The African Union-United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur (known by its acronym UNAMID) is a joint African Union (AU) and United Nations (UN) peacekeeping mission formally approved by United Nations Security Council Resolution 1769 on 31 July 2007, to bring stability to the war-torn Darfur region of Sudan while peace talks on a final settlement continue.
Its initial 12-month mandate was extended to 31 July 2010. As of 2008, its budget was approximately US $106 million per month. Its force of about 26,000 personnel began to deploy to the region in October 2007. The 9,000-strong African Union Mission in Sudan (AMIS), which was previously responsible for peacekeeping, had completely merged into this new force by 31 December 2007.
The mandate is for a force of up to 19,555 military personnel and 3,772 police, along with a further "19 formed police units comprising up to 140 personnel each." The peacekeepers are allowed to use force to protect civilians and humanitarian operations. UNAMID is the first joint UN/AU force and the largest peacekeeping mission.
As of December 2008, it had deployed 15,136 total uniformed personnel, including 12,194 troops, 175 military observers, and 2,767 police officers, who were supported by 786 international civilian personnel, 1,405 local civilian staff, and 266 UN volunteers.
|United Nations–African Union Mission in Darfur|
|Formation||31 July 2007|
|Headquarters||El Fasher, Sudan|
|Joint Special Representative |
Jeremiah Kingsley Mamabolo
|United Nations Security Council |
Initial authorization for the mission was given by the UN Security Council in resolution 1769 of 31 July 2007. This resolution set the strength of the mission as "... up to 19,555 military personnel, including 360 military observers and liaison officers, and an appropriate civilian component including up to 3,772 police personnel and 19 formed police units comprising up to 140 personnel each". The mission's authorisation was extended in essentially unchanged form for each of the following five years: UN Security Council resolution 1828 adopted on 31 July 2008, resolution 1881 on 30 July 2009, resolution 1935 on 30 July 2010, resolution 2003 on 29 July 2011, and resolution 2063 adopted on 31 July 2012.
Security Council resolution 2013 of 30 July 2013 extended the mandate of UNAMID for 13 months – to 31 August 2014 – but reduced the permitted force strength to 16,200 military personnel, 2,310 police personnel and 17 formed police units of up to 140 personnel. The following year saw the mandate extended once again to 30 June 2015 (Security Council resolution 2173 of 27 August 2014).
Security Council resolution 2228 of 29 June 2015 further reduced the force strength, to no more than 15,845 military personnel, 1,583 police personnel and 13 formed police units of up to 140 personnel each. This force authorisation was extended by another 12 months through Security Council resolution 2296 of 29 June 2016.
The new Trump Administration in Washington argued for a reduction in UN peacekeeping budgets during the first half of 2017. Possibly arising from this, when the UNAMID mandate was renewed for a further 12 months by the UN Security Council on 29 June 2017, significant reductions in deployed personnel were announced. The approved Force strength was to be reduced in two stages. By the end of 2017 the authorized numbers of troops and police would be 11,395 and 2,888, respectively. To be further reduced by mid-2018 to 8,735 troops (eight battalions) and 2,500 police. Reductions in Mission civilian staff were reported to be 426 in Phase 1 (i.e. to 31 December 2017) and a further 147 positions lost in Phase 2 (i.e. to 30 June 2018).
United Nations' missions come under a civilian Head of Mission, usually called the Special Representative of the UN Secretary General. UNAMID, as a joint mission, has a civilian head appointed by both the UN Secretary General and AU Commission Chairman. In October 2015 Martin Ihoeghian Uhomoibhi (of Nigeria) was appointed as Joint Special Representative for Darfur and Head of UNAMID, succeeding Abiodun Oluremi Bashua (also of Nigeria). On 3 April 2017 it was announced that Jeremiah Nyamane Kingsley Mamabolo of South Africa had been appointed as Joint Special Representative and Head of the African Union-United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur.
|1||Maj. Gen. Martin Luther Agwai||Nigeria||1 January 2008||31 August 2009|
|2||Lt. Gen. Patrick Nyamvumba||Rwanda||1 September 2009||31 March 2013|
|3||Lt. Gen. Paul Ignace Mella||Tanzania||4 June 2013||31 December 2015|
|4||Lt. Gen. Frank Mushyo Kamanzi||Rwanda||1 January 2016||On 6 April 2017 it was announced that General Kamanzi had been appointed Force Commander for UNMISS in South Sudan.|
|5||Maj. Gen. Fida Hussain Malik||Pakistan||Mid-2017||Acting in the role.|
|6||Lt. Gen. Leonard Muriuki Ngondi||Kenya||August 2017||incumbent|
|1||Maj. Gen. Emmanuel Karenzi Karake||Rwanda||1 January 2008||April 2009|
|2||Maj. Gen. Duma Dumisani Mdutyana||South Africa||31 May 2009|
|3||Maj. Gen. Wynjones Kisamba ||Tanzania||September 2011||2013|
|4||Maj. Gen. Balla Keita||Senegal||2013||2015|
|5||Maj. Gen. Mohammad Maksudur Rahman||Bangladesh||October 2015||-|
|6||Maj. Gen. Fida Hussain Malik||Pakistan||May 2017||incumbent|
The preceding African Union Mission in Sudan (AMIS) was organised in a number of Sectors, each under the command of a Colonel. When UNAMID took over from AMIS some of these sectors were merged and Sectors became Brigadier's commands. Initially the Force was divided into three Sectors:
By mid-2015 a further two Sectors had been established:
A UNAMID map showing force deployment in December 2016 reveals the force then comprised 14 infantry battalions (in addition to engineer, signals, medical and other support units). These battalions were deployed as follows (with changes to December 2017 noted, by when the Force was reduced to 11 battalions.):
During mid-2017 UN Security Council authorisation of the Mission imposed personnel reductions The approved Force strength was to be reduced in two phases: Phase 1 levels to be reached by 31 December 2017 and Phase 2 reductions by 30 June 2018. Along with reductions in personnel UNAMID was to close eleven bases during Phase 1. During September four 'team sites' were closed and handed over to Sudanese Government officials: Mellit, Malha and Um Kadada in North Darfur and Muhajeria in East Darfur. During October another seven bases were closed: Abu Shouk, Tine, Habila Eid, Al Fursan (12 October), Tulus (15 October), Forobaranga (17 October) and, finally, Zam Zam (21 October).
On 12 August 2007, Alpha Oumar Konare, chairman of the AU, announced that UNAMID was likely to be an all-African peacekeeping force. As of 30 June 2013, the total number of personnel in the mission was 19,735:
|UNAMID deaths by nationality|
As of 30 June 2017, 236 UN personnel had died whilst serving with UNAMID.
Unknown gunmen have killed a South African peacekeeper and wounded another in Sudan's western Darfur region, the United Nations/African Union force (UNAMID) said Thursday.
In late 2012, a yellow fever outbreak occurred in the Darfur region of Sudan that was the largest yellow fever epidemic to strike Africa in two decades. On 10 January 2013, the Sudan Federal Ministry of Health and the World Heath Organization (WHO) reported that there had been 847 suspected cases since 2 September 2012, including 171 deaths, for an estimated case fatality rate of 20%. A mass vaccination campaign was launched in mid-November. By early January, the five states of Darfur were free of any new cases.404th Air Expeditionary Group
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African Union (AU)
|United Nations System|
|Members and observers|