A census of the population of the United Kingdom is taken every ten years. The 2011 census was held in all countries of the UK on 27 March 2011. It was the first UK census which could be completed online via the Internet. The Office for National Statistics (ONS) is responsible for the census in England and Wales, the General Register Office for Scotland (GROS) is responsible for the census in Scotland, and the Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency (NISRA) is responsible for the census in Northern Ireland.
The Office for National Statistics is the executive office of the UK Statistics Authority, a non-ministerial department formed in 2008 and which reports directly to Parliament. ONS is the UK Government's single largest statistical producer of independent statistics on the UK's economy and society, used to assist the planning and allocation of resources, policy-making and decision-making. ONS designs, manages and runs the census in England and Wales. In its capacity as the national statistics office for the United Kingdom, ONS also compiles and releases census tables for the United Kingdom when the data from England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland are complete.
In the run-up to the census both the main UK political parties expressed concerns about the increasing cost and the value for money of the census, and it was suggested that the 2011 census might be the last decennial census to be taken.
The first results from the 2011 census, age and sex, and occupied households estimates for England and Wales and Northern Ireland, were released on 16 July 2012. The first results for Scotland, and the first UK-wide results, were published on 17 December 2012. More detailed and specialised data were published from 2013.
The Registrar General John Rickman conducted the first census of Great Britain's population, and was responsible for the ten-yearly reports published between 1801 and 1831. During the first 100 years of census-taking the population of England and Wales grew more than threefold, to around 32 million, and that of Scotland, where a separate census has been carried out since 1861, to about 4.5 million.
From 1911 onwards rapid social change, scientific breakthroughs, and major world events affected the structure of the population. A fire that destroyed census records in 1931, and the declaration of war in 1939, made the 1951 census hugely significant in recording 30 years of change over one of the most turbulent periods in British history.
The 1971 census was run by the newly created Office of Population Censuses and Surveys (OPCS), a body formed by the merger of the General Register Office and Government Social Survey. In 1996 the Office for National Statistics (ONS) was formed by merging the Central Statistical Office (CSO), OPCS and the statistics division of the Department of Employment; the first census it ran was in 2001. In 2008 the UK Statistics Authority was established as an independent body.
A population census is a key instrument for assessing the needs of local communities. When related to other data sources such as housing or agricultural censuses, or sample surveys, the data becomes even more useful. Most countries of the world take censuses: the United Nations recommends that countries take a census at least once every ten years. The design for the 2011 census reflects changes in society since 2001 and asks questions to help paint a detailed demographic picture of England and Wales, as it stands on census day, 27 March. Data collected by the census is used to provide statistical outputs which central government uses to plan and allocate local authority services funding, and which local authorities themselves use to identify and meet the needs of their local communities. Other organisations that use census data include healthcare organisations, community groups, researchers and businesses. The questionnaires, including people's personal information, are kept confidential for 100 years before being released to the public, providing an important source of information for historical, demographic and genealogy research.
|England and Wales|
(as National Statistician)
|Census day(s)||27 March 2011|
|Data supplier||Lockheed Martin UK|
|Rehearsal||11 October 2009|
|Household and others|
|1st release||Jul 2012 – Nov 2012|
|2nd release||Dec 2012 – Feb 2013|
|3rd release||Mar 2013 – Jun 2013|
|4th release||Jul 2013 – Oct 2013|
The 2011 census for England and Wales included around 25 million households. Questionnaires were posted out to all households, using a national address register compiled by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) with the help of local authorities through comparisons of the National Land and Property Gazetteer (NLPG) and the Royal Mail and Ordnance Survey national address products.
People could complete and submit their questionnaire online, or fill it in on paper and post it back in a pre-addressed envelope. Guidance was provided online and through the census helpline. Completed questionnaires were electronically tracked and field staff followed up with households that did not return a questionnaire. Special arrangements were made to count people living in communal establishments such as; boarding schools, prisons, military bases, hospitals, care homes, student halls of residence, hotels, royal apartments and embassies, as well as for particular communities; rough sleepers, travellers and those living on waterways. In these cases field staff delivered and collected questionnaires and, where needed, provided advice or assistance in completing the questionnaire.
There was a legal requirement to complete the 2011 census questionnaire, under the terms of the Census Act 1920. As at 27 March 2011 everyone who had lived or intended to live in the country for three months or more was required to complete a questionnaire. Failure to return a completed questionnaire could lead to a fine and criminal record.
Lockheed Martin UK, the UK arm of US-based aerospace, and technology company Lockheed Martin was awarded the contract to provide services for the census comprising questionnaire printing, a customer contact centre and data capture and processing. The contract is valued at £150 million, approximately one third of the total £1 million census budget.
Concerns were raised during contract negotiations that the US PATRIOT Act could be used to force Lockheed Martin to reveal census data to US authorities. The Cabinet Office state that Lockheed Martin will "develop the systems" used to process census data, but that "in essence ... neither Lockheed Martin UK nor any Lockheed Martin employee will have access to personal Census data." The Office for National Statistics stated that no personal census information will ever leave the UK or be seen by any American-owned company.
Several groups called for a boycott of the census over the involvement of Lockheed Martin, including the Stop the War Coalition, and the Christian think tank Ekklesia. The groups were concerned about sharing data with a company involved in surveillance and data processing for the CIA and FBI; and also providing funding to an arms company making nuclear missiles and cluster bombs. The Green Party also objected, and campaigned unsuccessfully .
The census for England and Wales was trialled in 135,000 households in Lancaster, the London Borough of Newham and Anglesey on 11 October 2009. A test was also carried out in Birmingham at the same time. The questions for the 2011 Census are the same as those trialled in the 2009 Census Rehearsal. The Order for the 2011 (including, census date and who should complete the questionnaire) was laid before Parliament in October 2009 and was approved by Parliament and became law in December 2009.
The total cost of the 2011 Census in England and Wales over the period from 2004/05 to 2015/16 is estimated to be £482 million. This is more than twice the £210m spent on the 2001 census. This breaks down to a cost of 87 pence per person, per year (over the life of the census – ten years). “The cost equates to about 87p a year per person, demonstrating excellent value for money. The per capita costs in the UK are less than for many other European countries that carry out similar censuses. In summary, this census will meet crucial requirements for statistical information that Government and others cannot do without.” Minister of State, Cabinet Office (Angela E. Smith).
Both the main UK political parties had expressed concerns about the rising costs and value of a ten-yearly census, and on coming into office the UK coalition government had gone as far as suggesting that the 2011 census might be the last of its kind. In July 2010 the UK government asked ONS to explore other methods of measuring the population. In 2011 the three national statistics bodies, ONS, GROS and NISRA set up a co-ordinated research project known as Beyond 2011. The objectives of the programme were to assess the feasibility of improving UK population statistics using integrated data sources to replace or complement existing approaches, and whether alternative data sources could provide the priority statistics on the characteristics of small populations typically provided by a census. The project reported its findings in March 2014 and recommended that a UK-wide census in 2021 should take place, and that better use should be made of other demographic data sources.
The general style of the questionnaire is similar to that of the 2001 census. A rehearsal questionnaire was released in 2009. Several new identity and status options were included for the first time. Other changes for 2011 included:
In 2001 only 38 people were reported to have been prosecuted for refusing to complete a questionnaire. In 2011 those who refused to complete the census questionnaire or included false information could face a fine of up to £1,000. A team of compliance staff were recruited to follow up by visiting those householders who refused to complete a questionnaire or where their questionnaire was not returned or completed correctly.
Advertising promoted the notion of how the UK 2011 census would help to shape Britain's future in areas such as healthcare and education. TV adverts, for example, depicted Origami, in census colours, forming objects including school computers and buses. A short sentence under the census logo informed the viewer that the census was a duty that must be undertaken. From 7 April 2011 advertising focused on reminding people to complete and return by post or submit online.
“The UK Statistics Authority is responsible for carrying out the census in England and Wales. The board of the authority has expressed the view that the 2011 census should be the last conduction on the traditional basis. Through the 'Beyond 2011' project the authority has been considering alternative ways of obtaining information that has been traditionally gathered via a census.
The current advice from the ONS is clear. Census alternatives are not sufficiently developed to provide now the information required to meet essential UK and EU requirements. It is therefore important that the census goes ahead in England and Wales on 27 March 2011. ONS must do all it can to ensure it is a success."
Although some 37,000 people recorded their identity as Cornish by manually writing it on the form in the 2001 census, no tick-box was provided in 2011 to select Cornish as a White British national identity, despite campaigns. As a consequence, posters were created by the census organisation and Cornwall Council which advised residents of how they could identify themselves as Cornish by writing it in the ethnicity, national identity and main language sections. Additionally, people could record Cornwall as their country of birth.
During the consultation on the 2011 census the British Humanist Association raised several concerns about question 20, "What is your religion?". The BHA argued it was a leading question, and suggested that it should be phrased as two questions, "Do you have a religion?" and "If so, what is it?". It contended that by placing the religion question near the ethnicity question it would encourage some responders to associate religion with cultural identity. The BHA also ran adverts during March 2011 encouraging the use of the 'no religion' box in the questionnaire
|Registrar||T N Caven|
(as Registrar General, Northern Ireland)
|Census day(s)||27 March 2011|
|Data supplier||Lockheed Martin UK|
|Rehearsal||11 October 2009|
|Rehearsal Areas||Derriaghy and Moy & Benburb|
|Census forms||Household, Individual, and others|
|1st release||Jul 2012 – Sep 2012|
|2nd release||Dec 2012 – Feb 2013|
|3rd release||Mar 2013 – Jun 2013|
|4th release||Jul 2013 – Oct 2013|
The 2011 Census for Northern Ireland had 59 questions in total. 14 were about the household and its accommodation and 45 questions were for each individual member of the household to complete.
The rehearsal was held on Sunday 11 October 2009 in two areas, Derriaghy and Moy & Benburb, covering approximately 5,000 households.
(as Registrar General, Scotland)
|Census day(s)||27 March 2011|
|Issuing organisation||GROS, now part of NRS|
|Rehearsal||29 March 2009|
|Rehearsal Areas||west Edinburgh, Lewis and Harris|
|Census forms||Household, and others|
|1st release||Dec 2012 – May 2013|
|2nd release||Summer 2013|
|3rd release||Autumn 2013|
|4th release||Winter 2013|
In Scotland, a wholly owned subsidiary of information technology company CACI was contracted to gather information. CACI "provided interrogators who worked at Abu Ghraib prison at the height of the prisoner abuse scandal".
The 2011 census was the first to include a question asking about the ability to read, write and understand the Scots language alongside the question for ability in Scottish Gaelic and English languages.
Responsibility for the release of data from the 2011 census is split between the Office for National Statistics (ONS) for England and Wales, the General Register Office for Scotland (GROS) for Scotland and the Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency (NISRA). The ONS announced in March the release plan for the results of the 2011 census which stated in July 2012. NISRA made a similar announcement with identical release plan. In June 2012 GROS advised on its release plan which commences in December 2012. The releases will comprise data sets enabling the standard comparison with previous census data reports as well as over a hundred new data sets based on the new questions asked in the 2011 census.
NISRA, ONS and GROS each publish a schedule stating what documents they will release and when. Those documents are called a "prospectus". Each prospectus isn't fixed, but changes as schedules are changed or documents are late. The prospectuses are linked to in the table below.
|Area||Issuing Authority Current Prospectus and Release Plans|
|United Kingdom||Office for National Statistics (ONS) – UK Wide Census Releases|
|England and Wales||Office for National Statistics (ONS) – England and Wales Census Releases|
|Scotland||General Registrar Office for Scotland (GROS) – Scotland 2011 Census Releases|
|Northern Ireland||Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Authority (NISRA) – Northern Ireland 2011 Census Releases|
The United Kingdom Statistics Authority is responsible for coordinating the release of census data by the devolved statistics authorities. It publishes UK-wide census data results via the Office for National Statistics (ONS) site. The UK Statistics Authority also provides a central point of reference for all country-specific census data releases via its Publications Hub site.
Primary responsibility for country-specific 2011 census data rests with the statistical authorities for each of the UK's constituent countries. Each authority has at least one dedicated central source from which data can be downloaded or ordered. For England and Wales the ONS provides the access to primary data via its 2011 census site. Additionally, data organised by local authority or post code is available on the Neighbourhood Statistics site, and nomis, a source of detailed census results which can be assembled into bespoke data sets. For Scotland the General Registrar Office for Scotland (GROS) part of National Records of Scotland (NRS) to maintain access via its Scotlands Census site, and for Northern Ireland the Statistics and Research Authority (NISRA) uses the Northern Ireland Neighbourhood Information Service (NINIS).
The format of all the pre-defined statistical tables is standardised as far as practical across the publishing authorities. Since the 2001 UK Census the naming conventions for the tables have been revised following research into the approaches adopted by other census publishing bodies around the world.
The statistical authorities are also making available bulk data in Comma-separated values (CSV) file format which can be downloaded from online data warehouse facilities.
In addition to the standard releases and online bulk access the statistical authorities provide a commissioned data service whereby other data configurations can be purchased, under license, by customers and will subsequently made freely available to other users.
| UK Census
Bala (Welsh: Y Bala) is a market town and community in Gwynedd, Wales. Formerly an urban district, Bala lies within the historic county of Merionethshire. It lies at the north end of Llyn Tegid, 17 miles (27 km) north-east of Dolgellau, with a population taken in the United Kingdom Census 2011 of 1,974. It is little more than one wide street, this being Stryd Fawr (High Street, literally "Great Street"). The High Street and its shops can be quite busy in the summer months with many tourists.
Bala was ranked as having the 20th highest percentage of Welsh language speakers in Wales by electoral division, in the United Kingdom Census 2011. According to the census, 78.5% of Bala's population can speak Welsh.Barrow, Lancashire
Barrow is a village and civil parish in the Ribble Valley district in Lancashire, England, situated between Whalley and Clitheroe and bypassed by the A59. It has a primary school, a Chinese takeaway and two parks. The village is well served by local bus routes, giving direct access to many parts of Lancashire. New development has taken place in the area between Whalley Road (the former route of the A59) and the bypass.
It is the birthplace of Lancashire and England cricketer Cyril Washbrook, and there are two streets in the village in his name.
According to the United Kingdom Census 2011, 646 people lived in the built-up area of Barrow village.Barrow Parish Council was created in 2015, previously the village was in Wiswell civil parish.Along with Wiswell, Pendleton, Mearley and Worston, the parish forms the Wiswell and Pendleton ward of Ribble Valley Borough Council.Beckley and Stowood
Beckley and Stowood is a civil parish in the South Oxfordshire district of Oxfordshire, England. According to the United Kingdom Census 2011 it had a population of 608 (an increase of 55 in 10 years) across its area of 9.17km². It is centred 3 miles (4.8 km) north-east of Oxford and just over 1 mile (1.6 km) west of the M40 motorway. The parish settlements are Beckley and Stowood which is covered in the Beckley article, long being closely associated.Billington and Langho
Billington and Langho is a civil parish in the Ribble Valley district of Lancashire, England, covering the villages of Billington and Langho.
According to the 2001 census the parish had a population of 4,555, however the United Kingdom Census 2011 grouped the parish with Dinckley (2001 pop. 83), giving a total of 5,415.Birches Head
Birches Head is an area within Stoke-on-Trent. It lies on the edge of the town of Hanley.
Formerly Birches Head Farm the area had new housing built on it to meet modern demands. These houses are centered on wide, open spaces.
An old railway line runs across the estate which runs past the High School. The local High School is called Birches Head Academy. The old High School site is now a Church, The Potter's House Church (Stoke-on-Trent). There is also a Canal running through the suburb, the Caldon Canal. The canal runs from another part of the City, Etruria, Staffordshire to Froghall, Staffordshire. The area is easily accessible due to its position around the City Centre, with main roads such as the A5009, A5008 and the A5272.
According to the United Kingdom Census 2011, all areas in and around Stoke-on-Trent, including Birches Head saw a rise in economic activity from 2001 to 2011 and also saw a similar number of people living in the estate for the ten years. The rise in Economical Activity may be linked to the affluence of the new build estate where a lot of houses are valued at over £150,000.Blackrod
Blackrod is a town and civil parish in the Metropolitan Borough of Bolton, Greater Manchester, England. It is 3.9 miles (6.3 km) north-northeast of Wigan and 6.6 miles (10.6 km) west of Bolton. According to the United Kingdom Census 2001, Blackrod had a population of 5,300, but reduced to 5,001 at the United Kingdom Census 2011.Historically a part of Lancashire, Blackrod was once a centre for coal miningCeulanamaesmawr
Ceulanamaesmawr is a rural community in Ceredigion, Wales which consists of the villages of Tal-y-bont and Bont-goch and the surrounding area. The total population at the United Kingdom Census 2011 was 1,013.In addition to being a community Ceulanamaesmawr is also an electoral ward.Claydon with Clattercot
Claydon with Clattercot is a civil parish in Oxfordshire, England. It was formed in 1932 by merger of the parish of Claydon (grid reference SP4550) with the extra-parochial area of Clattercote (grid reference SP4549). As at the United Kingdom Census 2011 its population was 306 and it had a total of 6.22km² of land, water and roads.Cynwyl Gaeo
Cynwyl Gaeo is a parish and community located in rural Carmarthenshire, Wales, near the boundary with Ceredigion, in the upper Cothi valley about halfway between Lampeter and Llandovery. The population of the village at the United Kingdom Census 2011 was 940. It includes the villages of Caeo (or Caio), Crug-y-bar, Cwrtycadno, Ffarmers and Pumsaint.
Historically it was part of the commote of Caeo, which in turn was part of Y Cantref Mawr ("The Great Hundred"), a division of Ystrad Tywi.
It is the location of the Dolaucothi Gold Mines, part of Dolaucothi Estate, whose owner, John Johnes, was murdered by his butler in 1876. The mansion house was demolished in 1952.
The parish church of St Cynwyl in the village of Caeo is a Grade II* listed building.Godington
Godington is a village and civil parish about 5 miles (8 km) northeast of Bicester in Oxfordshire. The parish is bounded on all but the west side by a brook called the Birne, which at this point forms also the county boundary with Buckinghamshire. The parish was included in the figures of Stratton Audley for the purposes of the United Kingdom Census 2011.Llanfihangel Ystrad
Llanfihangel Ystrad (English "Vale of St Michael") is a constituent community in Ceredigion, Wales. It is named after the principal place of worship, St Michael's church at Ystrad Aeron.The total population of the community taken at the United Kingdom Census 2011 was 1,430.Llangefni
Llangefni (Welsh pronunciation: [ɬanˈɡɛvni]) is the county town of Anglesey in Wales and contains the principal offices of the Isle of Anglesey County Council. United Kingdom Census 2011 recorded Llangefni's population as 5,116 people, making it the second largest settlement on the island.Llanwrtyd Wells
Llanwrtyd Wells (Welsh: Llanwrtyd) is a small town and community in mid Powys, Wales, in the historic county of Brecknockshire (Breconshire) on the Afon Irfon. The town is on the A483 between Llandovery and Builth Wells and is located near the pass between the Tywi and Irfon valleys.
The community also includes the smaller settlements of Llanwrtyd and Abergwesyn, the valley of the Afon Irfon, and a large part of the "Desert of Wales".
With a population of 850 (United Kingdom Census 2011), it claims to be the smallest town in Britain, although Fordwich in Kent has a smaller population.ONS coding system
In the United Kingdom, the Office for National Statistics maintains a series of codes to represent a wide range of geographical areas of the UK, for use in tabulating census and other statistical data. These codes are referred to as ONS codes or GSS codes referring to the Government Statistical Service of which ONS is part.
The previous hierarchical system of codes has been replaced as from January 2011 by a nine-character code for all types of geography, in which there is no relation between the code for a lower-tier area and the corresponding parent area. The older coding system has now been phased out.Penmynydd
Penmynydd (Welsh pronunciation), meaning top of the mountain in Welsh, is a village and community on Anglesey, Wales. It is known for being the birthplace of the Tudors of Penmynydd, which became the House of Tudor.
The population according to the United Kingdom Census 2011 was 465. The community includes the village of Star.Risinghurst and Sandhills
Risinghurst and Sandhills is a civil parish in the city of Oxford, Oxfordshire, England. It consists of Risinghurst and Sandhills, two areas in the east of Oxford, east of the junction of the A40 and the A4142. It is elongated, excludes green space to the north, south and east and is approximately l-shaped, traversing two dual carriageways at right angles; these are crossed by a bridge and a subway and the density of the area is relatively homogenous. As at the United Kingdom Census 2011 its population 4,237 was across its 0.91km². Its contiguous neighbours are New Headington (the denser Headington Quarry neighbourhood) and Barton to the west.Upottery
Upottery (originally Up Ottery) is a small village, civil parish and former manor in East Devon, England.Wasing
Wasing is an agricultural and woodland hamlet and parish in West Berkshire, England owned almost wholly by one family. In minor local administration such as footpaths and field sports facilities its few people convene their own civil parish occasionally but share many facilities with Brimpton which was its civil parish at the time of the United Kingdom Census 2011.Waterperry with Thomley
Waterperry with Thomley is a civil parish in South Oxfordshire. It includes the village of Waterperry (Ordnance Survey grid reference SP626066) and the abandoned former village of Thomley (OS Grid ref. SP629091). Thomley and Wateperry were separate civil parishes in 1957. The current single civil parish was formed at some time thereafter, comprising 13.76km², having a population of 257 recorded in the United Kingdom Census 2011. The area is bisected by the M40 motorway, it is in the valley of the Thame and centred approximately 7 miles (11 km) east of the city of Oxford.