United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda

The United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR) was established by United Nations Security Council Resolution 872 on 5 October 1993.[1] It was intended to assist in the implementation of the Arusha Accords, signed on 4 August 1993, which was meant to end the Rwandan Civil War.[2] The mission lasted from October 1993 to March 1996.[2] Its activities were meant to aid the peace process between the Hutu-dominated Rwandese government and the Tutsi-dominated rebel Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF). The UNAMIR has received much attention for its role in failing, due to the limitations of its rules of engagement, to prevent the Rwandan genocide and outbreak of fighting. Its mandate extended past the RPF overthrow of the government and into the Great Lakes refugee crisis. The mission is thus regarded as a major failure.[3]

United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda
Emblem of the United Nations
AbbreviationUNAMIR
Formation5 October 1993
TypePeacekeeping Mission
Legal statusCompleted
Head
Canada Roméo Dallaire
Parent organization
United Nations Security Council

Background

In October 1990 the Rwandan Civil War began when the Rwandan Patriotic Front rebel group invaded across Uganda's southern border into northern Rwanda. The RPF was composed of over 4000 soldiers, most the sons of Tutsi refugees who had fled ethnic purges in Rwanda between 1959 and 1963. It portrayed itself as a democratic, multi-ethnic movement and demanded an end to ethnic discrimination, to economic looting of the country by government elites and a stop to the security situation that continued to generate refugees. It was supported by the Ugandan government of Yoweri Museveni, who had come to power in the Ugandan Bush War with significant support from the Rwandan refugees in the country. However, the Rwandan Armed Forces (FAR) was saved by reinforcements from France and Zaire, who backed the government of Rwandan President Juvénal Habyarimana, who had been in power since 1973.

The French intervention of two parachute companies, explained as an attempt to protect its own nationals, actually blocked the RPF advance on the capital Kigali. In contrast, the government of Belgium, the former colonial power, cut all support to the Habyarimana regime, which viewed the action as abandonment. Thwarted by the French, the RPF suffered a humiliating retreat back into the Virunga Mountains along the border. After the demoralizing death of Major-General Fred Rwigyema, the collapse of the RPF was prevented through the leadership of Paul Kagame.

The RPF thus managed to retain control of a sliver of land in the north, from which it continued to launch raids.[4] Comparing the RPF and FAR as he saw them in 1993, Canadian Lieutenant-General Roméo Dallaire noted that the rebels "had won all recent contests because of their superior leadership, training, experience, frugality, mobility. Discipline and morale."[5]

However, the RPF invasion, which displaced approximately 600,000 people into crowded internally displaced person camps, also radicalized the Hutu populace. The Tutsi civilians in Rwanda, roughly 14% of the population, were labeled ibyitso ("accomplices") or inyenzni ("cockroaches"), who were accused of secretly aiding the RPF invaders.[6] Anti-Tutsi propaganda was spread through the publication Kangura, a forerunner to the Radio Télévision Libre des Mille Collines, which was created immediately after the invasion. The first plans for mass murder of Tutsi were also developed toward the end of 1990, mostly in a series of secret meetings in Gisenyi prefecture of the Akazu, a network of associates based around Agathe Habyarimana, the First Lady.[7]

A number of ceasefire agreements were signed by the RPF and government, including one signed on 22 July 1992 in Arusha, Tanzania that resulted in the Organization of African Unity (OAU) establishing a 50-member Neutral Military Observer Group (NMOG I) led by Nigerian General Ekundayo Opaleye.[8] The negotiations for a peace settlement continued in Arusha, interrupted by a massive RPF offensive in early February 1993. Rwanda continued to allege Ugandan support for the RPF, which both the RPF and Uganda duly denied, but resulting in both countries sending letters to President of the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) requesting that military observers be deployed along the border to verify that military supplies were not crossing.

This resulted in the United Nations Observer Mission Uganda–Rwanda (UNOMUR) being approved by the UNSC on 22 June 1993 to deploy along the Ugandan side of the border.[9] Seven days later, UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali announced that Brigadier-General Dallaire was to be appointed the Chief Military Observer for UNOMUR, which reached its authorized strength of 81 observers by September. NMOG I was deployed inside Rwanda.[10]

In the meantime, talks in Arusha had reconvened on 16 March 1993, resulting in the signing of the Arusha Accords, a comprehensive agreement to create a power-sharing government, on the fourth of August. Both the RPF and Rwandan government requested UN assistance in implementing the agreement. In early August, NMOG I was replaced by NMOG II, consisting of about 130 members, in preparation for a UN-led peacekeeping force.[11]

Establishment

Mandate

UNAMIR mandate was:[1]:paragraph3[12]

(a) To contribute to the security of the city of Kigali inter alia with in a weapons-secure area established by the parties in and around the city;
(b) To monitor observance of the cease-fire agreement, which calls for the establishment of cantonment and assembly zones and the demarcation of the new demilitarized zone and other demilitarization procedures;
(c) To monitor the security situation during the final period of the transitional government’s mandate, leading up to the elections;
(d) To assist with mine clearance, primarily through training programmes;
(e) To investigate at the request of the parties or on its own initiative instances of alleged non-compliance with the provisions of the Arusha Peace Agreement relating to the integration of the armed forces, and pursue any such instances with the parties responsible and report thereon as appropriate to the Secretary-General;
(f) To monitor the process of repatriation of Rwandese refugees and resettlement of displaced persons to verify that it is carried out in a safe and orderly manner;
(g) To assist in the coordination of humanitarian assistance activities in conjunction with relief operations;
(h) To investigate and report on incidents regarding the activities of the gendarmerie and police.

Its authorised strength was 2,500 personnel, but it took some five months of piecemeal commitments for the mission to reach this level.

On 5 April 1994, the UN voted to extend the mandate of UNAMIR to 29 July 1994, after expressing "deep concern at the delay in the establishment of the broad-based transitional Government and the Transitional National Assembly" and "concern at the deterioration in security in the country, particularly in Kigali."[2]

On 21 April 1994, the Security Council voted to reduce the number of troops from 2,500 to 270 personnel in Resolution 912.

On 17 May 1994, the Security Council passed Resolution 918, which expanded UNAMIR’s mandate to include the following additional responsibilities: "(a) To contribute to the security and protection of displaced persons, refugees and civilians at risk in Rwanda, including through the establishment and maintenance, where feasible, of secure humanitarian areas; (b) To provide security and support for the distribution of relief supplies and humanitarian relief operations".[13]:paragraph3

Composition

The Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG) or head of the mission, was Jacques-Roger Booh-Booh of Cameroon. At the beginning of July 1994, Jacques-Roger Booh-Booh was replaced by Shahryar Khan of Pakistan. The military head, and Force Commander was Canadian Brigadier-General (promoted Major-General during the mission) Roméo Dallaire. In August 1994, Dallaire, suffering from severe stress, was replaced as Force Commander by Major-General Guy Tousignant, also from Canada. In December 1995, Tousignant was replaced by Brigadier General Shiva Kumar from India.

Troop contributing countries were Belgium, Bangladesh, Ghana, and Tunisia. Around 400 of the troops in this early part of the mission were Belgian soldiers, despite the fact that Rwanda had been a Belgian colony, and normally the UN bans the former colonial power from serving in such peace-keeping roles.

Squabbling between interested parties delayed the UNAMIR goal of assisting the formation of the transitional government following the inauguration of President Habyarimana on 5 January 1994. The violent clashes that followed, including the assassinations of two major political leaders and the ambush of a UNAMIR-led convoy of RPF forces led the UNAMIR forces to move to a more defensive footing. UNAMIR thus contributed support to the military and civilian authorities in Rwanda, while the UN continued to place pressure on Habyarimana and the RPF to return to the ideas set forth in the Accords.

Operations before the genocide

Kigali school chalk board
A school chalkboard in Kigali. Note the names "Dallaire", UNAMIR Force Commander, and "Marchal", UNAMIR Kigali sector commander.

The United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR) had been in Rwanda since October 1993,[14] with a mandate to oversee the implementation of the Arusha Accords.[15] UNAMIR commander Dallaire learned of the Hutu Power movement during the early phase of deployment;[16] in January 1994, a government informant alerted Dallaire to a group who were rapidly arming militias and planning mass extermination of Tutsi, and led UNAMIR to a secret arms cache.[17] Dallaire sent a cable to the UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) in New York, requesting permission to raid the weapons caches;[18] the UN refused Dallaire's request to raid the arms, and rebuked him for exceeding his mandate.[16] Dallaire's cable also informed the DPKO of the information concerning the genocide; it said: "Since UNAMIR mandate [the informant] has been ordered to register all Tutsi in Kigali. He suspects it is for their extermination. Example he gave was that in 20 minutes his personnel could kill up to 1000 Tutsis."[19] Dallaire received little support from the administrative head of UNAMIR, Cameroonian Jacques-Roger Booh-Booh; the RPF accused Booh-Booh of partiality towards President Habyarimana and the Hutu elite.[20] UNAMIR operated with very limited resources,[21] and its efforts to install the transitional government were obstructed by President Habyarimana and the hardliners throughout early 1994.[22] By April, the Security Council threatened to terminate UNAMIR's mandate if it did not make progress.[23]

Genocide

UNAMIR Blue Berets memorial Kigali (4)
Memorial for the dead Belgian UNAMIR personnel in Kigali
Rwandan Genocide Murambi skulls
Skulls in Murambi Technical School

On 6 April 1994, a plane carrying President Habyarimana and President Cyprien Ntaryamira of Burundi was shot down near Kigali. What followed was the collapse of the unstable peace in Rwanda and the Rwandan genocide, estimated to have claimed between 800,000 and 1,017,100 Tutsi and Hutu victims over 100 days.

Among the first targets of the genocide were Prime Minister Agathe Uwilingiyimana and ten Belgian members of 2nd Commando Battalion, the Paracommando Regiment operating as part of UNAMIR. These troops were murdered after handing over their weapons to Rwandan government troops. They were advised to do so by their battalion commander who was unclear on the legal issues with authorising them to defend themselves, even though they had already been under fire for approximately two hours.

Following the death of Habyarimana, Dallaire liaised repeatedly with both the Crisis Committee and the RPF, in an attempt to re-establish peace.[24] He addressed the government forces during the night of 6 April, expressing regret at Habyarimana's death but urging them to restrain the killings that had commenced;[25] he also urged Kagame not to resume the civil war, to avoid esacalating the violence and to give UNAMIR a chance to rein in the killings.[26] Neither side was interested in a ceasefire, the government because it was controlled by the genocidaires, and the RPF because it considered it necessary to fight to stop the killings.[27] UNAMIR's Chapter VI mandate rendered it powerless to intervene militarily,[28] and most of its Rwandan staff were killed in the early days of the genocide, severely limiting its ability to operate.[27] UNAMIR was therefore largely reduced to a bystander role, and Dallaire later labelled it a "failure".[29] Its most significant contribution was to provide refuge for thousands of Tutsi and moderate Hutu at its headquarters in Amahoro Stadium, as well as other secure UN sites.[30] UNAMIR also assisted with the evacuation of foreign nationals; a group of Belgian soldiers, who had been sheltering 2,000 Rwandans at the École Technique Officielle, were ordered to abandon their station to assist in the evacuation. After the Belgians left, Hutu militants entered and massacred everyone inside.[31]

On 12 April, the Belgian government, which was one of the largest troop contributors to UNAMIR,[32] and had lost ten soldiers protecting Prime Minister Uwilingiliyimana, announced that it was withdrawing. Belgium also favoured a complete withdrawal of UNAMIR, and lobbied for this in the UN.[33] Dallaire protested, arguing that the force should be strengthened and given a new mandate to protect the thousands of refugees it was protecting,[34] but the UN Security Council refused, telling Dallaire that UNAMIR would be effectively withdrawn unless the belligerents agreed to a ceasefire by early May.[35] According to Philip Gourevitch, the United States, having recently suffered losses in the UN mission in Somalia, was particularly keen to "get out of Rwanda" and "leave it to its fate".[36] New Zealand, which held the rotating presidency of the UN Security Council, was the lone voice supporting reinforcement,[37] and in late April, persuaded the council to postpone UNAMIR's withdrawal,[38] despite continuing reluctance from the United States and United Kingdom.[39]

Understaffed and abandoned, UNAMIR did the best it could with what forces remained. As individuals and as a group, members of the UNAMIR forces did manage to save the lives of thousands of Tutsis in and around Kigali and the few areas of UN control. Dallaire requested the immediate insertion of approximately 5,000 troops, but his request was denied.

UNAMIR II

For the next six weeks, approximately, UNAMIR coordinated peace talks between the Hutu government and the RPF to little avail. Eventually, on 17 May 1994, the UN agreed to reinforcement, that would deliver nearly 5,500 troops and much needed personnel carriers and other equipment to UNAMIR, which would be henceforth known as UNAMIR II.[39] The new soldiers did not start arriving until June,[40] and following the end of the genocide in July, the role of UNAMIR II was largely confined to maintaining security and stability.[41] UNAMIR withdrew from Rwanda in 1996, following the withdrawal of support by the RPF-led government.[41]

UNAMIR II and subsequent resolutions were still unclear on the right to use force in stopping the genocide. In one of Dallaire's parting cables, he said that "the [UN] force has been prevented from having a modicum of self-respect and effectiveness on the ground".[42] Unfortunately, in the face of the mayhem in Rwanda and this diplomatic watering down of UNAMIR's mandate, many UN member states delayed contributing personnel for some time, until the main wave of killings ceased.

After the genocide

United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda Medal
UNAMIR obverse


UNAMIR ribbon
Obverse and ribbon of the medal
TypeCampaign medal
EligibilityUnited Nations forces.
Awarded for90 days' service to the Mission
Campaign(s)Rwandan Civil War, Rwandan genocide, Great Lakes refugee crisis
ClaspsNone
Statistics
EstablishedDecember 1993

In July 1994, the RPF swept into Kigali and ended the genocide that had lasted 100 days, and RPF leader Paul Kagame (who became president several years later—and still is today[43]—but effectively controlled the country from July 1994 through the present) reaffirmed his commitment to the Arusha Accords.

Following the end of the main killings the challenges for UNAMIR (and the many NGOs who arrived in the country) were to maintain the fragile peace, stabilise the government and, most importantly, care for the nearly 4 million displaced persons in camps within Rwanda, Zaire, Tanzania, Burundi and Uganda. The massive camps around Lake Kivu in the north west of Rwanda were holding about 1.2 million people and this was creating enormous security, health and ecological problems.

After the late arrival of the much needed troop support, UNAMIR continued to carry out its mandate to the best of its abilities. In 1996, however, with assertion from the new Rwandese government that UNAMIR had failed in its priority mission, the UN withdrew the UNAMIR mandate on 8 March 1996. Despite the failure of UNAMIR in its main mission, its humanitarian services during the 1994 genocide are recognized to this day as having saved the lives of thousands or tens of thousands of Rwandan Tutsi and Hutu moderates who would have otherwise been killed. However, the actions of the UN in Rwanda (and particularly the Head of Peacekeeping Operations at the time, Kofi Annan) have been used by some as examples of the over-bureaucratic and dithering approach of the UN. (General Dallaire was particularly critical of Annan's performance.)

Countries that contributed troops to UNAMIR throughout its existence were: Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Chad, Congo, Djibouti, Egypt, Ethiopia, Fiji, Germany, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Guyana, India, Jordan, Kenya, Malawi, Mali, Netherlands, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, Russia, Senegal, Slovakia, Spain, Switzerland, Togo, Tunisia, United Kingdom, Uruguay, Zambia and Zimbabwe.

Casualties

Twenty-seven members of UNAMIR – 22 soldiers, three military observers, one civilian police and one local staff – lost their lives during the mission. The genocide and the spectre of mission failure had a profound effect on Dallaire. On his return to Canada he was diagnosed with acute Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD); he even attempted suicide. He was eventually released from the Canadian army service on medical grounds. Dallaire received the Aegis Trust Award (the first) for his acts of bravery. In 2004–2005, he was awarded a fellowship at the Carr Center for Human Rights Policy, Harvard University, where he was studying and writing about different forms of conflict resolution. On 25 March 2005, he was appointed a Canadian senator, representing Québec as a member of the Liberal Party of Canada; he serves on the committee for Human Rights. He also speaks publicly about his experiences relating to genocide, PTSD and suicide. While Dallaire's issues have been the focus of much attention, particularly in Canada, very little attention has been paid to the plight of the front line soldiers of the Canadian Contingent to UNAMIR who suffered from a rash of suicides, marital breakdowns and career ending diagnoses of PTSD following their return from Rwanda.

See also

References and notes

  1. ^ a b UN Security Council (5 October 1993). "RESOLUTION 872 (1993) Adopted by the Security Council at its 3288th meeting". Security Council. p. 1.
  2. ^ a b c Department of Public Information (DPI). "Rwanda-UNAMIR mandate". Peace and Security Section of DPI in cooperation with the Department of Peacekeeping Operations. (c)United Nations. Retrieved 1 May 2015.
  3. ^ "Rwanda/UN: Acknowledging Failure", AfricaFocus Bulletin (compiling several individual reports), 31 March 2004
  4. ^ Linda Melvern, Conspiracy to Murder: The Rwandan Genocide, Verso: New York, 2004, ISBN 1-85984-588-6, pp. 13-16
  5. ^ Roméo Dallaire, Shake Hands with the Devil, Carroll & Graf: New York, 2003, ISBN 0-7867-1510-3, p. 67
  6. ^ Melvern 2004, pp. 14-15. See also Historical Background Archived 23 June 2007 at the Wayback Machine, Rwanda - UNAMIR: Background, un.org
  7. ^ Melvern 2004, pp. 12 & 19
  8. ^ William J. Lahneman (2004). Military intervention: cases in context for the twenty-first century. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 71. ISBN 0-7425-2951-7.
  9. ^ "S/RES/846(1993)". United Nations Security Council. 22 June 1993.
  10. ^ United Nations Involvement Archived 23 June 2007 at the Wayback Machine, Rwanda - UNAMIR: Background, un.org
  11. ^ Rwanda - UNAMIR: Background Archived 16 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine, un.org
  12. ^ Rwanda - UNAMIR: Mandate, un.org
  13. ^ "S/RES/918(1994)". United Nations Security Council. 17 May 1994.
  14. ^ Dallaire 2005, p. 98.
  15. ^ Prunier 1999, p. 194.
  16. ^ a b Dallaire 2005, p. 146.
  17. ^ Dallaire 2005, p. 150.
  18. ^ Dallaire 2005, p. 145.
  19. ^ Dallaire 1994.
  20. ^ Dallaire 2005, p. 213.
  21. ^ Dallaire 2005, p. 131.
  22. ^ Prunier 1999, p. 205.
  23. ^ Dallaire 2005, pp. 219 220.
  24. ^ Prunier 1999, pp. 236, 237.
  25. ^ Dallaire 2005, pp. 238, 239.
  26. ^ Dallaire 2005, p. 250.
  27. ^ a b Dallaire 2005, p. 247.
  28. ^ Prunier 1999, p. 261.
  29. ^ Dallaire 2005, p. 6.
  30. ^ Dallaire 2005, p. 270.
  31. ^ Melvern 2004, p. 186.
  32. ^ Prunier 1999, p. 204.
  33. ^ Melvern 2004, p. 197.
  34. ^ Melvern 2004, p. 215.
  35. ^ Dallaire 2005, p. 295.
  36. ^ Gourevitch, Philip. "Interviews - Philip Gourevitch : The Triumph Of Evil : FRONTLINE : PBS". Frontline. Public Broadcasting Service. Retrieved 28 August 2016.
  37. ^ Dallaire 2005, p. 298.
  38. ^ Dallaire 2005, p. 319.
  39. ^ a b Melvern 2004, p. 229.
  40. ^ Melvern 2004, p. 411.
  41. ^ a b United Nations (I).
  42. ^ Power, Samantha. "Rwanda: 'Mostly In A Listening Mode'" A Problem from Hell: America and the Age of Genocide. New York: Basic, 2002. 329–390. Print.
  43. ^ "President Kagame attends the Milken Institute Global Conference". Retrieved 5 May 2015.

Further reading

  • Barnett, Michael. Eyewitness to a Genocide: The United Nations and Rwanda. Cornell University Press, 2002.
  • Melvern, Linda (2004). Conspiracy to Murder: The Rwandan Genocide. New York: Verso. ISBN 1-85984-588-6.

External links

  • UNAMIR Official United Nations information webpage
Anderson Collegiate Vocational Institute

Anderson Collegiate Vocational Institute (Anderson CVI, Anderson Collegiate, Anderson, or ACVI) is located in Whitby, Ontario within the Durham District School Board. Established in 1960, the school has students in grades 9–12 and offers a wide range of academic and extracurricular activities. Anderson is the only high school in Whitby that offers the gifted program, providing an enriched and accelerated curriculum for students in specific courses from grades 9–11. Anderson's feeder elementary schools are Bellwood Public School, C. E. Broughton Public School, Dr. Robert Thornton Public School, Pringle Creek Public School (regular and gifted), and Jack Miner Public School (gifted only).

In 2007, then Principal John Morrison was named one of Canada's Outstanding Principals.Several organizations within the school have worked on a wide variety of social and humanitarian issues in the school and in the community. Committees around the school have worked on Remembrance Day assemblies, Black History Month assemblies, and Amnesty International efforts. As well, guest speakers like Eva Olsson, a Holocaust survivor; Roméo Dallaire, a former commander of the United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda; and James Bartleman, then Lieutenant Governor of Ontario have been invited to speak at the school.

Jacques-Roger Booh-Booh

Jacques-Roger Booh-Booh (born February 5, 1938) was the Minister of External Relations of Cameroon from 1988 to 1992 and the head of United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR).

List of United Nations Security Council Resolutions 901 to 1000

This is a list of United Nations Security Council Resolutions 901 to 1000 adopted between 4 March 1994 and 23 June 1995.

Luc Marchal

Colonel Luc Marchal is a retired officer of the armed forces of Belgium. He is known for being the senior officer in the Belgian peacekeeping contingent during the 1994 Rwandan genocide, as well as the United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR) sector commander for the capital Kigali.

Shake Hands with the Devil (book)

Shake Hands with the Devil: The Failure of Humanity in Rwanda is a book by Lieutenant-General Roméo Dallaire of the Canadian Forces, with help from Major Brent Beardsley. It was first published by Random House Canada in September 2003.

The book chronicles Dallaire's tour as Force Commander of the United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR) in 1993-1994, during which he witnessed the 1994 Rwandan Genocide.

The book won the 2003 Shaughnessy Cohen Award for Political Writing, and 2004 Governor General's Award for nonfiction.

The edition published in French is entitled J'ai serré la main du diable: La faillite de l'humanité au Rwanda.

The documentary film Shake Hands with the Devil: The Journey of Roméo Dallaire (2004) and a 2007 dramatic feature film are inspired by and in part based on the book. Dallaire was consulted in the making of both films.

United Nations Observer Mission Uganda–Rwanda

The United Nations Observer Mission Uganda–Rwanda (UNOMUR) was a peacekeeping mission established by the United Nations Security Council in Resolution 846 and lasted from June 1993 to September 1994. Its mission was "to monitor the border between Uganda and Rwanda and verify that no military assistance was being provided across it". It was based in Kabale, Uganda and its mandate thus covered 193 miles of border. Countries contributing to UNOMUR included Bangladesh, Botswana, Brazil, Hungary, the Netherlands, Senegal, Slovakia and Zimbabwe.Its chief military observer from June to October 1993 was Brigadier-General Roméo Dallaire of Canada, who later gained fame as Force Commander of the United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda during the Rwandan Genocide. Dallaire arrived in Uganda in early October 1993, where the liaison officer from the National Resistance Army (NRA) informed him he must be informed of all UNOMUR patrols at least twelve hours in advance and that all patrols would have NRA escorts. When Dallaire protested that the whole point of the Mission was to discover suspicious activity through the element of surprise, the NRA officer insisted. Also despite the fact that Uganda had agreed that the area of verification would range 100 km inside the Ugandan border, which included the transport hub of Mbarara, the NRA insisted on a 20 km limit, putting Mbarara off limits.Dallaire noted,

The border was a sieve, riddled with little mountain trails that had been there for millennia. Given my tiny force of eighty-one observers and the fact that we had no helicopters with night-vision capability, the task of keeping the border under surveillance was at best symbolic.

Dallaire was soon appointed head of the new mission in Rwanda and left Uganda on October 21. His replacement as chief military observer was former second-in-command Colonel Ben Matiwaza of Zimbabwe, and later Colonel Asrarul Haque of Bangladesh.

UNOMUR would later be placed under the command of UNAMIR. Following the genocide and outbreak of the Rwandan Civil War, its mandate ended on September 21, 1994.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1028

United Nations Security Council resolution 1028, adopted unanimously on 8 December 1995, after recalling previous resolutions on Rwanda, particularly Resolution 997 (1995), the Council considered a report by the Secretary-General and extended the mandate of the United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR) for a period ending 12 December 1995. The extension was given so that the Council had more time to consider the future of UNAMIR.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1029

United Nations Security Council resolution 1029, adopted unanimously on 12 December 1995, after recalling previous resolutions on Rwanda, including Resolution 872 (1993), Resolution 912 (1994), Resolution 918 (1994), Resolution 925 (1994), Resolution 955 (1994), Resolution 965 (1994), Resolution 978 (1995) and Resolution 997 (1995), the Council extended the mandate of the United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR) for a final time, ending 8 March 1996, and adjusted its mandate.It was noted that there were still elements of the old regime making military preparations and incursions into Rwanda and for neighbouring countries to take measures to prevent this and in this context welcomed the establishment of the Resolution 1013 (1995). Rwanda had to provide a climate of trust and confidence for the safe return of refugees. The Government of Rwanda was praised for its efforts to promote peace, security, reconstruction and rehabilitation in the country.

After extending UNAMIR's mandate for a final time until 8 March 1996, the current conditions warranted an adjustment in its mandate, as follows:

(a) to help contribute to the safe return of refugees;

(b) to assist the Rwandan government in promoting a climate of trust and confidence for the return of refugees;

(c) to assist the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and provide logistical support;

(d) to contribute towards the security of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda.The Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali was then requested to:

(a) reduce the force level of UNAMIR to 1,200 troops;

(b) reduce the number of military observers, headquarters and other support staff to 200;

(c) initiate planning for the complete withdrawal of UNAMIR;

(d) withdraw the Civilian Police component of UNAMIR;

(e) examine the feasibility of transferring UNAMIR non-lethal equipment for use in Rwanda.Humanitarian assistance to Rwanda was welcomed and urged, and the Secretary-General was asked to report to the Council by 1 February 1996 on the withdrawal of UNAMIR. The resolution was adopted amid calls from Rwanda that the mission leave, and that it had done "nothing to prevent the massacres and they [UNAMIR] did not even assist people in danger".

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1050

United Nations Security Council resolution 1050, adopted unanimously on 8 March 1996, after recalling all previous resolutions on Rwanda, the Council discussed arrangements for the withdrawal of the United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR).

The Security Council stressed the importance of safe and voluntary return of refugees and national reconciliation, and of the Government of Rwanda to promote confidence, security and trust. Conference were held in Cairo and Addis Ababa concerning the refugee crisis, and the Council stressed the importance of a regional conference to address the issue. All countries were urged to co-operate with the Commission of Inquiry established in Resolution 1013 (1995) and with the human rights operation in Rwanda. The Council remained convinced that the United Nations continue to play a role in the country.

As requested in Resolution 1029 (1995), the Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali was to begin withdrawing UNAMIR from Rwanda on 9 March 1996. All remaining elements of UNAMIR would contribute to the security and protection of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda. With the consent of the Rwandan government, the Secretary-General was encouraged to continue the operation of the communications system and radio station to promote national reconciliation, strengthen the judicial system, facilitate the return of refugees and restore the country's infrastructure.Finally, the Secretary-General was asked by 5 April 1996 to report on the arrangements with Rwanda were made in relation to the protection of the Rwanda Tribunal after the withdrawal of UNAMIR, and other aforementioned issues.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 872

United Nations Security Council resolution 872, adopted unanimously on 5 October 1993, after reaffirming resolutions 812 (1993) and 846 (1993) on the situation in Rwanda and Resolution 868 (1993) on the security of United Nations operations, the Council stressed the need for an international force in the country and therefore established the United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR).The signing of the Arusha Accords was welcomed and for the efforts of the Organisation of African Unity (OAU) and Tanzania in this respect. The conclusion of the Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali that the full cooperation of the parties with one another is essential for the United Nations to carry out its mandate. In this regard, UNAMIR was established for a period of six months subject to the proviso that it will be extended beyond the initial ninety days upon a review by the Council as to whether progress had been made towards the implementation of the Arusha Accords. It then decided that UNAMIR should have the following mandate:

(a) contribute to the security of Kigali;

(b) monitor the ceasefire which called for the establishment of cantonment, assembly zones and the demarcation of the new demilitarised zone;

(c) monitor the security situation during the final period of the transitional government's mandate in the lead up to elections;

(d) assist in demining;

(e) investigate non-compliance with the Arusha Accords;

(f) monitor repatriation of Rwandan refugees and resettlement of displaced persons;

(g) assist in the co-ordination of humanitarian assistance;

(h) investigate and report on incidents regarding the activities of the gendarmerie and police.United Nations Observer Mission Uganda–Rwanda would be integrated into UNAMIR, and the Council further approved Boutros-Ghali's decision stating that the deployment and withdrawal of UNAMIR should be carried out in stages, and in this connection, that UNAMIR's mandate, if extended, would be expected to terminate following national elections and the installation of a new government in Rwanda, scheduled to occur by October 1995. The Secretary-General was authorised to deploy the first contingent of 2,548 troops to Kigali for an initial period of six months, allowing it to establish transitional institutions and implement other provisions of the Arusha Peace Agreement.There he was also asked to report on the progress of UNAMIR and the requirements for its further scale and composition. It also asked him to keep the maximum strength of the mission as low as possible, for example, through a phased deployment, and planning cuts had to be considered. The Secretary-General's intention to appoint a Special Representative who would be leading the mission was welcomed. The Security Council asked him an agreement on the status of the transaction to close within the 30 days was to take effect.

Finally, the resolution called upon the parties to guarantee the safety of United Nations personnel and for Member States, specialised agencies and non-governmental organisations to contribute economic, financial and humanitarian assistance for the people and to the democratisation of Rwanda.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 891

United Nations Security Council resolution 891, adopted unanimously on 20 December 1993, after reaffirming resolutions 812 (1993), 846 (1993) and 872 (1993) on the situation in Rwanda, the Council noted that the presence of the United Nations Observer Mission Uganda–Rwanda (UNOMUR) had contributed to the stability of the area and extended its mandate for an additional six months.The Council noted that the integration of UNOMUR and the United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR) is solely administrative in that no way would it affect the mandate UNOMUR. The co-operation of the Government of Uganda was welcomed, and all civilian and military authorities in the mandate area were urged to co-operate with the mission.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 893

United Nations Security Council resolution 893, adopted unanimously on 6 January 1994, after reaffirming resolutions 812 (1993), 846 (1993), 872 (1993) and 891 (1993) on Rwanda, the Council noted that the situation in Rwanda could have implications for neighbouring Burundi and authorised the deployment of a second military battalion of the United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR) to the demilitarised zone.The Council urged both parties to co-operate with the peace process, comply with the Arusha Accords and in particular to establish a broad-based transitional government as soon as possible. It was stressed that continued support for UNAMIR will depend upon the implementation of the Arusha Accords. Attempts to improve dialogue among the parties by the Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali and his Special Representative were welcomed.

The efforts of Member States, United Nations agencies, the Organisation of African Unity and non-governmental organisations which had provided humanitarian aid were welcomed. Finally, the Secretary-General was requested to continue to monitor the size and cost of UNAMIR.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 909

United Nations Security Council resolution 909, adopted unanimously on 5 April 1994, after reaffirming resolutions 812 (1993), 846 (1993), 872 (1993), 891 (1993) and 893 (1994) on Rwanda, the Council expressed concern at deteriorating security and humanitarian situation in the country, particularly in Kigali, and extended the mandate of the United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR) until 29 July 1994.Concern was expressed at the delay in the establishment of a transitional government and Transitional National Authority which constituted a major obstacle to the Arusha Accords. The review of UNAMIR would take place within six weeks including the role of the United Nations in Rwanda if the Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali informed the Council that insufficient progress had been made in establishing the transitional authorities.Both parties were urged to resolve their differences without delay with a view to establishing the transitional institutions, and despite the fact that the Arusha Peace Agreement had not been implemented, a ceasefire was being observed and commending the contribution made by UNAMIR. The continued support for UNAMIR was dependent upon the full implementation of the Arusha Accords. At the same time the efforts of the Secretary-General, his Special Representative, Member States and the Organisation for African Unity (OAU) for their efforts in the political process and for providing humanitarian and other assistance. Finally, the Secretary-General was requested to continue to monitor financial costs of UNAMIR.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 912

United Nations Security Council resolution 912, adopted unanimously on 21 April 1994, after reaffirming all resolutions on the situation in Rwanda, particularly resolutions 872 (1993) and 909 (1994), the Council expressed its alarm and condemnation of the large-scale violence in the country which resulted in the death of thousands of innocent civilians, and proposed a revised mandate of the United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR).

The Council expressed shock at the shooting down of a plane carrying the President of Rwanda Juvénal Habyarimana and President of Burundi Cyprien Ntaryamira on 6 April 1994. Following this, there was an outbreak of widespread violence in which thousands died and resulted in the displacement of a significant number of the Rwandese population both in Rwanda and neighbouring countries, and an increase in looting, banditry and breakdown of law and order. There was concern for the safety of UNAMIR and other United Nations and humanitarian personnel who were assisting in the implementation of the peace process and distributing humanitarian aid.

The Security Council deplored the incident in which the Presidents of Rwanda and Burundi were killed and the violence which claimed the lives of the first minister, cabinet ministers, officials and thousands of civilians. Violence around Kigali and attacks on UNAMIR in particular were condemned. A ceasefire was demanded between the Government of Rwanda and the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) and an end to the violence engulfing the country. In this regard, the size of UNAMIR was reduced and its mandate was adjusted as follows:

(a) to mediate a ceasefire;

(b) to assist in the resumption of humanitarian relief operations;

(c) to monitor and report on developments in Rwanda, including on civilians who sought refuge with UNAMIR.It was decided that the mandate of UNAMIR would be kept under review in light of developments and recommendations by the Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali. The Arusha Accords remained the only settlement of the conflict in Rwanda, with the Organisation of African Unity (OAU) urged to continue efforts in the peace process. The international community was called upon to continue providing humanitarian aid. Finally, the Secretary-General was requested to report on the situation with 15 days to the Council.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 925

United Nations Security Council resolution 925, adopted unanimously on 8 June 1994, after reaffirming all resolutions on the situation in Rwanda, particularly resolutions 912 (1994) and 918 (1994), and Resolution 868 (1993) on the safety of United Nations peacekeepers, the Council deployed additional battalions and extended the mandate of the United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR) until 9 December 1994.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 929

United Nations Security Council resolution 929, adopted on 22 June 1994, after recalling all resolutions on Rwanda, including 912 (1994), 918 (1994) and 925 (1994), the Council authorised, under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, the temporary establishment of a multinational operation in the country to assist in humanitarian efforts and protect refugees and displaced people, until the full deployment of the expanded United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR).The Security Council called for the resumption of the political process under the Arusha Peace Agreement. It also anticipated the expansion of UNAMIR and stressed that it was solely a humanitarian force that would be impartial in nature. Concern was expressed at the continuation of the systematic and widespread killings of civilians in Rwanda to which the international community must respond.

It was agreed to establish a humanitarian operation headed by France until UNAMIR was at full strength. The operation intended to ensure the safety of displaced persons, refugees and civilians. It was limited to a period of two months following the adoption of the present resolution, and would be financed by the Member States participating themselves. Meanwhile, Member States were urged to provide necessary support and to contribute to UNAMIR so that its mission could be expanded rapidly.

The Rwandan parties were urged to end the killings immediately. The Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali and the countries participating in the operation were requested to report on a regular basis to the Council, with the first report due in 15 days. The Secretary-General himself was required to report back on the expansion of UNAMIR and the resumption of the peace process.

Resolution 929 was adopted by 10 votes to none against, with five abstentions from Brazil, China, New Zealand, Nigeria and Pakistan.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 935

United Nations Security Council resolution 935, adopted unanimously on 1 July 1994, after recalling all resolutions on Rwanda, particularly 918 (1994) and 925 (1994), the Council requested the Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali to establish a Commission of Experts to investigate violations of international humanitarian law during the Rwandan genocide.The Council stressed the need for the early deployment of the United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda so that it could fulfill its mandate. Statements by the President of the Security Council and Secretary-General concerning violations of international humanitarian law in Rwanda were recalled, with the Council noting that only a full investigation could establish the facts of what occurred and therefore determine responsibility. A visit by the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights and the appointment of a Special Rapporteur for Rwanda was welcomed.

Concern was expressed at the continuing reports of systematic killings in Rwanda, including reports of genocide, and noting those responsible for the acts committed should be brought to justice. In this regard, the Council requested that the Secretary-General establish an impartial Commission of Experts to investigate reports of violations of international humanitarian law and report to the Secretary-General. All states and international organisations were urged to collect information in a similar manner to the Commission of Experts and additionally on breaches of the Genocide Convention, making the information gathered available within 30 days of the adoption of the present resolution.

The Secretary-General was requested to report to the Council on the establishment of the Commission of Experts and to report on its findings within four months. The Secretary-General was also required, along with the High Commissioner for Human Rights, to make information submitted to the Special Rapporteur for Rwanda available to the Commission. All concerned were urged to co-operate with the Commission in order for it to accomplish its mandate.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 965

United Nations Security Council resolution 965, adopted unanimously on 30 November 1994, after reaffirming all resolutions on the situation in Rwanda, particularly resolutions 872 (1993), 912 (1994), 918 (1994), 925 (1994) and 955 (1994), the Council extended the mandate of the United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR) until 9 June 1995 and expanded its operations.The Security Council stressed the importance of achieving national reconciliation within the framework of the Arusha Accords. Monitors had been dispatched to Rwanda by the High Commissioner for Human Rights to monitor and prevent human rights violations from occurring and to facilitate the return of refugees. It was also noted that land mines had caused disruption to the civilian population and other humanitarian efforts.

It was reaffirmed that UNAMIR would:

(a) protect refugees, displaced persons and civilians at risk;

(b) provide security and support to facilitate humanitarian aid operations;

(c) help achieve national reconciliation;

(d) contribute to the security of International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda personnel and human rights officers;

(e) assist in the training and establishment of a new police force.The Government of Rwanda was urged to continue co-operation with UNAMIR and allow unimpeded access to all areas of the country. UNAMIR's efforts to increase its radio broadcasting capabilities was welcomed, as were the efforts of Member States, United Nations agencies and non-governmental organisations with regards to humanitarian assistance.

The Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali was asked to make recommendations concerning the establishment of a mine clearance programme and to notify the Council of any adjustment in the logistic and personnel requirements of UNAMIR. He was required to report by 9 February 1995 and 9 April 1995 on UNAMIR's mandate and the situation in the country. Finally, the international community was called upon to provide resources to the Rwandan government.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 997

United Nations Security Council resolution 997, adopted unanimously on 9 June 1995, after reaffirming all resolutions on the situation in Rwanda, particularly resolutions 872 (1993), 912 (1994), 918 (1994), 925 (1994), 955 (1994) and 965 (1994), the Council extended the mandate of the United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR) until 8 December 1995 and adjusted its operations from peacekeeping to confidence-building.National reconciliation in Rwanda was important for the Council. There were reports that members of the former regime in Rwanda were increasing incursions into the country and military planning and in this respect measures were urged to prevent Rwandan nationals in other countries do not undertake in activities aimed at destabilising Rwanda. More international support was needed for the rehabilitation and reconciliation process. Meanwhile, the Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali intended for a conference to be held on matters relating to the refugee problem in the Great Lakes region.

After extending UNAMIR's mandate, its size was reduced to 2,330 troops within three months and 1,800 within four months, though the number of military observers and police personnel was to be maintained. UNAMIR's mandate was adapted to:

(a) help achieve national reconciliation;

(b) facilitate the return of refugees and displaced persons;

(c) support humanitarian assistance and demining;

(d) assist in the training of a national police force;

(e) protect United Nations agencies, humanitarian organisations and the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda.Countries neighbouring Rwanda were urged to address and prevent factors destabilising Rwanda, including the transfer of weapons and materiel into the country from their territory. The Secretary-General was asked to consult with neighbouring countries on the deployment of military observers to the border regions, including airfields in eastern Zaire, to monitor the transfer of arms and materiel.

Finally, all countries and donors were urged to provide assistance to Rwanda in line with their commitments, and the Secretary-General was requested to submit reports on the humanitarian situation to the Council by 9 August 1995 and 9 October 1995.

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