

These characteristic make the MPI useful as an analytical tool to identify the most vulnerable people - the poorest among the poor, revealing poverty patterns within countries and over time, enabling policy makers to target resources and design policies more effectively.

Paul G. Hoffman

Paul Gray Hoffman (April 26, 1891 – October 8, 1974) was an American automobile company executive, statesman, and global development aid administrator. He was the first administrator of the Economic Cooperation Administration, where he led the implementation of the Marshall Plan from 1948-1950.

Rio Declaration on Environment and Development

The Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, often shortened to Rio Declaration, was a short document produced at the 1992 United Nations "Conference on Environment and Development" (UNCED), informally known as the Earth Summit. The Rio Declaration consisted of 27 principles intended to guide countries in future sustainable development. It was signed by over 170 countries.

Sigrid Kaag

Sigrid Agnes Maria Kaag (born 2 November 1961) is a Dutch politician and diplomat of the Democrats 66 (D66) party. She is the Minister for Foreign Trade and Development Cooperation in the Cabinet Rutte III since 26 October 2017.A diplomat by occupation, Kaag worked as a civil servant for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs from 1990 until 1993 when she became a United Nations official for the UNRWA in Jerusalem from 1994 until 1997. Kaag worked as a administrator at the International Organization for Migration in Geneva from 1998 until 2004 when she became a senior advisor of the United Nations for Khartoum and Nairobi until 2005 when she became a senior official at UNICEF. Kaag served as Regional Director for Middle East and North Africa for UNICEF in Amman from 2007 until May 2010 when she was appointed Assistant Secretary-General and Director of the Bureau of External Relations of the UNDP in New York. and oversaw UNDP’s strategic external engagement, organization-wide communication and advocacy as well as resource mobilization.Previously she was working for the United Nations. From January 2015 until October 2017 she served as the United Nations Special Coordinator for Lebanon (UNSCOL). Prior to that she served as Under Secretary-General and Special Coordinator of the United Nations – Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (UN-OPCW) Joint Mission to eliminate the declared chemical weapons programme of the Syrian Arab Republic between October 2013 and September 2014. Until her mission in Syria she was employed as Assistant Secretary-General and Assistant Administrator and Director of the Bureau of External Relations and Advocacy of the United Nations Development Programme.

United Nations Development Group

The United Nations Development Group (UNDG) is a consortium of many United Nations agencies, created by the Secretary-General of the United Nations in 1997 to improve the effectiveness of UN development activities at the country level.

Its strategic priorities are to respond to the Triennial comprehensive policy review (TCPR) – which became in 2008 the Quadrennial comprehensive policy review (QCPR) – and global development priorities, as well as to ensure the UN development system becomes more internally focused and coherent. The UNDG strategic priorities give direction to UNDG members' efforts at the global, regional and country level to facilitate a step change in the quality and impact of UN support at the country level. Currently, the UNDG is one of the main UN actors involved in the development of the Post-2015 Development Agenda.UNDG brings together 32 UN agencies and groups, plus five observers working on various development issues.

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