United Nations–African Union Mission in Darfur

The African Union-United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur (known by its acronym UNAMID) is a joint African Union (AU) and United Nations (UN) peacekeeping mission formally approved by United Nations Security Council Resolution 1769 on 31 July 2007,[1] to bring stability to the war-torn Darfur region of Sudan while peace talks on a final settlement continue.[2]

Its initial 12-month mandate was extended to 31 July 2010.[3] As of 2008, its budget was approximately US $106 million per month.[4] Its force of about 26,000 personnel began to deploy to the region in October 2007. The 9,000-strong African Union Mission in Sudan (AMIS), which was previously responsible for peacekeeping, had completely merged into this new force by 31 December 2007.[5]

The mandate is for a force of up to 19,555 military personnel and 3,772 police, along with a further "19 formed police units comprising up to 140 personnel each."[6] The peacekeepers are allowed to use force to protect civilians and humanitarian operations. UNAMID is the first joint UN/AU force and the largest peacekeeping mission.

As of December 2008, it had deployed 15,136 total uniformed personnel, including 12,194 troops, 175 military observers, and 2,767 police officers, who were supported by 786 international civilian personnel, 1,405 local civilian staff, and 266 UN volunteers.[7]

United Nations–African Union Mission in Darfur
Emblem of the United Nations
African Union-United Nations Hybrid operation in Darfur Logo
AbbreviationUNAMID
Formation31 July 2007
TypePeacekeeping mission
Legal statusActive
HeadquartersEl Fasher, Sudan
Head
Joint Special Representative
Jeremiah Kingsley Mamabolo
Parent organization
United Nations Security Council
African Union
Websiteunamid.unmissions.org
Sudan Envoy - Honor Guard
A UNAMID Honor Guard greets SE Gration's arrival into the UNAMID compound in El Geneina, West Darfur, 19 November 2009.

Authorisation

Initial authorization for the mission was given by the UN Security Council in resolution 1769 of 31 July 2007.[8] This resolution set the strength of the mission as "... up to 19,555 military personnel, including 360 military observers and liaison officers, and an appropriate civilian component including up to 3,772 police personnel and 19 formed police units comprising up to 140 personnel each". The mission's authorisation was extended in essentially unchanged form for each of the following five years: UN Security Council resolution 1828 adopted on 31 July 2008, resolution 1881 on 30 July 2009, resolution 1935 on 30 July 2010, resolution 2003 on 29 July 2011, and resolution 2063 adopted on 31 July 2012.

Security Council resolution 2013 of 30 July 2013 extended the mandate of UNAMID for 13 months – to 31 August 2014 – but reduced the permitted force strength to 16,200 military personnel, 2,310 police personnel and 17 formed police units of up to 140 personnel.[9] The following year saw the mandate extended once again to 30 June 2015 (Security Council resolution 2173 of 27 August 2014).

Security Council resolution 2228 of 29 June 2015 further reduced the force strength, to no more than 15,845 military personnel, 1,583 police personnel and 13 formed police units of up to 140 personnel each.[10] This force authorisation was extended by another 12 months through Security Council resolution 2296 of 29 June 2016.[11]

Drawdown

The new Trump Administration in Washington argued for a reduction in UN peacekeeping budgets during the first half of 2017. Possibly arising from this, when the UNAMID mandate was renewed for a further 12 months by the UN Security Council on 29 June 2017, significant reductions in deployed personnel were announced.[12] The approved Force strength was to be reduced in two stages. By the end of 2017 the authorized numbers of troops and police would be 11,395 and 2,888, respectively. To be further reduced by mid-2018 to 8,735 troops (eight battalions) and 2,500 police.[13] Reductions in Mission civilian staff were reported to be 426 in Phase 1 (i.e. to 31 December 2017) and a further 147 positions lost in Phase 2 (i.e. to 30 June 2018).[14]

Leadership and command

United Nations' missions come under a civilian Head of Mission, usually called the Special Representative of the UN Secretary General. UNAMID, as a joint mission, has a civilian head appointed by both the UN Secretary General and AU Commission Chairman. In October 2015 Martin Ihoeghian Uhomoibhi (of Nigeria) was appointed as Joint Special Representative for Darfur and Head of UNAMID, succeeding Abiodun Oluremi Bashua (also of Nigeria).[15] On 3 April 2017 it was announced that Jeremiah Nyamane Kingsley Mamabolo of South Africa had been appointed as Joint Special Representative and Head of the African Union-United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur.[16]

Force Commanders

No. Name Nationality From To Notes
1 Maj. Gen. Martin Luther Agwai[17]  Nigeria 1 January 2008 31 August 2009
2 Lt. Gen. Patrick Nyamvumba[18]  Rwanda 1 September 2009 31 March 2013
3 Lt. Gen. Paul Ignace Mella[19]  Tanzania 4 June 2013 31 December 2015
4 Lt. Gen. Frank Mushyo Kamanzi[20]  Rwanda 1 January 2016 On 6 April 2017 it was announced that General Kamanzi had been appointed Force Commander for UNMISS in South Sudan.[21]
5 Maj. Gen. Fida Hussain Malik  Pakistan Mid-2017 Acting in the role.
6 Lt. Gen. Leonard Muriuki Ngondi[22]  Kenya August 2017 incumbent

Deputy Force Commanders

No. Name Nationality From To
1 Maj. Gen. Emmanuel Karenzi Karake  Rwanda 1 January 2008[23] April 2009[24]
2 Maj. Gen. Duma Dumisani Mdutyana  South Africa 31 May 2009[25]
3 Maj. Gen. Wynjones Kisamba [26]  Tanzania September 2011 2013[27]
4 Maj. Gen. Balla Keita[28]  Senegal 2013 2015
5 Maj. Gen. Mohammad Maksudur Rahman  Bangladesh October 2015[29] -
6 Maj. Gen. Fida Hussain Malik  Pakistan May 2017 incumbent

Organisation

Sectors

The preceding African Union Mission in Sudan (AMIS) was organised in a number of Sectors, each under the command of a Colonel. When UNAMID took over from AMIS some of these sectors were merged and Sectors became Brigadier's commands.[30] Initially the Force was divided into three Sectors:

  • Sector North (with headquarters at El Fasher)
  • Sector West (El Geneina)
  • Sector South (Nyala)

By mid-2015 a further two Sectors had been established:

  • Sector Central (Zalingei)
  • Sector East (Al Da’ ein)

Major Units

A UNAMID map showing force deployment in December 2016 reveals the force then comprised 14 infantry battalions (in addition to engineer, signals, medical and other support units).[31] These battalions were deployed as follows (with changes to December 2017 noted, by when the Force was reduced to 11 battalions.[32]):

Sector North

  • El Fasher – Rwandan battalion (Rwanbatt 47 during 2016/17)
  • Kabkabiya – Rwandan battalion (Rwanbatt 46 during 2016/17)
  • Umm Barru – Senegalese battalion (reduced to two companies by December 2017)
  • Kutum – Pakistani battalion (replaced by Senegalese by December 2017)
  • Tawila – Ethiopian battalion

Sector West

  • El Geneina – Indonesian battalion
  • Forobaranga – Burkina Faso battalion (closed by December 2017, following departure of Burkina Faso contingent)

Sector Central

  • Zalingei – Rwandan battalion (Rwanbatt 45 during 2016/17)
  • Mukhjar – Ethiopian battalion

Sector South

  • Nyala – Nigerian battalion (Nibatt 45 during 2016, replaced by Egyptian battalion by December 2017)
  • Graida – Ethiopian battalion
  • Edd al Fursan – Egyptian battalion (closed by December 2017)
  • Khor Abeche – Tanzanian battalion
  • Kass - Rwandan battalion

Sector East

  • Al Da'ein – Pakistani battalion

Drawdown

During mid-2017 UN Security Council authorisation of the Mission imposed personnel reductions[12] The approved Force strength was to be reduced in two phases: Phase 1 levels to be reached by 31 December 2017 and Phase 2 reductions by 30 June 2018. Along with reductions in personnel UNAMID was to close eleven bases during Phase 1. During September four 'team sites' were closed and handed over to Sudanese Government officials: Mellit, Malha and Um Kadada in North Darfur and Muhajeria in East Darfur.[33] During October another seven bases were closed: Abu Shouk, Tine, Habila Eid, Al Fursan (12 October), Tulus (15 October), Forobaranga (17 October) and, finally, Zam Zam (21 October).[14]

Participants

On 12 August 2007, Alpha Oumar Konare, chairman of the AU, announced that UNAMID was likely to be an all-African peacekeeping force.[34][35] As of 30 June 2013, the total number of personnel in the mission was 19,735:[36][37]

Country Police Experts Troops
 Algeria 125 8 619
 Bangladesh[38][39] 764 16 196
 Benin 1
 Bolivia 2
 Burkina Faso 184 12 808
 Burundi 71 8 2
 Cambodia 3
 Cameroon 14
 China[40] 233
 Colombia 2 2
 Ivory Coast 6
 Djibouti 151
 Egypt 245 24 1,062
 Ethiopia 26 16 2,549
 Gambia 156 211
 Germany 6 50 8
 Ghana 158 8 12
 Indonesia 156 4 1
 Iran 2 16
 Jamaica 12
 Japan 2 2
 Jordan 531 13 12
 Kenya 5 80
 Kyrgyzstan 7 2
 Lesotho 2 1
 Libya 14
 Madagascar 9
 Malawi 59
 Malaysia 44 2 14
 Mali 7 1
 Mexico 4
 Mongolia 70
 Namibia 10 3
   Nepal 297 18 363
 Nigeria 372 14 2,573
 Oman 120 54 8
 Pakistan 244 6 504
 Peru 4
 Philippines 14 2 8
 Rwanda[41] 212 11 3,239
 Senegal[42] 300 19 795
 Sierra Leone 95 10 11
 South Africa 16 809
 South Korea 2
 Tajikistan 14
 Tanzania[43] 208 21 894
 Thailand 8 7
 Togo 140 7
 Tonga 2
 Tunisia 67
 Turkey 79
 Vietnam 4
 Yemen 204 47 4
 Zambia 63 12 5
 Zimbabwe 6 2

Former contributors

  •  Burkina Faso During March 2017 the Government of Burkina Faso announced its intention to withdraw its 850 troops from UNAMID, citing the increasing threat presented by radical jihadists it faced at home.[44]
  •  Canada[45]
  •  Ireland[46]
  •  Norway[47]
  •  South Africa South Africa withdrew their troops from UNAMID from1 April 2016 after nearly 12 years of deployments to Darfur. The first deployment of South African military observers to the African Union Mission in Sudan (AMIS) dating back to July 2004.[48] A South African Government statement gave the reason for the recall of its troops as: "The Sudanese government made it increasingly difficult for us to provide logistic support to our troops, and impossible for our forces to protect the women and children of that country".[49]

Casualties

UNAMID deaths by nationality

 Nigeria: 37
 Rwanda: 30
 Ethiopia: 26
 Sudan: 25
 Senegal: 16
 Tanzania: 14
 Burkina Faso: 13
 Sierra Leone: 13
 Egypt: 8
 South Africa: 8
 Gambia: 7
 Bangladesh: 6
 Jordan: 4
   Nepal: 4
 Uganda: 4
 Zambia: 4
 Ghana: 3
 Kenya: 3
 Barbados: 1
 Fiji: 1
 Liberia: 1
 Malawi: 1
 Malaysia: 1
 Morocco: 1
 Pakistan: 1
 Russian Federation: 1
 Thailand: 1
 Togo: 1
 Yemen: 1

TOTAL: 236[50]

As of 30 June 2017, 236 UN personnel had died whilst serving with UNAMID.[51]

Incidents

  • A Ugandan peacekeeper was found shot dead in his car in the El Fasher region on 29 May 2008.[52]
  • On 8 July 2008, seven UN peacekeepers were killed and 22 injured in an attack by a militia.[53] The attack was reported and condemned by the United Nations Security Council.[54]
  • A Nigerian peacekeeper was killed on 16 July 2008.[55]
  • A Nigerian peacekeeper was killed on 7 October 2008.[56]
  • A South African peacekeeper was killed on 29 October 2008.[57]
  • Two UNAMID peacekeepers were killed between November 2008 and February 2009.[58]
  • A Nigerian peacekeeper was killed in a firefight on 17 March 2009.[59]
  • A UNAMID peacekeeper was shot dead in front of his home in Nyala on 8 May 2009.[60]
  • A UNAMID peacekeeper was killed between June and August 2009.[61]
  • A Nigerian peacekeeper was killed in an ambush in Sudan's western Darfur region on 29 September 2009.[61]
  • Three[62] Rwandan peacekeepers were killed and three wounded in an ambush by gunmen while escorting a water tanker on 4 December 2009.[63]
  • On 6 December 2009, two more Rwandan peacekeepers were killed and one was wounded when gunmen opened fire from a crowd as Rwandan troops were distributing water.[64]
  • Two Egyptian peackeepers were killed and three wounded in an ambush near Edd al-Fursan in southern Darfur on 7 May 2010.[65]
  • One UNAMID peacekeeper was killed, and three others were critically wounded, in an attack on 21 January 2013 while they were patrolling in Darfur.[66]
  • One UNAMID peacekeeper was killed and two injured on 19 April 2013 in an attack on their base at Muhajeria in East Darfur.[67]
  • Seven Tanzanian peacekeepers were killed on 13 July 2013.[68]

See also

References

  1. ^ United Nations Security Council Resolution 1769. S/RES/1769(2007) 31 July 2007. Retrieved 2008-04-10.
  2. ^ "African Union – United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur". Archived from the original on 2008-12-17.
  3. ^ United Nations Security Council Resolution 1881. S/RES/1881(2009) 31 July 2009. Retrieved 16 August 2009.
  4. ^ United Nations Security Council Document 443. Report of the Secretary-General on the deployment of the African Union-United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur S/2008/443 page 8. 7 July 2008. Retrieved 18 August 2008.
  5. ^ "UN Press Release".
  6. ^ United Nations Security Council Resolution 1769. S/RES/1769(2007) page 3. 31 July 2007. Retrieved 2008-08-18.
  7. ^ "UNAMID Mission Site".
  8. ^ United Nations Security Council Resolution 1769. S/RES/1769(2007) 31 July 2007. Retrieved 18 February 2017.
  9. ^ United Nations Security Council Resolution 2113. S/RES/2113(2013) 30 July 2013. Retrieved 18 February 2017.
  10. ^ United Nations Security Council Resolution 2228. S/RES/2228(2015) 29 June 2015. Retrieved 18 February 2017.
  11. ^ United Nations Security Council Resolution 2296. S/RES/2296(2016) 29 June 2016. Retrieved 18 February 2017.
  12. ^ a b United Nations Security Council Resolution 2363.(2017) S/RES/2363 (2017) 29 June 2017. Retrieved 1 July 2017.
  13. ^ United Nations (2017) 'Security Council Renews Mandate of African Union-United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur, Unanimously Adopting Resolution 2363 (2017)', UN press release, 29 June 2017, accessed 28 July 2017, <https://www.un.org/press/en/2017/sc12893.doc.htm>
  14. ^ a b 'UNAMID completes closure of 11 sites in Darfur', Sudan Tribune (Paris), 22 October 2017.
  15. ^ United Nations (2015) ‘Secretary-General, African Union Commission Chair Appoint Martin Ihoeghian Uhomoibhi of Nigeria Joint Special Representative for Darfur’, UN press release SG/A/1600-BIO/4771-PKO/533, 27 October 2015, accessed 11 February 2017, <http://www.un.org/press/en/2015/sga1600.doc.htm>
  16. ^ 'Secretary-General, African Union Commission Chair Appoint Jeremiah Mamabolo of South Africa Joint Special Representative For Darfur', UN press release SG/A/1715*-BIO/4946*-PKO/631*, 3 April 2017, accessed 21 April 2017, <https://www.un.org/press/en/2017/sga1715.doc.htm>
  17. ^ United Nations, 2007, 'The United Nations and Darfur: Fact Sheet', Peace and Security Section, United Nations Department of Public Information, accessed 24 January 2017, <http://www.un.org/News/dh/infocus/sudan/fact_sheet.pdf>
  18. ^ 'Lieutenant General Patrick Nyamvumba of Rwanda to Serve as Force Commander for African Union-United Nations Mission in Darfur, from 1 September', United Nations media release, 24 July 2009, accessed 24 January 2017, <http://www.un.org/press/en/2009/sga1194.doc.htm>
  19. ^ 'Lieutenant General Paul Ignace Mella of United Republic of Tanzania Appointed Force Commander of African Union-United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur', United Nations media release, 4 June 2013, accessed 24 January 2017, <http://www.un.org/press/en/2013/sga1410.doc.htm>
  20. ^ 'Lieutenant General Frank Mushyo Kamanzi of Rwanda Appointed Force Commander of African Union-United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur', United Nations media release, 14 December 2015, accessed 24 January 2017, <http://www.un.org/press/en/2015/sga1618.doc.htm>
  21. ^ 'Secretary-General Appoints Lieutenant General Frank Mushyo Kamanzi of Rwanda Force Commander of United Nations Mission in South Sudan', UN press release SG/A/1716*-BIO/4947*-PKO/632*, 6 April 2017, accessed 14 April 2017, <https://www.un.org/press/en/2017/sga1716.doc.htm>
  22. ^ UNAMID News (2017) 'Lieutenant General Leonard Muriuki Ngondi of Kenya appointed Force Commander of African Union-United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur', UNAMID News website, 8 August 2017, accessed 9 August 2017, <https://unamid.unmissions.org/lieutenant-general-leonard-muriuki-ngondi-kenya-appointed-force-commander-african-union-united>
  23. ^ 'Rwandese Troops in Darfur Celebrate Rwanda Liberation Day', The New Times (Kigali), 8 July 2008.
  24. ^ 'General Karake leaving Darfur mission', Rwanda News Agency, 27 April 2009, accessed 13 August 2010
  25. ^ 'UNAMID's New Deputy Force Commander Joins Mission', UNAMID News, 29 May 2009, accessed 24 January 2017, < http://unamid.unmissions.org/unamids-new-deputy-force-commander-joins-mission>
  26. ^ Wa Simbeye, F. & Saiboko, A., 'UN—Troops in Darfur Allowed to Return Fire', Tanzania Daily News (Dar es Salaam), 17 July 2013.
  27. ^ 'Biographical Note of Major General Wynjones Mathew Kisamba (Tanzania)', UNAMID website, accessed 24 January 2017, <https://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/missions/unamid/documents/bio_kisamba.pdf>
  28. ^ ‘Secretary-General Appoints Lieutenant General Balla Keïta of Senegal Force Commander of Mission in Central African Republic’, United Nations media release, 11 February 2016, accessed 25 January 2017, http://www.un.org/press/en/2016/sga1636.doc.htm
  29. ^ 'Bangladesh Army Maj Gen to be deputy force commander of UN peacekeepers in Darfur', bdnews24.com, 17 October 2015, accessed 2 April 2017, <http://bdnews24.com/bangladesh/2015/10/17/bangladesh-army-maj-gen-to-be-deputy-force-commander-of-un-peacekeepers-in-darfur>
  30. ^ Musoni, E., 'Darfur Peacekeepers Jet Out', The New Times (Kigali), 21 November 2007.
  31. ^ https://www.un.org/Depts/Cartographic/map/dpko/unamid.pdf
  32. ^ United Nations Security Council Document 1113. Report of the Secretary-General on the African Union-United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur S/2017/1113 27 December 2017. Retrieved 1 February 2018.
  33. ^ 'UNAMID denies “improper handover” of bases in North Darfur', Sudan Tribune (Paris), 11 September 2017, accessed 30 September 2017, <http://www.sudantribune.com/spip.php?article63480>
  34. ^ "Africa | Darfur force 'to be all-African'". BBC News. 13 August 2007. Archived from the original on 6 April 2009. Retrieved 25 April 2009.
  35. ^ "UN 'hitting the target' towards deployment of hybrid peace force in Darfur". Un.org. 2007-08-07. Retrieved 25 April 2009.
  36. ^ "UN Mission's Contributions by Country" (PDF). Page 9, UN. 30 June 2013. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
  37. ^ "UNAMID Facts and Figures". UN. Retrieved 16 July 2013.
  38. ^ John Pike. "VOA News – Bangladesh Troops to Join UN Force in Sudan". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 25 April 2009.
  39. ^ "Bangladesh to send troops for UN peacekeeping mission in Sudan". SudanTribune article. 20 December 2004. Retrieved 25 April 2009.
  40. ^ english@peopledaily.com.cn. "People's Daily Online -- Chinese peace-keeping force formed for Sudan mission". english.peopledaily.com.cn.
  41. ^ "Africa: Continent to Give Troops to Hybrid Darfur Force (Page 1 of 1)". allAfrica.com. 2007-08-03. Retrieved 25 April 2009.
  42. ^ "BBC NEWS – Africa – Senegal to triple Darfur troops".
  43. ^ "Tanzania seeks review of peacekeeping rules". africareview.com. 15 July 2013. Retrieved 16 July 2013.
  44. ^ 'Burkina Faso pulls out of UNAMID in Darfur: FM', Sudan Tribune, 27 March 2017, accessed 21 April 2017, http://www.sudantribune.com/spip.php?article62021
  45. ^ Government of Canada. "National Defence and the Canadian Forces – Operation SATURN". Retrieved 22 March 2013.
  46. ^ McDonald, Henry (2007-08-05). "Irish troops to keep peace in Darfur for UN". Guardian Unlimited. London: Guardian News and Media Limited. Archived from the original on 19 August 2007. Retrieved 20 August 2007.
  47. ^ "Norway condemns attack on UN and AU in Sudan". tnp.no. 16 July 2013. Retrieved 16 July 2013.
  48. ^ "Soldiers of peace and development". www.dod.mil.za.
  49. ^ 'SA Withdraws Troops From Darfur', SAnews.gov.za (Tshwane), 11 May 2016.
  50. ^ UN Peacekeeping, Fatalities by Nationality and Mission – up to 31 October 2016, accessed 18 November 2016, http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/fatalities/documents/stats_2.pdf
  51. ^ "United Nations Peacekeeping Operations" (PDF). UN. 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-29.
  52. ^ The Earthtimes (29 May 2008). "UN peacekeeper killed in Darfur: Africa World". Earthtimes.org. Retrieved 25 April 2009.
  53. ^ Mvunganyi, Jackson. "UN Peacekeepers Killed In Darfur attack". VOA News. Retrieved 25 April 2009.
  54. ^ United Nations Security Council Verbatim Report S/PV/5935 16 July 2008. Retrieved 20 July 2008.
  55. ^ "Africa – UN peacekeeper killed in Darfur". Al Jazeera English. 17 July 2008. Retrieved 25 April 2009.
  56. ^ "Africa | Darfur ambush kills peacekeeper". BBC News. 2008-10-07. Retrieved 25 April 2009.
  57. ^ Alaa, Shahine (30 October 2008). "Gunmen kill South African peacekeeper in Sudan's Darfur". Khartoum. Reuters. Retrieved 18 April 2011. Unknown gunmen have killed a South African peacekeeper and wounded another in Sudan's western Darfur region, the United Nations/African Union force (UNAMID) said Thursday.
  58. ^ "Sudan: UNAMID peacekeeper killed in South Darfur". 17 March 2009.
  59. ^ "Økonomi - Kredittkort - Finans - Civpol.org".
  60. ^ "Darfur peacekeeper killed during carjacking - CNN.com". CNN. 2009-05-08. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
  61. ^ a b "Peacekeeper killed in Darfur ambush – Al Jazeera English". Aljazeera.com. 29 September 2009. Retrieved 19 October 2016.
  62. ^ Foundation, Thomson Reuters. "Humanitarian – Thomson Reuters Foundation News".
  63. ^ BBC News: Two Rwandan peacekeepers killed in Darfur
  64. ^ "Rwandan soldiers killed in Darfur". BBC News. 2009-12-05. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
  65. ^ "Two peacekeepers killed in Darfur". BBC News. 2010-05-07.
  66. ^ Ekenyerengozi, Michael Chima (24 January 2012). "The DARFUR Blog: UN Security Council Press Statement on Killing of Peacekeeper in Darfur".
  67. ^ "UNAMID peacekeeper killed in East Darfur". Sudan Tribune. 19 April 2013. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
  68. ^ "Statement attributable to the Spokesperson for the Secretary-General on the deadly attack on UNAMID peacekeepers in South Darfur". UN. Retrieved 16 July 2013.

External links

2012 yellow fever outbreak in Darfur, Sudan

In late 2012, a yellow fever outbreak occurred in the Darfur region of Sudan that was the largest yellow fever epidemic to strike Africa in two decades. On 10 January 2013, the Sudan Federal Ministry of Health and the World Heath Organization (WHO) reported that there had been 847 suspected cases since 2 September 2012, including 171 deaths, for an estimated case fatality rate of 20%. A mass vaccination campaign was launched in mid-November. By early January, the five states of Darfur were free of any new cases.

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In the chain of command, the Chief of Army Staff reports to the Chief of Defence Staff, who in turn, reports to the Defence Minister, accountable to the President of Nigeria.

The Statutory duty of the Officer is to formulate and execute policies towards the highest attainment of National Security and operational competence of the force.

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In 2015 General Zakaria Chiek Imbrahim was chief d'etat-major general (chief of staff) of the Forces Armees Djiboutiennes. He assumed command in November 2013.Djibouti has always been a very active member in the African Union and the Arab League.

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International military decoration authorized by the US military

An international decoration is a military award which is not bestowed by a particular country, but rather by an international organization such as the United Nations or NATO. Such awards are normally issued as service medals, for participation in various international military operations, and not for specific acts of heroism or bravery. The first medal from an international organization accepted for wear by the United States Military was the United Nations Korea Medal in 1951. Subsequent acceptance of other United Nations Medals did not come until 1964 with Executive Order 11139. Acceptance of the medals of other international multilateral organizations finally came with Executive Order 11446 in 1969. Acceptance of these international decorations must be approved by not only the Secretary of Defense, but also the Secretary of State.

The following is a list of the most commonly recognized international military decorations that has been or is currently awarded to members of the United States military. Such awards are always worn after all United States decorations, but before all Foreign decorations.

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12 January 2017 by United Nations Secretary-General António Guterres, Mr. Mamabolo was the Deputy Joint Special Representative (Political) for UNAMID.

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Operation Hedgerow

Operation Hedgerow is the Australian Defence Force's (ADF) contribution to the United Nations African Union Mission in Darfur (UNAMID).

The UNAMID is a joint African Union and United Nations peacekeeping mission formally approved by United Nations Security Council Resolution 1769 on 31 July 2007 to bring stability to the war-torn Darfur region of Sudan while peace talks on a final settlement continue.

Rosemary Museminali

Rosemary Museminali (born 1962) is a Rwandan politician and diplomat, currently working for the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), as its representative at the African Union and United Nations Economic Commission for Africa. Museminali is best known for her role as the Rwandan Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation from 2005 until 2009. She has also served as the country's Minister of State for International Cooperation and as ambassador to the United Kingdom.

Royal Thai Army

The Royal Thai Army or RTA (Thai: กองทัพบกไทย; RTGS: kong thap bok thai ) is the army of Thailand responsible for protecting its sovereignty and national interests. It is the oldest and largest branch of the Royal Thai Armed Forces.

Royal Thai Marine Corps

The Royal Thai Marine Corps or RTMC (Thai: ราชนาวิกโยธินแห่งราชอาณาจักรไทย) are the marines of the Royal Thai Navy. The Royal Thai Marine Corps was founded in 1932, when the first battalion was formed with the assistance of the United States Marine Corps. It was expanded to a regiment in 1940 and was in action against communist guerrillas throughout the 1950s and 1960s. During the 1960s the United States Marine Corps assisted in its expansion into a brigade. The Royal Thai Marine Corps saw action on the Malaysian border in the 1970s, and has now been increased to four brigades.

Seventeenth Expeditionary Air Force

Seventeenth Expeditionary Air Force (17 EAF) is a numbered air force of the United States Air Force located at Ramstein Air Base, Germany. The command served the United States Air Forces in Europe during (1953–1996) and United States Air Forces Africa during 2008-2012. Upon reactivation on 1 October 2008, it became the air and space component of United States Africa Command. In this capacity, Seventeenth Air Force was referred to as U.S. Air Forces Africa (AFAFRICA). 17 AF was reformed in April 2012 to become the 17th Expeditionary Air Force, sharing a commander and headquarters with the Third Air Force.Seventeenth Air Force housed the traditional A-staff and special staff functions which are responsible for developing strategy and plans to execute air and space operations in support of U.S. Africa Command objectives. In addition, 17 AF housed the "tailored" 617th Air and Space Operations Center (AOC) which provided command and control capabilities for the planning and execution of aerial missions on the African continent. Seventeenth Air Force also had a collaborative relationship with the 110th Air Operations Group, Michigan Air National Guard.

Tabit (town)

Tabit, also spelled Thabit, is a town in North Darfur, Sudan. It has a population of 7,000 and lies thirty miles southwest of Al-Fashir. Most of the inhabitants belong to the Fur people.

In 2011, the surrounding area suffered intense conflict.An investigation by Human Rights Watch (HRW) released in February 2015 said 221 were raped, which had also been reported days after the town was attacked but verification was difficult, by government soldiers in "a mass rape that could constitute crimes against humanity". Witnesses said three separate operations were carried out in 30 October to 1 November 2014. In addition to the rape of women and girls, they reported that property was looted, men arrested and residents beaten. The town had been controlled by rebel forces previously but HRW found no evidence that the rebel fighters were in or close to the town when it was attacked.

Timeline of United Nations peacekeeping missions

The United Nations has authorized 71 peacekeeping operations as of April 2018. These do not include interventions authorized by the UN like the Korean War and the Gulf War. The 1990s saw the most UN peacekeeping operations to date. Peacekeeping operations are overseen by the Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) and share some common characteristics, namely the inclusion of a military or police component, often with an authorization for use of force under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations. Peacekeeping operations are distinct from special political missions (SPMs), which are overseen by the Department of Political Affairs (DPA). SPMs are not included in the table below.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1590

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1590, adopted unanimously on 24 March 2005, after recalling resolutions 1547 (2004), 1556 (2004), 1564 (2004), 1574 (2004), 1585 (2005) and 1588 (2005) on the situation in Sudan, the Council established the United Nations Mission in Sudan (UNMIS) for an initial period of six months.The passage of the resolution created the United Nations' 17th active peacekeeping mission. The vote on the resolution primarily concerning South Sudan was delayed by three weeks due to disagreements over the situation in nearby Darfur.

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