United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs

The United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESA) is part of the United Nations Secretariat and is responsible for the follow-up to major United Nations Summits and Conferences, as well as services to the United Nations Economic and Social Council and the Second and Third Committees of the United Nations General Assembly.[1] UN DESA assists countries around the world in agenda-setting and decision-making with the goal of meeting their economic, social and environmental challenges. It supports international cooperation to promote sustainable development for all, having as a foundation the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) as adopted by the UN General Assembly on 25 September 2015. In providing a broad range of analytical products, policy advice, and technical assistance, UN DESA effectively translates global commitments in the economic, social and environmental spheres into national policies and actions and continues to play a key role in monitoring progress towards internationally agreed-upon development goals. It is also a member of the United Nations Development Group.[2]

United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs
Emblem of the United Nations
Logo for the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs
AbbreviationUN DESA
Legal statusActive
HeadquartersNew York City, New York, U.S.
Liu Zhenmin


UN DESA is part of the UN Secretariat, which is funded through regular assessed contributions from Member States. The Department was reorganized into its present form in 1997. The Department is headed by Liu Zhenmin who assumed the office of Under-Secretary-General for Economic and Social Affairs, following his appointment to this position by Secretary-General António Guterres on 26 July 2017. Mr. Liu advises the Secretary-General on the three pillars of sustainable development—social economic and environmental, and nurtures key partnerships with governments, UN agencies and civil society organizations, including the SDGs. In directing and managing UN DESA, the Under-Secretary-General is supported by the Assistant Secretary-General for Economic Development and the Assistant Secretary-General for Policy Coordination and Inter-Agency Affairs.


UN DESA's mission is to promote sustainable development for all, focusing on the most vulnerable. This reflects a fundamental concern for equity and equality in countries large and small, developed and developing. It underscores the need for all stakeholders – governments, UN and other international organizations, civil society and the private sector – to do their part to improve economic and social well-being. This emphasis on equitable participation by all people and nations is what makes the United Nations unique and gives the development agenda its universal legitimacy.


UN DESA's work programme can be categorized into three areas:

Adoption of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development on 25 September 2015

Norm-setting: By facilitating major global conferences and summits, as mandated by UN Member States, UN DESA assists countries as they find common ground and take decisive steps forward. Specifically, UN DESA is tasked with supporting deliberations in two major UN charter bodies: the UN General Assembly and UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), including ECOSOC's subsidiary bodies. In addition, UN DESA organises and supports consultations with a range of stakeholders, including the private sector and civil society. In this regard, UN DESA's main priorities are promoting progress toward and strengthening accountability in achieving the SDGs. Furthermore, UN DESA is responsible for ensuring civil society engagement with the UN through the ECOSOC bodies.

Data and Analysis: UN DESA, generates, analyzes and compiles a wide range of official economic, social and environmental data and information on which Member States draw to review common problems and to take stock of policy options. One of the Department's primary contributions is providing policy research and analysis for governments to use in their deliberations and decision-making[3] UN DESA is also the lead “author” Department of the UN Secretariat. The research and analytical work covers a range of economic, social and environmental issues. The Department produces a host of flagship publications and major intergovernmental reports, which are essential to UN negotiations and global policy decisions. The publications are distributed in print and electronic formats around the world.

Capacity-building: UN DESA also advises Member States / Governments on implementing the policies and programmes developed at UN conferences back in their home countries. It assists interested Governments in translating policy frameworks developed in UN conferences and summits into programmes at the country level and, through technical assistance, helps build national capacities.


Economic Analysis and Policy Division: The Economic Analysis and Policy Division is the think-tank for development economics within DESA and the main development research unit within the United Nations. The core functions of the Division include monitoring the global economic and social situation, promoting macroeconomic policy co-ordination and analyzing development trends to improve the implementation of the UN Development Agenda. It has recently been contributing an array of analyses and policy recommendations to the international debate on the global financial and economic crisis. The division is responsible for publishing the yearly World Economic Situation and Prospects and the World Economic Social Survey reports, as well as a monthly briefing on the world economic landscape. It is also host to the Committee for Development Policy, which monitors and benchmarks the Least Developed Countries.

Division for Sustainable Development Goals: The Division for Sustainable Development Goals supports intergovernmental processes related to sustainable development at the UN and serves as the substantive secretariat to the High-level Political Forum on sustainable development. The Division provides leadership and catalyses action to promote and implement the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development [4] and the related 17 SDGs [5] by conducting research and undertaking substantive analysis to inform policy making, providing capacity development, and facilitating UN inter-agency coordination and the engagement of Major Groups and other Stakeholders in the United Nations’ work on sustainable development. The Division also houses a Unit that is mandated to support the further implementation of intergovernmental agreements related to the sustainable development of small island developing states (SIDS), including the SAMOA Pathway,[6] the Mauritius Strategy [7] for the further Implementation of the Barbados Programme of Action and the Barbados Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States [8]

Public Administration and Development Management: The Division for Public Administration and Development Management helps countries build and strengthen their public institutions. It assists governments to advance public sector reform and improve the quality of public service delivery. By offering capacity-building activities, promoting knowledge-sharing and providing training and online tools, the Division champions efficient, effective and citizen-oriented public services based on the principles of transparency, accountability and civic participation. It stresses innovative approaches to public management, particularly through e-government development.

Statistics Division: The Statistics Division of DESA is a global centre for data on all subject matters, bringing to the world statistical information compiled by the entire UN system. It manages and facilitates the development of the global statistical system and serves as the secretariat of the United Nations Statistical Commission. The Division strives to develop statistical standards and norms for global statistical activities and supports the efforts of countries to strengthen their national statistical systems. It has an extensive publication programme on technical manuals and statistical information.

Financing for Sustainable Development: The Financing for Sustainable Development Office provides support for sustained follow-up to the commitments contained in the Addis Ababa Action Agenda, building upon the 2008 Doha Declaration and the 2002 Monterrey Consensus, in seven main areas: (i) domestic public resources; (ii) domestic and international private business and finance; (iii) international development cooperation; (iv) international trade as an engine for development; (v) debt sustainability; (vi) addressing systemic issues; and (vii) science, technology, innovation and capacity-building. The Addis Agenda also deals with data, monitoring and follow-up in its conclusion and establishes a dedicated and strengthened follow-up and review process for the financing for development (FfD) outcomes, and all the means of implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The Financing for Sustainable Development Office supports the FfD follow-up and review process, working with Member States, major institutional stakeholders, other relevant organizations, civil society, the business sector.

SDG's on UN building

Office of Intergovernmental Support and Coordination for Sustainable Development: The Office of Intergovernmental Support and Coordination for Sustainable Development provides substantive support and promotes consensus in the United Nations Economic and Social Council and the General Assembly. It works with Member States, other DESA divisions, the UN system entities, NGOs and other major groups and other stakeholders of society to support the follow-up and review of the 2030 Agenda by UN intergovernmental bodies.The Office also supports the General Assembly quadrennial comprehensive policy review (QCPR) and is the entry point for NGOs seeking consultative status with ECOSOC, through its support to the NGO Committee.

Population Division: The Population Division in DESA is a world leader in demographic research. It prepares estimates and projections on matters such as total population, fertility, mortality, migration and urbanisation, which serve as reference for the UN system, many Governments, academics, the media and corporate users throughout the world. The Division is the substantive secretariat of the Commission on Population and Development and therefore monitors the implementation of the Programme of Action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development and its follow-up commitments. It produces selected indicators related to the reproductive health targets of the Millennium Development Goals and assists the deliberations of the General Assembly in the area of international migration and development.

Division for Inclusive Social Development: The Division for Inclusive Social Development assists governments and civil society organizations formulate social policies that foster more secure, just, free and harmonious societies. The Division works with development partners to promote the realization of a 'society for all', where all members, including older persons, youth, persons with disabilities, indigenous peoples and other often-marginalised groups all have equal say and equal participation. It provides the primary support and servicing to the Commission for Social Development, the United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues and the Conference of State Parties to the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.

Forum on Forests: The United Nations Forum on Forests Secretariat is the DESA focal point on all forest policy issues. It provides substantive support to the biennial sessions of the Forum, prepares technical reports and analytical studies, and fosters dialogue to enhance co-operation and co-ordination on forest issues. It provides a comprehensive and integrated view of forests which encompasses economic, social and environmental aspects. In 2009, the Secretariat was mandated to launch a Facilitative Process to assist countries in mobilizing financing for sustainable forest management.

Conferences (from 1997)














  • 10 Year Review of the Barbados Programme of Action.


  • International Ministerial Conference of Landlocked and Transit Developing Countries.
  • Phase One of World Summit on the Information Society.






  • Second UN Conference on Human Settlement (HABITAT II).
  • World Food Summit.



  • International Conference on Population and Development.
  • Global Conference on the Sustainable Development of Small Island Development States.


  • World Conference on Human Rights.


  • United Nations Conference on Environment and Development.
  • International Conference on Nutrition.


  • World Summit for Children.
  • World Conference on Education for all.
  • Second UN Conference on the Least Developed Countries.


UN DESA is the lead “author” Department of the UN Secretariat and the Department produces a host of flagship publications and major intergovernmental reports, which are essential to UN negotiations and global policy decisions. The publications are distributed in print and electronic formats around the world. Access UN DESA's reports here.

Civil society

Within UN DESA there are a number of units that work with Civil Society and non-state actors. The NGO Branch of the Office for ECOSOC Support and Coordination is the focal point for non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in consultative status with the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) and acts on behalf of government to provide support for the committee which evaluates. UN DESA services 4,700 NGOs in consultative status with the ECOSOC, and all other NGOs seeking to work with the UN. Each year, some 9,000 NGO representatives participate in those events in New York City alone.

See also


  1. ^ "About Mr. Wu Hongbo, Under-Secretary-General". Retrieved 21 September 2007.
  2. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 15 May 2012.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  3. ^ "DESA's flagship data resources and analytic publications". Retrieved 3 January 2017.
  4. ^ "transforming our world through sustainable development". Retrieved 10 January 2017.
  5. ^ "17 SDGs". Retrieved 10 January 2017.
  6. ^ "SAMOA pathway". Retrieved 10 January 2017.
  7. ^ "Mauritius Strategy". Retrieved 10 January 2017.
  8. ^ "Barbados Programme of Action". Retrieved 10 January 2017.

External links

Committee for Development Policy

The Committee for Development Policy (CDP; Spanish: Comité de Políticas de Desarrollo, CPD) is a subsidiary body of the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC). The task of the CDP is to provide independent advice to the Council on development policy issues. The Committee is also responsible for deciding which countries can be considered least developed countries (LDCs).The Committee has 24 members, nominated in their personal capacity by the United Nations Secretary-General and appointed by ECOSOC for a period of three years. The Secretariat of the Committee for Development Policy, in the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Economic Analysis and Policy Division, provides substantive and administrative assistance to the Committee.

Jan Kregel

Jan A. Kregel (born 19 April 1944) is an eminent Post-Keynesian economist.

Kregel has served since 2006 as Professor of Finance and Development at Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn, Estonia. He is an adjunct professor at Johns Hopkins SAIS (SAIS), whose Bologna Center he co-directed in the late 1980s, and a visiting professor at the University of Missouri–Kansas City. He is also one of the Senior Scholars at the Levy Economics Institute of Bard College. Until 2007, he was Chief of the Policy Analysis and Development Branch of the Financing for Development Office of United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Until 2004, he was High Level Expert in International Finance and Macroeconomics in the New York Liaison Office of UNCTAD, being in essence its chief economist. For many years, he held the Chair for Political Economy at the University of Bologna.

Kregel studied mainly at the University of Cambridge (with Joan Robinson and Nicholas Kaldor) and Rutgers University (Ph.D. 1970 under supervision of Paul Davidson). He is a Life Fellow of the Royal Economic Society in London and in 2000 he co-founded The Other Canon, a center and network for heterodox economics research, with main founder and executive chairman Erik Reinert."In the 1970-75 period, Professor Kregel was concerned with synthesis, integration and delineation of a Post Keynesian methodology and paradigm. From the mid-1970s until the late 1980s, he worked on the analysis of decision making under uncertainty, on formation of asset prices and on Keynes analysis of Chapter 17 of the General Theory. In 1988, Professor Kregel showed that Keynes’ liquidity preference and own rate analysis were actually two sides of the theory of effective demand. His most recent works on price formation and market structure provide a powerful critique of neoclassical price theory and propose a Keynesian alternative in which expectations of the future go into the determination of current price determination and in which institutional arrangements undergird the process of price formation." (University of Missouri in Kansas City)

Professor Kregel is the Program Director for the Master of Science in Economic Theory and Policy of the Levy Economics Institute of Bard College. The Program was started in 2014.

John-Mary Kauzya

John-Mary Kauzya (born 1957) is an Ugandan diplomat known for his research and policy advice in the areas of governance and public administration.Kauzya is currently Chief of the Governance and Public Administration Branch of the Division for Public Administration and Development Management at the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs.

Least Developed Countries

The Least Developed Countries (LDCs) is a list of developing countries that, according to the United Nations, exhibit the lowest indicators of socioeconomic development, with the lowest Human Development Index ratings of all countries in the world. The concept of LDCs originated in the late 1960s and the first group of LDCs was listed by the UN in its resolution 2768 (XXVI) of 18 November 1971.A country is classified among the Least Developed Countries if it meets three criteria:

Poverty – adjustable criterion based on GNI per capita averaged over three years. As of 2018 a country must have GNI per capita less than US$1,025 to be included on the list, and over $1,230 to graduate from it.

Human resource weakness (based on indicators of nutrition, health, education and adult literacy).

Economic vulnerability (based on instability of agricultural production, instability of exports of goods and services, economic importance of non-traditional activities, merchandise export concentration, handicap of economic smallness, and the percentage of population displaced by natural disasters).As of 2018, 47 countries are classified as LDC, while five have been upgraded between 1994 and 2017.

List of states and territories of the United States by population density

This article includes a sortable table listing the 50 states, the territories, and the District of Columbia by population density, population rank, and land area. It also includes a sortable table of density by states, territories, divisions and regions by population rank and land area, and a sortable table for density by states, divisions, regions and territories in square miles and square kilometers.

Population density is calculated as resident population divided by total land area. Resident population is from the United States Census Bureau estimates for July 1, 2015 (for the 50 states, DC and Puerto Rico), and from the 2015 United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs for territories besides Puerto Rico. In the second table, territories data (except Puerto Rico) is from the 2010 Census. Total land area is from the 2010 Census.The population density of the United States is relatively low compared to many other developed countries due to its size. For example, the population density of the U.S. is one-twelfth that of the Netherlands and one-fifteenth that of South Korea.

List of urban areas in the European Union

This is a list of urban areas in the European Union with over 500,000 inhabitants as of 2014. The data comes from Demographia and the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Demographia provides figures for urban areas (including conurbations), while the UN DESA figures are for agglomerations only. For comparison, Function Urban Area (FUA) population figures by Eurostat are also provided, however, these measure the wider metropolitan areas.

Liu Zhenmin

Liu Zhenmin (Chinese: 刘振民; born August 1955) was appointed as the Under-Secretary-General for the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs effective 26 July 2017. Previously he had served as Vice-Minister for Foreign Affairs of China after a thirty year career in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China.

Mongi Hamdi

Mongi Hamdi (born 23 April 1959) is a United Nations official who was appointed interim foreign minister of Tunisia by Prime Minister Mehdi Jomaa. He served from 29 January 2014 until his appointment as Special Representative and Head of the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali by United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki Moon on 12 December 2014; he resigned from this position after just a year amid difficulties implementing a peace deal and improving security in the north of the country.Hamdi has worked for over 25 years with the United Nations and has had high level positions with UNCTAD, the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, and with DESA, the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs.

Hamdi studied at the University of Southern California, and the National Engineering School of Tunis and holds a doctorate degree from the former, and an engineering degree from the latter. He further earned a certificate in macro-engineering policy and management from Harvard University.

Natural Resources Forum

Natural Resources Forum is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the Division of Sustainable Development in the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. The journal was established in 1976 and covers issues of sustainable development in developing countries. Specific topics of interest to this journal include agriculture, energy, globalization, and natural resources.

According to the Journal Citation Reports, the journal has a 2015 impact factor of 1.292, ranking it 66th out of 98 journals in the category "Environmental Studies" and 161 out of 216 journals in the category "Environmental Sciences".(It is also the trading name of Natural Resource Events Limited, an independent oil, mining and energy forum for professional investors and advisors in London. This Quarterly event is held in the Royal Institution building in London and was founded by Brian Martin of Opus Executive Partners and is not associated with Wiley-Blackwell.)

Qian Haiyan

Haiyan Qian (钱海燕) (September 14, 1955 – February 18, 2013) was the Director of the Division for Public Administration & Development Management (DPADM), United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA).

Quadrennial comprehensive policy review

The Quadrennial comprehensive policy review (QCPR) of the operational system of the United Nations is a process and a United Nations General Assembly resolution by which the 193 members of the United Nations General Assembly (UN GA) review the coherence effectiveness and funding of the 27 UN development programmes, funds, and specialised agencies of the UN operational system for development. This review was conducted on a triennial basis until 2007. Since 2008 it has been conducted on a quadrennial basis.Typically, the Quadrennial comprehensive policy review covers the following subjects:

The funding of operational activities of the UN for development including the core funding of its agencies, funds and programmes

The role of the UN development system in building capacity and fostering development in developing countries

The responsibility of the UN development system in the global fight against poverty

The responsibility of the UN development system in promoting South-South cooperation and the development of national capacities

The importance of placing gender equality and women’s empowerment at the center of the agenda of the UN development system

Guidance to the UN development system on its operations in countries in transition from relief to development

Instructions to improve the functioning of the UN development system, and particularly the simplification and harmonization of its business practicesThe substantive basis for this review is a report by the Secretary-General of the United Nations which is produced by the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESA) during the summer preceding the UN GA negotiations. This report is then debated in the second committee of the UN GA. The negotiation of the resolution has historically been chaired by the economic and development counselor of the Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the United Nations (Olivier Chave 2001 and 2004, Thomas Gass 2007, Pio Wennubst 2012).The implementation of the Quadrennial comprehensive policy review is carried out through the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC).

Sha Zukang

Sha Zukang (Chinese: 沙祖康; pinyin: Shā Zǔkāng; born 1947) is a Chinese diplomat who was head of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs from 2007 to 2012. He was previously the Chinese ambassador to the United Nations Office at Geneva.

United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues

The United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues (UNPFII or PFII) is the UN's central coordinating body for matters relating to the concerns and rights of the world's indigenous peoples. "Indigenous person" means native, original, first people and aboriginal. There are more than 370 million indigenous people in some 70 countries worldwide. The forum is an advisory body within the framework of the United Nations System that reports to the UN's Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC). The first indigenous to be elected to office at a United Nations meeting was Chief Ted Moses of the Grand Council of the Crees in Canada, in 1989.

United Nations Project Office on Governance

The United Nations Project Office on Governance (UNPOG) was established in 2006 as a subsidiary organization of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA) and is headquartered in Seoul, the Republic of Korea. Its principal mission is to assist the United Nations Member States improve their governance capacity. Since its inception, it has conducted research and capacity-building activities and disseminated global and local best practices on participatory, transparent and effective democratic governance.The office was established as an outcome of the Sixth Global Forum on Reinventing Government, hosted by the Republic of Korea in cooperation with the United Nations in May 2005. At the conclusion of the Sixth Global Forum, participants endorsed the Seoul Declaration on Participatory and Transparent Governance, which called for the creation of the United Nations Governance Centre (UNGC). A Technical Cooperation Trust Fund Agreement was concluded between the Republic of Korea and the United Nations in June 2006. The office was officially renamed to its current title in January 2009.The office is in partnership with the United Nations Public Administration Network (UNPAN), which is operated by the Division for Public Administration and Development Management branch of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs.

United Nations Statistics Division

The United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD), formerly the United Nations Statistical Office, serves under the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA) as the central mechanism within the Secretariat of the United Nations to supply the statistical needs and coordinating activities of the global statistical system. The Division is overseen by the United Nations Statistical Commission, established in 1947, as the apex entity of the global statistical system and highest decision making body for coordinating international statistical activities. It brings together the Chief Statisticians from member states from around the world.

The Division compiles and disseminates global statistical information, develops standards and norms for statistical activities, and supports countries’ efforts to strengthen their national statistical systems.

The Division regularly publishes data updates, including the Statistical Yearbook and World Statistics Pocketbook, and books and reports on statistics and statistical methods. Many of the Division's databases are also available at its site (See below), as electronic publications and data files in the form of CD-ROMs, diskettes and magnetic tapes, or as printed publications. UNdata, a new internet-based data service for the global user community brings UN Statistical databases within easy reach of users through a single entry point. Users can search and download a variety of statistical resources of the UN system.

Universal Great Brotherhood

The Universal Great Brotherhood is a cultural, non governmental, non religious, non profit, non sectarian organization. This organization was founded in Caracas, Venezuela by Serge Raynaud de la Ferriere and registered with the United Nations DPI (Department of Public Information) in 1949 in Algiers, Africa. The Universal Brotherhood was given special accreditation for 2000 by the NGO branch of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. According to that department, special consultative status is granted to NGOs which have a special competence in, and are concerned specifically with, only a few of the fields of activity covered by the ECOSOC.Among the many goals of the Universal Brotherhood is the establishment of Tolerance, Truth, and Peace, while recognizing that the truth is not something exclusive but that every path, religion, philosophy, culture has a part of the truth. Its objective is to bring together science, art and religion, for the purpose of intellectual improvement as well as spiritual education.

The Universal Brotherhood's goal is to unite people who wish to work towards the transcendence of the spirit, regardless of belief, nationality, gender and economic status. This organization is non sectarian and gives classes, lectures, and workshops regarding all the different paths, religions, philosophies and cultures impartially with preference towards none.

Vijay K. Thadani

Vijay K. Thadani (born 1951) is an Indian businessman who co-founded NIIT along with Rajendra S. Pawar in 1981. He is currently the Managing Director of the company. He is an alumnus of Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi.He has been actively engaged with many industry associations.

Served as President of the Indian IT industry association, MAIT and also chaired the Indian Government's Committee on National Information Infrastructure Policy

Served as Chairman of the IT Committee, Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) in USA

Currently serving as the Chairman of CII National Committee on Education and also serves as the Chairman of the National Accreditation Board for Education and Training (NABET), which works under the aegis of the Quality Council of India

Serving on the Board of CompTIA USA, an association advancing the global interests of information technology industry and also as a member of the India Advisory Board of the Maastricht University, Netherlands

Recently appointed as a member of the Strategy Council of Global Alliance for ICT and Development of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA-GAID)

World population estimates

This article lists current estimates of world population, as well as projections of population growth.

In summary, estimates for the progression of world population since the late medieval period are in the following ranges:

Estimates for pre-modern times are necessarily fraught with great uncertainties, and few of the published estimates have confidence intervals; in the absence of a straightforward means to assess the error of such estimates, a rough idea of expert consensus can be gained by comparing the values given in independent publications. Population estimates cannot be considered accurate to more than two decimal digits;

for example, world population for the year 2012 was estimated at

7.02, 7.06 and 7.08 billion by the United States Census Bureau, the Population Reference Bureau and the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, respectively, corresponding to

a spread of estimates of the order of 0.8%.

Wu Hongbo

Wu Hongbo (Chinese: 吳紅波; born May 1952) is a Chinese diplomat. Until July 2017 he was the Under-Secretary-General in the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs.

He replaced Sha Zukang as the head of DESA.Wu held various high-ranking positions and collected extensive experience in diplomacy. He has worked as Assistant Foreign Minister and Chinese Ambassador to Germany prior to this appointment. He has also worked in a number of locations including Hong Kong, Macao, and Manila.

He graduated from Beijing Foreign Studies University and also studied in New Zealand.

International institutions
Regional bodies
Multi-lateral bodies
Major NGOs
United Nations System
Members and observers

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